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serologic evidence of west nile virus exposure in north american mesopredators.sera from 936 mammalian mesopredators (virginia opossums, gray foxes, striped skunks, hooded skunks, raccoons, a bobcat, and a red fox) were collected during 2003 and 2004 in california, arizona, texas, louisiana, ohio, and wyoming and screened for flavivirus-specific antibodies by an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (blocking elisa). serum samples positive for antibodies against flaviviruses were screened for west nile virus (wnv)-specific antibodies by blocking elisa and sele ...200717255248
combined effects of energy development and disease on greater sage-grouse.species of conservation concern are increasingly threatened by multiple, anthropogenic stressors which are outside their evolutionary experience. greater sage-grouse are highly susceptible to the impacts of two such stressors: oil and gas (energy) development and west nile virus (wnv). however, the combined effects of these stressors and their potential interactions have not been quantified. we used lek (breeding ground) counts across a landscape encompassing extensive local and regional variati ...201323940732
liver metal concentrations in greater sage-grouse (centrocercus urophasianus).greater sage-grouse (centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. to obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 greater sage-grouse from wyoming and montana. mean +/- se metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (v) (0.12 + ...200818436686
the 2003 west nile virus united states epidemic: the america's blood centers experience.a detailed assessment of west nile virus (wnv) yield is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the wnv nucleic acid amplification technology (nat) screening implemented in 2003.200515819665
west nile virus activity--united states, october 13-19, 2004.during october 13-19, a total of 200 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 20 states (arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, illinois, indiana, iowa, kansas, maryland, michigan, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415499683
west nile virus activity--united states, june 16-22, 2004.as of june 22, 2004, seven states reported a total of 32 human cases of west nile virus (wnv) illness to cdc through arbonet. twenty cases were reported from arizona, six cases from california, two cases from florida, and one case each from nebraska, new mexico, south dakota, and wyoming. twenty-three (72%) of the cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 52 years (range: 9-78 years), and dates of illness onset ranged from may 8 to june 7. sixteen (50%) of the patients had neuroinv ...200415215743
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-august 15, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, august 15, 2006. a total of 26 states had reported 388 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 214 (56%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 49 years (range: 2-91 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to august 10; a total of 13 cases were fatal. a total of 68 presumptive west nile viremic blood ...200616915222
west nile virus neuroinvasive disease incidence in the united states, 2002-2006.as the geographic range of reported human west nile virus (wnv) disease has expanded across the united states, seasonal transmission and outbreaks have persisted over several years in many areas of the country. west nile virus neuroinvasive disease (wnnd) case reports from 2002 to 2006 were reviewed to determine which areas of the country have the highest reported cumulative incidence and whether those areas have had consistently high annual incidence. during the 5-year period examined, 9632 cas ...200818237264
mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and gis: implications of coalbed methane development and west nile virus.potential larval habitats of the mosquito culex tarsalis (coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of west nile virus in wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information system (gis) analyses. the study area is in the powder river basin of north central wyoming, an area that has been undergoing a significant increase in coalbed methane gas extractions since the late 1990s. large volumes of water are discharged, impounded, and released during the extraction o ...200617017244
west nile virus infection among health-fair participants, wyoming 2003: assessment of symptoms and risk factors.wyoming experienced heavy west nile virus (wnv) activity for the first time in 2003 and the area hardest hit was goshen county. little was known about the epidemiology of wnv in this region. this study describes the symptomatology of wnv and the association between certain behaviors and infection in goshen county. study participants were recruited from attendees of a health-fair sponsored by a local hospital, held october 1-3, 2003. a blood sample for wnv testing was obtained from each participa ...200516187893
spatio-temporal cluster analysis of county-based human west nile virus incidence in the continental united states.west nile virus (wnv) is a vector-borne illness that can severely affect human health. after introduction on the east coast in 1999, the virus quickly spread and became established across the continental united states. however, there have been significant variations in levels of human wnv incidence spatially and temporally. in order to quantify these variations, we used kulldorff's spatial scan statistic and anselin's local moran's i statistic to uncover spatial clustering of human wnv incidence ...200919594928
west nile virus activity - united states, 2009.west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in the western hemisphere in 1999 in new york city and has since caused seasonal epidemics of febrile illness and neurologic disease across the united states, where it is now the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis. this report updates a previous report and summarizes wnv activity in the united states reported to cdc in 2009. a total of 38 states and the district of columbia (dc) reported 720 cases of wnv disease. of these, 33 states and dc reported 3 ...201020592686
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
west nile virus activity--united states, june 23-29, 2004.as of june 29, eight states had reported a total of 57 human cases of west nile virus (wnv) illness to cdc through arbonet in 2004. a total of 38 cases had been reported from arizona, 10 from california, three from new mexico, two from florida, and one each from michigan, nebraska, south dakota, and wyoming. thirty-six (64%) of the cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 53 years (range: 9-84 years), and dates of illness onset ranged from april 23 to june 15. of the 57 cases, one ...200415229416
west nile virus activity--united states, june 9-15, 2004.as of june 15, a total of 14 human cases of west nile virus (wnv) illness had been reported to cdc through arbonet from five states. ten cases were reported from arizona, and one case each from california, new mexico, south dakota, and wyoming (figure). ten (71%) of the cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 53 years (range: 9-69 years), and dates of illness onset ranged from may 8 to june 1.200415201846
west nile virus activity--united states, august 4-10, 2004.during august 4-10, a total of 89 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 14 states (alabama, arizona, california, florida, illinois, kentucky, louisiana, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, north dakota, south dakota, and wyoming).200415306758
a gis tool to estimate west nile virus risk based on a degree-day model.west nile virus (flaviviridae: flavivirus) is a serious infectious disease that recently spread across the north america continent. a spatial analysis tool was developed on the arcmap 9.x platform to estimate potential west nile virus activity using a spatially explicit degree-day model. the model identifies when the virus extrinsic incubation period (eip) is completed within the vector longevity during mid-summer months. the eip is treated as a threshold indicator of the potential for virus eme ...200717106782
west nile virus activity--united states, september 15-21, 2004.during september 15-21, a total of 218 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 21 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, south dakota, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415385920
ecological niche of the 2003 west nile virus epidemic in the northern great plains of the united states.the incidence of west nile virus (wnv) has remained high in the northern great plains compared to the rest of the united states. however, the reasons for the sustained high risk of wnv transmission in this region have not been determined. to assess the environmental drivers of wnv in the northern great plains, we analyzed the county-level spatial pattern of human cases during the 2003 epidemic across a seven-state region.200819057643
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