west nile virus activity--united states, september 12-18, 2002, and ohio, january 1-september 12, 2002.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet and by states and other jurisdictions as of 7:30 a.m. mountain daylight time, september 18, 2002.200212353746
west nile virus activity--united states, july 21-27, 2004.during july 21-27, a total of 83 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 13 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, illinois, iowa, missouri, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, and south dakota).200415282450
west nile virus activity--united states, august 11-17, 2004.during august 11-17, a total of 194 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 17 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, louisiana, maryland, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, ohio, south dakota, texas, utah, and virginia).200415318160
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
west nile virus activity--united states, september 29-october 5, 2004.during september 29-october 5, a total of 81 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, florida, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, minnesota, missouri, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, texas, and virginia).200415470326
west nile virus activity--united states, october 6-12, 2004.during october 6-12, a total of 86 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (arizona, florida, illinois, kansas, louisiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, nevada, new jersey, new mexico, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, tennessee, texas, and utah).200415483530
west nile virus activity--united states, october 20-26, 2004.during october 20-26, a total of 80 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 16 states (arizona, california, florida, iowa, kentucky, louisiana, michigan, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, new york, ohio, south dakota, texas, and utah).200415514584
west nile virus activity--united states, october 27-november 2, 2004.during october 27-november 2, a total of 10 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from eight states (arizona, georgia, iowa, michigan, new mexico, ohio, oklahoma, and pennsylvania).200415525902
serologic evidence of exposure of wild mammals to flaviviruses in the central and eastern united states.serosurveys were conducted to obtain flavivirus and west nile virus (wnv) seroprevalence data from mammals. sera from 513 small- and medium-sized mammals collected during late summer and fall 2003 from colorado, louisiana, new york, ohio, and pennsylvania were screened for flavivirus-specific antibodies. sera samples containing antibody to flaviviruses were screened for wnv-specific antibodies by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed with plaque reduction neutralizati ...200515891139
west nile virus epidemic, northeast ohio, 2002.serum samples and sociodemographic data were obtained from 1,209 ohio residents. west nile virus immunoglobulin m (igm) and igg antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed. children were 4.5 times more likely to become infected yet 110 times less likely to have neuroinvasive disease develop.200516318737
west nile virus in mosquitoes of northern ohio, 2003.from june 19, 2003 to august 18, 2003, we surveyed the mosquitoes of oberlin, oh, for west nile virus (wnv) infection using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. a total of 12,055 mosquitoes, representing 17 species or species groups and 4 genera, were collected in gravid traps at seven sites throughout the city, with culex pipiens/restuans being the most abundant and showing the highest minimum infection rate (mir) of 0.78. this represents a decrease in wnv enzootic activity from the ...200616896146
predictable ecology and geography of west nile virus transmission in the central united states.west nile virus (wnv) arrived in north america and spread rapidly through the western hemisphere. we present a series of tests to determine whether ecological factors are consistently associated with wnv transmission to humans. we analyzed human wnv cases in the states of illinois, indiana, and ohio in 2002 and 2003, building ecological niche models to associate wnv case occurrences with ecological and environmental parameters. in essentially all tests, both within states, among states, between ...200819263855
test of recrudescence hypothesis for overwintering of west nile virus in gray catbirds.west nile virus is a pathogen of concern for both human and wildlife health. although many aspects of the ecology of west nile virus are well understood, the mechanisms by which this and similar mosquito-borne viruses overwinter and become reinitiated each spring in temperate regions is not known. a thorough understanding of this mechanism is crucial to risk assessment and development of control strategies. one of the hypotheses to explain the mechanism by which this virus persists from year to ...201020496593
population dynamics of culex restuans and culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) related to climatic factors in northwest ohio.two species of culex mosquitoes are common throughout much of north america. culex restuans theobold is a native species, whereas culex pipiens l. is a european immigrant that has been in north america since the 1600s. larvae of cx. restuans are numerically dominant in spring and early summer but cx. pipiens dominates by mid-summer. this transition is termed the "culex crossover" and has been previously explored in larval populations, largely because cx. pipiens is more likely to transfer west n ...201526314047
rapid gis-based profiling of west nile virus transmission: defining environmental factors associated with an urban-suburban outbreak in northeast ohio, usa.human west nile virus (wnv) infection was first detected in cuyahoga county, ohio, usa, in 2002. during that year's extensive epidemic/epizootic among non-immune human and bird populations, the county experienced 155 cases of severe human west nile neurological disease (wnnd, incidence = 11.1 cases/100,000), with 11 fatalities. structured serosurveys indicated that 1.9%, or approximately 26,000 of county residents (population = 1,372,303) were infected that year. in early 2003, in order to bette ...200818686270
serologic evidence of west nile virus exposure in north american mesopredators.sera from 936 mammalian mesopredators (virginia opossums, gray foxes, striped skunks, hooded skunks, raccoons, a bobcat, and a red fox) were collected during 2003 and 2004 in california, arizona, texas, louisiana, ohio, and wyoming and screened for flavivirus-specific antibodies by an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (blocking elisa). serum samples positive for antibodies against flaviviruses were screened for west nile virus (wnv)-specific antibodies by blocking elisa and sele ...200717255248
pediatric west nile virus infection: neurologic disease presentations during the 2002 epidemic in cuyahoga county, ohio.knowledge is currently limited about west nile virus (wnv) infection and its sequelae among children. available evidence suggests that when compared with adults, children less than 18 years old can be at high risk for wnv exposure and infection yet manifest a lower risk for wnv-related morbidity and mortality. we detail clinical features of pediatric west nile-associated neurologic disease (wnnd) epidemic cases in cuyahoga county during 2002. we present a structured review of pediatric and adult ...200616874181
survey of aedes triseriatus (diptera: culicidae) for lacrosse encephalitis virus and west nile virus in lorain county, ohio.from june through september 2003, we conducted a survey of female aedes triseriatus (say) for infection with la crosse encephalitis virus (family bunyaviridae, genus orthobunyavirus, lacv) and west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) at three locations in lorain county, ohio. to determine infection rate and seasonal variation of both viruses in the ae. triseriatus population, ae. triseriatus were collected weekly by using gravid traps and co2-baited cdc light traps and tested ...200616739420
west nile virus detection in kidney, cloacal, and nasopharyngeal specimens.we compared kidney tissue samples and cloacal and nasopharyngeal swab samples from field-collected dead crows and blue jays for west nile virus surveillance. compared to tissue samples, 35% more swab samples were false negative. swab samples were usually positive only when the corresponding tissue sample was strongly positive.200516229775
patterns of west nile virus infection in ohio blue jays: implications for initiation of the annual cycle.west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in north america in new york city in 1999 and rapidly moved westward. understanding the mechanisms by which the amplification cycle is reinitiated each year increases our ability to predict epizootics and geographic expansion of the disease. such understanding is enhanced by knowledge of the patterns of infection in the vertebrate reservoir hosts. blue jays (cyanocitta cristata) may serve as reservoir hosts for wnv. we examined the influence of age and da ...200415155993
west nile virus in mosquitoes of northern ohio, 2001-2002.from june 14 to august 30, 2001 and june 10 to august 22, 2002, the mosquitoes of oberlin, ohio were surveyed and tested for west nile virus (wnv). mosquitoes were trapped weekly using gravid traps and co(2)-baited centers for disease control light traps at seven sites in 2001 and eight sites in 2002 in woodlots within the city limits. a total of 12,151 mosquitoes, representing 14 species and one species group, were collected in gravid traps, with culex pipiens/restuans being the most abundant, ...200415155992
exposure to west nile virus during the 2002 epidemic in cuyahoga county, ohio: a comparison of pediatric and adult behaviors.emerging evidence suggests that children are at higher risk for west nile virus (wnv) exposure, but may have a lower risk for infection-related morbidity and mortality. limited data exist regarding risk determinants of childhood wnv infection. we conducted a survey to analyze the differences between pediatric and adult behavior relevant to wnv exposure.200717518307
the ohio department of health defends legality of west nile virus prevention measures. 200312971044
the epidemiology and early clinical features of west nile virus infection.we studied early clinical features of the west nile virus (wnv) infection. case patients were ohio residents who reported to the ohio department of health from august 14 to december 31, 2002, with a positive serum or cerebrospinal fluid for anti-wnv igm. of 441 wnv cases, medical records of 224 (85.5%) hospitalized patients were available for review. most frequent symptoms were fever at a temperature of 38.0 degrees c or higher (n = 155; 69.2%), headache (n = 114; 50.9%), and mental status chang ...200516032627
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