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experimental evaluation of mink and apodemus speciosus in the echinococcus multilocularis life-cycle in hokkaido, japan.the epizootiological status of mink (mustela vison) as definitive hosts and apodemus speciosus as intermediate hosts in the transmission of echinococcus multilocularis in hokkaido, japan, were evaluated by orally inoculating mink with protoscoleces, and a. speciosus with eggs of the cestode, respectively. no tapeworms were recovered from the alimentary tract of the mink, and no hydatid cysts were recovered from the viscera of the egg-inoculated a. speciosus. we conclude that mink and a. speciosu ...19921512885
note on the first occurrence of larval echinococcus multilocularis in clethrionomys rex in hokkaido, japan.larval echinococcus multilocularis was found in clethrionomys rex in hokkaido, japan. c. rex is a new host record for e. multilocularis. the cysts were filled with numerous protoscoleces suggesting a potential role of this vole in a natural cycle of transmission.19958522772
coproantigen detection in a survey of echinococcus multilocularis infection among red foxes, vulpes vulpes schrencki, in hokkaido, japan.detection of echinococcus coproantigen using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (selisa) was performed on fecal samples of red foxes in hokkaido, japan. fecal samples were collected around fox dens in 1990 and 1992. the antibodies used for selisa recognize heat-resistant antigens, thus all fecal samples were heated to render it safe for handling before examination. detection of taeniid egg in fox feces collected was considered as an indication of e. multilocularis infection. in fecal sam ...19989637302
monitoring of echinococcus multilocularis infection in red foxes in shiretoko, japan, by coproantigen detection.the study was conducted to evaluate a mab-based coproantigen detection assay for monitoring fox prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis infections in the shiretoko national park in hokkaido, japan. eight fox families, each consisting of 2-4 adults and their pups, were selected because their territories have been determined. faeces of each family (total n = 537) were collected monthly from april to october, 1994. detection of coproantigen and taeniid eggs was recognized in 58 and 27 faeces, res ...19989778642
coproantigen survey for echinococcus multilocularis prevalence of red foxes in hokkaido, japan.an epidemiological survey was conducted on the seasonal variation of echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in red foxes from 1997 to 1998, using a monoclonal antibody-based detection of the tapeworm coproantigen. thirty-six breeding dens of reproductive fox families were identified in the endemic area of koshimizu, eastern hokkaido, japan. fecal samples from each site were examined by coproantigen detection assay and fecal egg examination. whereas the prevalence of coproantigen positive feces s ...199911269273
potential remedy against echinococcus multilocularis in wild red foxes using baits with anthelmintic distributed around fox breeding dens in hokkaido, japan.the effect of bait-delivered anthelmintic to reduce the prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis in wild red foxes was evaluated in koshimizu, in the eastern part of hokkaido, japan. the study area (200 km2) was divided into baited and non-baited sections. the anthelmintic baits were distributed around fox den sites in the baited section every month for 13 months. after 1 year of the anthelmintic bait distribution, the prevalence of e. multilocularis in foxes, evaluated either by the parasite e ...200212211605
detection of echinococcus multilocularis eggs by centrifugal flotation technique: preliminary survey of soil left in the ferryboats commuting between hokkaido island, where e. multilocularis is endemic, and mainland japan. 200312944679
a red fox, vulpes vulpes shrencki, infected with echinococcus multilocularis was introduced from hokkaido island, where e. multilocularis is endemic, to aomori, northern part of the mainland japan. 200314583648
towards the control of echinococcus multilocularis in the definitive host in japan.echinococcus multilocularis is distributed all over hokkaido, the northern island of japan. the prevalence in foxes has been around 40% in the last decade. three trials of anthelmintic bait distribution have been conducted in hokkaido to reduce the prevalence in foxes. in those trials, bait distribution was done along roads in the study area using cars and/or around fox breeding dens by hand. changes in the prevalence in foxes were evaluated either by necropsy of captured foxes or by coproantige ...200616356762
a stochastic model of echinococcus multilocularis transmission in hokkaido, japan, focusing on the infection process.echinococcus multilocularis causes human alveolar echinococcus. in japan, high prevalence of e. multilocularis among the fox population has been reported throughout hokkaido. accordingly, control measures, such as fox hunting and the distribution of bait containing praziquantel, have been conducted. this study developed a transmission model for individuals in the fox population and included a stochastic infection process to assess the prevalence of e. multilocularis. to make our model realistic, ...200818058132
experimental studies on echinococcus multilocularis in japan, focusing on biohazardous stages of the parasite.alveolar echinococcosis (ae), caused by the active growth of larval echinococcus multilocularis mostly in the liver, is usually fatal zoonotic disease if not adequately treated. humans become infected via oral ingestion of the parasite eggs, which are thus biohazardous to humans and should be handled under restricted conditions. in this review, we present findings in experimental studies mainly performed at a safety facility in japan, examining the biohazadous stages of the parasite (hokkaido is ...200818396283
the first instance of a cat excreting echinococcus multilocularis eggs in japan.a cat excreting echinococcus multilocularis eggs was recently identified in hokkaido, representing the first such observation in japan. the cat was raised free-range and frequently ate rodents. fecal egg examination revealed eggs of taeniids (epg: 440) and spirometra spp. (epg: >1000). pcr targeting part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i gene of e. multilocularis was positive with dna from 3 single isolated taeniid eggs, and sequence analysis of one amplicon confirmed e. multil ...200818664390
a vague understanding of the biology and epidemiology of echinococcosis by dog owners in hokkaido, an endemic island for echinococcus multilocularis in japan.a questionnaire survey was conducted by giving 14 statements about echinococcosis to 2,070 dog owners residing in hokkaido in order to evaluate their understanding about the biology and epidemiology of echinococcus multilocularis. analysis of the answers revealed that dog owners understood the disease superficially, and there were several points of confusion in their understanding, especially regarding differences in the modes of transmission and disease development in dogs and humans. the resul ...200919194085
first detection of echinococcus multilocularis infection in two species of nonhuman primates raised in a zoo: a fatal case in cercopithecus diana and a strongly suspected case of spontaneous recovery in macaca nigra.the causative parasite of alveolar echinococcosis, echinococcus multilocularis, maintains its life cycle between red foxes (vulpes vulples, the definitive hosts) and voles (the intermediate hosts) in hokkaido, japan. primates, including humans, and some other mammal species can be infected by the accidental ingestion of eggs in the feces of red foxes. in august 2011, a 6-year-old zoo-raised female diana monkey (cercopithecus diana) died from alveolar echinococcosis. e. multilocularis infection w ...201424780141
echinococcus multilocularis infection in pet dogs in japan.a survey of echinococcus multilocularis infections in pet dogs in japan from 1997 to 2007 was conducted by testing for coproantigen reactivity, fecal taeniid eggs, and egg dna. in hokkaido, the only island where e. multilocularis is endemic in japan, 18 of 4768 dogs (0.4%) excreted taeniid eggs that were positive for e. multilocularis dna by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). most of the dogs testing positive for egg dna were kept free-range, but three dogs had been kept inside their owners' house ...200918945193
the use of tetracycline in anthelmintic baits to assess baiting rate and drug efficacy against echinococcus multilocularis in foxes.anthelmintic (praziquantel) baiting of wild red foxes against echinococcus multilocularis infection was studied in a highly epizootic suburban area of otaru, hokkaido (the northern island of japan) during the summer and autumn in the years 1999-2004. acceptance of baits containing the biomarker tetracycline (tc) was evaluated. the prevalence of e. multilocularis infection in foxes before baiting (1999-2000) was 58% (88/153), whereas in the fourth year of bait distribution year (2004), it decreas ...200717931786
research on targeting sources of alveolar echinococcosis in japan.echinococcus multilocularis is a fatal zoonotic parasite in the northern hemisphere. recently, it has become endemic in many countries in asia, especially in the northern island of hokkaido in japan. the increasing threat of public health due to alveolar echinococcosis has compelled researches for sensitive diagnosis and effective control. this paper reviews on the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of echinococcosis specifically in japan. international collaborative responses by researchers an ...200717662388
current control strategies targeting sources of echinococcosis in japan.the authors describe the current control strategies targeting definitive hosts of the most important zoonotic parasite in japan, echinococcus multilocularis. a dramatic increase in the prevalence of echinococcosis in foxes in hokkaido (the second largest of japan's islands), the invasion of wild foxes into urban areas, infection among pet and stray dogs, and the possibility of spreading the disease to the main island of japan (honshu)--all these pose significant threats to public health. previou ...200617366679
genetic uniformity of echinococcus multilocularis collected from different intermediate host species in hokkaido, japan.dna from several isolates of taenia taeniaeformis and echinococcus multilocularis were digested with restriction enzymes and hybridized with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (cac)5. within the six wild isolates of taenia taeniaeformis from norway rats in hokkaido, although several bands were common among isolates, fingerprinting patterns were specific to each isolate. in the case of e. multilocularis, regardless of hosts from which each isolate has been isolated, the five isolates collected f ...200717339760
short report: echinococcus multilocularis confirmed on kunashiri island, 15 kilometers from the eastern part of hokkaido, japan.there are two foci of alveolar echinococcosis (ae) caused by echinococcus multilocularis in japan. the first focus is on rebun island where ae patients were found from 1937, and the second is in eastern hokkaido where patients have been found since the 1960s. the origin of the second focus is unknown. to further investigate ae in eastern hokkaido, wild rodents (muridae) were captured and examined for infection on kunashiri island, which is located 15 km off the northeastern coast of hokkaido. me ...200515772322
outbreak of larval echinococcus multilocularis infection in japanese monkey (macaca fuscata) in a zoo, hokkaido: western blotting patterns in the infected monkeys.a high prevalence of larval echinococcus multilocularis (em) infection was found in zoo primates in hokkaido, japan. in october 1997, a japanese monkey (macaca fuscata) died and histopathologically diagnosed as alveolar hydatidosis. serum samples were collected from the remaining japanese monkeys and examined for antibodies against em by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. serological tests showed 12 more animals of the remaining 57 monkeys were possibly infected. ultrasonogr ...200515699612
prevention of alveolar echinococcosis--ecosystem and risk management perspectives in japan.we focused on the epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis especially in japan and discussed control measures to prevent an epidemic. no effective control measures against alveolar echinococcosis have been identified thus far because it is difficult to fully understand the ecology of the parasite and its hosts, i.e. the precise infection route to humans. in hokkaido, japan, infection rates among red foxes have recently risen even in low endemic districts. infection seems to be spreading not only ...200314636980
a model for the transmission of echinococcus multilocularis in hokkaido, japan.a mathematical model for echinococcus multilocularis transmission would be useful for estimating its prevalence and determining control strategies. we propose a mathematical model which quantitatively describes the transmission of e. multilocularis in hokkaido, japan. the model takes into account the influence of the dynamics of both the definitive and the intermediate host populations, which show large scale seasonal variation as they are wild animals. the simulations based on the model clarify ...200314564512
[possibility of invasion of echinococcus into honshu with pet dogs from hokkaido and overseas].the number of pet dogs moving with their owners to honshu, the main island of japan, from hokkaido, and the number of dogs imported from overseas were examined, and the possibility of invasion of echinococcus multilocularis and e. granulosus with these dogs was discussed.200312934520
prevalence and intensity of echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (vulpes vulpes schrencki) and raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides albus) in otaru city, hokkaido, japan.a survey was done in an attempt to investigate the epidemiological status of echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes and raccoon dogs in otaru city from june to september 1999. sixty-seven red foxes (vulpes vulpes schrencki) and 13 raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides albus) were captured, and postmortem examinations were conducted with them. thirty-eight red foxes (56.7%) and 3 raccoon dogs (23.1%) were found to be infected with e. multilocularis. the total biomass of e. multilocularis in al ...200211949476
[how can we prevent alveolar echinococcosis? ecosystem and risk management viewpoints].this article focuses on understanding epidemiological features of alveolar echinococcosis and discussing its prevention and control, especially from a viewpoint of the ecosystem and risk management.200211868346
preliminary study of the role of red foxes in echinococcus multilocularis transmission in the urban area of sapporo, japan.in order to assess the infection risk of alveolar echinococcosis among urban residents of sapporo, the capital of hokkaido, japan, a survey was conducted on fox distribution in the urban area and on the prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis among the foxes. the fox distribution, evaluated from fox footprints left on the snow in parks and woodlands, and from locations of fox carcasses recorded by the sapporo municipality, was concentrated along the border of the urban area and in the southwes ...200010811284
the reconsideration of natural history of echinococcosis at rebun island.it has been believed that the outbreak of echinococcosis at rebun island had ceased by 1970. the first patient was diagnosed in 1936 and 131 patients have been authorized as echinococcosis so far. the conference of measures against the outbreak had been organized in 1948 and started to eradicate echinococcus multilocularis from the island. medical examination to detect the patients and the capture and autopsy of dogs and cats had been carried out hard till 1970. at that time, foxes imported from ...199910386161
[survey of echinococcosis in hokkaido and measure against it].the first patient with echinococcosis who had lived in rebun island was discovered in 1937 at otaru and 134 patients had been identified as rebun cases till 1989. in the meantime, the eradication of echinococcosis succeeded with extermination of dogs and foxes from the island. on the other hand, the first patient of kon-sen cases was found in 1965 and 208 patients have been treated so far. the patients had been restricted within the kon-sen region until 1979, but thereafter the patients have bee ...19979465311
human alveolar echinococcosis seroprevalence assessed by western blotting in hokkaido.to investigate the recent prevalence of human alveolar echinococcosis in hokkaido, we took advantage of western blotting analysis capable of classifying persons infected with echinococcus multilocularis into two groups: the complete and incomplete types. from the geographic distribution, the residents with the complete type appeared for the first time in 1992 in the oshima district (western hokkaido). the age distribution indicated that persons with the complete type increased, since 1990, in th ...19958531411
first incidence of multilocular echinococcosis in a race horse in japan.nodular hepatic lesions caused by larval echinococcus multilocularis were found in a four-year-old female thoroughbred race horse born and raised in hokkaido. before detection of the infection, the infected animal was transported around honshu for racing. the present disclosure of hydatidosis in a race horse raises concern over the potential danger of spreading the infection throughout japan by horses possibly infected in hokkaido.19938286549
susceptibility of cats to the hokkaido isolate of echinococcus multilocularis. 19863761784
[enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (micro-elisa) for serological diagnosis of multilocular echinococcosis].multilocular echinococcosis caused by the larval stage of echinococcus multilocularis is an important zoonosis with high mortality. in hokkaido, japan, although the prevalence among inhabitants has been very low, the areas infested with the parasite are rapidly spreading in recent years. therefore, we improved on the procedure of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (micro-elisa) for serological diagnosis of multilocular echinococcosis to carry out the epidemiological survey. a micro-elisa plat ...19863758919
natural echinococcus multilocularis infection in a norway rat, rattus norvegicus, in southern hokkaido, japan.forty-two rats, rattus norvegicus, captured at a garbage dump in southern hokkaido, japan, were examined, and one was found to be infected with echinococcus multilocularis. the lesions were found in the liver, lung, mesenteric lymph nodes, greater omentum and also free in the abdominal cavity. no necrosis was observed in any of the lesions, and inflammatory reactions were mild. protoscoleces were observed in the large liver cysts. a homogenate of these cysts, when transplanted into the abdominal ...19921399254
first case of echinococcus multilocularis infection in a zoo-housed flying squirrel (pteromys volans orii).a 33 month-old male flying squirrel kept in a zoo developed progressive dyspnea and died. macroscopically, the liver and lung were enlarged with numerous nodular vesicles. histologically, these organs were replaced by numerous collapsed vesicles demarcated by fibrous tissues. the cysts lined by a cellular, germinal layer contained numerous brood capsules with abundant production of well-developed protoscolices. protoscolices were about 80-100 μm in diameter, and had hooks being visible as refrac ...201323257604
efficacy of anthelmintic baiting of foxes against echinococcus multilocularis in northern japan.field application of anthelmintic baits against echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) was conducted on nemuro peninsula at the eastern edge of hokkaido, japan. the total study area was 412 km(2), of which 135 km(2) were used for bait distribution. commercial baits containing 50mg praziquantel were distributed by car along roads outside towns and villages in a density of 15/km(2). additional baits were distributed around fox breeding dens. baiting was done from november 1999 to ...201324001877
multiplex pcr system for identifying the carnivore origins of faeces for an epidemiological study on echinococcus multilocularis in hokkaido, japan.a multiplex pcr system was developed to identify the carnivore origins of faeces collected in hokkaido, japan, for epidemiological studies on echinococcus multilocularis. primers were designed against the d-loop region of mitochondrial dna. two separate primer mixtures (mix 1, specific forward primers to fox, raccoon dog and dog, and a universal reverse primer [prh]; and mix 2, specific forward primers to cat, raccoon and weasels and prh) were used so that the pcr products (160 bp, fox and cat; ...200919756739
diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis using immunoblotting with plural low molecular weight antigens.alveolar echinococcosis (ae) is endemic to hokkaido, japan. for the past 20 years, detection of ae among inhabitants has involved serological screening using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) followed by western blotting (wb). between the years 1987 and 2000, antigens targeted on 66, 55 and 30-35 kda bands were routinely used in the wb step of ae diagnosis. however, since 2001 diagnosis has been dependent on three smaller molecular weight antigens (26-28, 18 and 7-8 kda). due to its h ...200919025727
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