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yellow fever vaccine. iv. reactogenicity and antibody response in volunteers inoculated with a vaccine free from contaminating avian leukosis viruses. 19724333781
west nile virus: a new threat in pennsylvania. 200010916396
west nile virus questions and answers. 200010916397
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, 2000.data reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
discovery of aedes albopictus infected with west nile virus in southeastern pennsylvania.in august 2000, aedes albopictus was found in a co2-baited centers for disease control light trap in eastern philadelphia, pa. in late september 2000, west nile viral antigen was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing from a pool of 2 ae. albopictus mosquitoes that were collected in southwestern montgomery county.200212083357
pre-west nile virus outbreak: perceptions and practices to prevent mosquito bites and viral encephalitis in the united states.mosquitoes can transmit over 100 of the viruses that can cause encephalitis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic disease in humans (chin 2000; gubler 1996; monath 1989). while much is known about the ecology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of the arboviral encephalitides (campbell et al. 2002; centers for disease control and prevention 1997; gubler 1998; hayes 1989; hubálek and halouzka 1999), little empirical research exists regarding the u.s. population's knowledge of mosquitoes and arbovir ...200314733669
west nile virus activity--united states, july 21-27, 2004.during july 21-27, a total of 83 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 13 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, illinois, iowa, missouri, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, and south dakota).200415282450
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
west nile virus activity--united states, september 29-october 5, 2004.during september 29-october 5, a total of 81 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, florida, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, minnesota, missouri, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, texas, and virginia).200415470326
west nile virus activity--united states, october 6-12, 2004.during october 6-12, a total of 86 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (arizona, florida, illinois, kansas, louisiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, nevada, new jersey, new mexico, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, tennessee, texas, and utah).200415483530
west nile virus activity--united states, october 27-november 2, 2004.during october 27-november 2, a total of 10 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from eight states (arizona, georgia, iowa, michigan, new mexico, ohio, oklahoma, and pennsylvania).200415525902
west nile virus activity--united states, november 9-16, 2004.during november 9-16, a total of 31 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from eight states (arizona, georgia, maryland, michigan, missouri, new york, pennsylvania, and texas).200415549023
serologic evidence of exposure of wild mammals to flaviviruses in the central and eastern united states.serosurveys were conducted to obtain flavivirus and west nile virus (wnv) seroprevalence data from mammals. sera from 513 small- and medium-sized mammals collected during late summer and fall 2003 from colorado, louisiana, new york, ohio, and pennsylvania were screened for flavivirus-specific antibodies. sera samples containing antibody to flaviviruses were screened for wnv-specific antibodies by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed with plaque reduction neutralizati ...200515891139
oviposition activity patterns of culex pipiens and culex restuans in pennsylvania.culex pipiens and cx. restuans are the main vectors of west nile virus and the primary target species of surveillance and control programs in pennsylvania. performing adult control, specifically ultra-low volume (ulv) applications, at night during peak oviposition activity time(s) is necessary to control these species. in july and august of 2009, collections were made at 15-min intervals starting at sunset and continuing until 3 h after sunset to establish a more accurate timeline of cx. pipiens ...201627280355
west nile virus infection in ruffed grouse ( bonasa umbellus): experimental infection and protective effects of vaccination.ruffed grouse ( bonasa umbellus) population numbers in pennsylvania dramatically declined during the early 2000s and have subsequently remained depressed throughout much of the state. while this decline has been temporally associated with the presence of west nile virus (wnv), lack of information on the wnv susceptibility of this popular game bird species has limited the ability to interpret the potential impacts of wnv. to address this knowledge gap, virologic, immunologic, pathologic, and clin ...201728675106
implementation of a sampling strategy to detect west nile virus in oral and cloacal samples in live song birds.in 1999, west nile virus (wnv) first appeared in the united states and has subsequently infected more than a million people and untold numbers of wildlife. though primarily an avian virus, wnv can also infect humans and horses. the current status of wnv and its effects on wildlife in pennsylvania (pa) is sparsely monitored through sporadic testing of dead birds. in order to acquire a more comprehensive understanding of the status of wnv in wild birds, a study was designed and implemented to samp ...201525863262
estimating west nile virus transmission period in pennsylvania using an optimized degree-day model.abstract we provide calibrated degree-day models to predict potential west nile virus (wnv) transmission periods in pennsylvania. we begin by following the standard approach of treating the degree-days necessary for the virus to complete the extrinsic incubation period (eip), and mosquito longevity as constants. this approach failed to adequately explain virus transmission periods based on mosquito surveillance data from 4 locations (harrisburg, philadelphia, pittsburgh, and williamsport) in pen ...201323590317
prevalence of west nile virus antibodies in a breeding population of american kestrels (falco sparverius) in pennsylvania.west nile virus (wnv) has been identified in nearly 300 species of wild birds, including raptors, in north america since its introduction in new york city in 1999. american kestrels (falco sparverius) are susceptible to wnv infection, and the numbers of these birds have declined along the atlantic coast in recent years. we examined the population biology and wnv exposure of kestrels breeding in the area surrounding hawk mountain sanctuary in kempton, pennsylvania, usa. the reproductive biology o ...200717699096
west nile virus infections in organ transplant recipients--new york and pennsylvania, august-september, 2005.in september 2005, west nile virus (wnv) infection was confirmed in three of four recipients of organs transplanted from a common donor. two recipients subsequently had neuroinvasive disease, one recipient had asymptomatic wnv infection, and a fourth recipient apparently was not infected. this report summarizes the ongoing investigation. clinicians should be aware of the potential for transplant-associated transmission of infectious disease.200516224451
the discovery of west nile virus in overwintering culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes in lehigh county, pennsylvania.in february 2003, a pool of 6 culex pipiens mosquitoes collected in lehigh county, pa, tested positive for west nile virus (wnv). west nile viral rna was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. this is the first time in pennsylvania and the third time in north america that wnv has been found in overwintering adult mosquitoes.200415532939
west nile virus activity--united states, october 13-19, 2004.during october 13-19, a total of 200 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 20 states (arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, illinois, indiana, iowa, kansas, maryland, michigan, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415499683
west nile virus activity--united states, august 25-31, 2004.during august 25-31, a total of 210 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 14 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, minnesota, montana, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, and pennsylvania).200415343148
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