detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin g by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.monoclonal antibody (mab)-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for the detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin g (igg elisas) were developed for a comprehensive array of medically important arboviruses from the alphavirus, flavivirus, and bunyavirus genera. tests were optimized and standardized so that maximum homology could be maintained among working parameters for the different viral agents, enabling a wide range of viruses to be easily tested for at one time. mabs wer ...200010790108
using a dynamic hydrology model to predict mosquito abundances in flood and swamp water.we modeled surface wetness at high resolution, using a dynamic hydrology model, to predict flood and swamp water mosquito abundances. historical meteorologic data, as well as topographic, soil, and vegetation data, were used to model surface wetness and identify potential fresh and swamp water breeding habitats in two northern new jersey watersheds. surface wetness was positively associated with the subsequent abundance of the dominant floodwater mosquito species, aedes vexans, and the swamp wat ...200211749741
eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in a horse from california.a yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern california, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev). one week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed. a vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was later suspected. a final diagnosis of eeev infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular charact ...200211927026
drought-induced amplification of saint louis encephalitis virus, florida.we used a dynamic hydrology model to simulate water table depth (wtd) and quantify the relationship between saint louis encephalitis virus (slev) transmission and hydrologic conditions in indian river county, florida, from 1986 through 1991, a period with an slev epidemic. virus transmission followed periods of modeled drought (specifically low wtds 12 to 17 weeks before virus transmission, followed by a rising of the water table 1 to 2 weeks before virus transmission). further evidence from col ...200212023912
two new rhabdoviruses (rhabdoviridae) isolated from birds during surveillance for arboviral encephalitis, northeastern united states.two novel rhabdoviruses were isolated from birds during surveillance for arboviral encephalitis in the northeastern united states. the first, designated farmington virus, is a tentative new member of the vesiculovirus genus. the second, designated rhode island virus, is unclassified antigenically, but its ultrastructure and size are more similar to those of some of the plant rhabdoviruses. both viruses infect birds and mice, as well as monkey kidney cells in culture, but their importance for hum ...200212023919
laboratory response to anthrax bioterrorism, new york city, october 2001, the greater new york city metropolitan area was the scene of a bioterrorism attack. the scale of the public response to this attack was not foreseen and threatened to overwhelm the bioterrorism response laboratory's (btrl) ability to process and test environmental samples. in a joint effort with the centers for disease control and prevention and the cooperation of the department of defense, a massive effort was launched to maintain and sustain the laboratory response and return ...200212396923
seasonal forecast of st. louis encephalitis virus transmission, florida.disease transmission forecasts can help minimize human and domestic animal health risks by indicating where disease control and prevention efforts should be focused. for disease systems in which weather-related variables affect pathogen proliferation, dispersal, or transmission, the potential for disease forecasting exists. we present a seasonal forecast of st. louis encephalitis virus transmission in indian river county, florida. we derive an empiric relationship between modeled land surface we ...200415200812
acute encephalitis hospitalizations, california, 1990-1999: unrecognized arboviral encephalitis?historically, western equine encephalomyelitis and st. louis encephalitis caused substantial human and equine illness and death in california. this study describes the epidemiology of encephalitis with data from 13,807 patients hospitalized in california with acute encephalitis from 1990 through 1999. the incidence of encephalitis hospitalizations decreased over this period. the greatest proportion of case-patients was hospitalized in the winter. encephalitis of unspecified origin was the most c ...200415496246
bartonella henselae in porpoise blood.we report detection of bartonella henselae dna in blood samples from 2 harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena). by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we directly amplified bartonella species dna from blood of a harbor porpoise stranded along the northern north carolina coast and from a pre-enrichment blood culture from a second harbor porpoise. the second porpoise was captured out of habitat (in a low-salinity canal along the northern north carolina coast) and relocated back into the ocean. ...200516485476
integrated human-animal disease surveillance. 200516673518
host-feeding patterns of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central north carolina.aedes albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. the host-feeding patterns of ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in wake county, raleigh, nc. hosts of blood-fed ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in new zealand white rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic h ...200616739414
molecular epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus, new york.perpetuation, overwintering, and extinction of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) in northern foci are poorly understood. we therefore sought to describe the molecular epidemiology of eeev in new york state during current and past epizootics. to determine whether eeev overwinters, is periodically reintroduced, or both, we sequenced the e2 and partial nsp3 coding regions of 42 eeev isolates from new york state and the eastern seaboard of the united states. our phylogenetic analyses indicate ...200818325261
nestling passerines are not important hosts for amplification of west nile virus in chicago, illinois.nestling birds have been hypothesized to be important hosts for mosquito-borne arboviruses, but the role of nestlings for west nile virus (wnv) amplification remains unclear. we sampled open-cup and cavity-nesting passerines in chicago, illinois, an area of intense wnv transmission, to determine infection rates in nestlings and mosquitoes, and to test whether mosquitoes are attracted to nesting birds. analysis of culex pipiens mosquito populations demonstrated wnv amplification to high mosquito ...200818759639
new hosts for equine herpesvirus 9.equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, grevy's zebras. the virus was also found in an aborted persian onager. thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders.200818826828
surveillance of coyotes to detect bovine tuberculosis, michigan.bovine tuberculosis (tb) is endemic in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern portion of michigan's lower peninsula. bovine tb in deer and cattle has created immense financial consequences for the livestock industry and hunting public. surveillance identified coyotes (canis latrans) as potential bio-accumulators of mycobacterium bovis, a finding that generated interest in their potential to serve as sentinels for monitoring disease risk. we sampled 175 coyotes in the bovi ...200819046508
isolation of genotype v st. louis encephalitis virus in florida.we isolated and characterized st. louis encephalitis virus (slev) from cloacal swabs of naturally exposed adult sentinel chickens in 2006. phylogenetic analysis of slev strains isolated in florida indicated that brazilian slev circulated in 1972 and 2006; lineages were va and vb.200919331744
increased host species diversity and decreased prevalence of sin nombre virus.emerging outbreaks of zoonotic diseases are affecting humans at an alarming rate. until the ecological factors associated with zoonoses are better understood, disease emergence will continue. for lyme disease, disease suppression has been demonstrated by a dilution effect, whereby increasing species diversity decreases disease prevalence in host populations. to test the dilution effect in another disease, we examined 17 ecological variables associated with prevalence of the directly transmitted ...200919624913
biting midges of the genus culicoides in south carolina zoos.biting midges of the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the greenville and riverbanks zoos in south carolina with centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. sixteen species of culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. they were culicoides guttipennis (coquillett), culicoides mulrenanni beck, culicoides obsoletus (meigen), and ...201020569132
interaction of mycobacterium ulcerans with mosquito species: implications for transmission and trophic relationships.mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of buruli ulcer, a severe necrotizing skin disease that causes significant morbidity in africa and australia. person-to-person transmission of buruli ulcer is rare. throughout africa and australia infection is associated with residence near slow-moving or stagnant water bodies. although m. ulcerans dna has been detected in over 30 taxa of invertebrates, fish, water filtrate, and plant materials and one environmental isolate cultured from a water stri ...201020675453
spatial and temporal patterns of enzootic raccoon rabies adjusted for multiple covariates.with the objective of identifying spatial and temporal patterns of enzootic raccoon variant rabies, a spatial scan statistic was utilized to search for significant terrestrial rabies clusters by year in new york state in 1997-2003. cluster analyses were unadjusted for other factors, adjusted for covariates, and adjusted for covariates and large scale geographic variation (lsgv). adjustments were intended to identify the unusual aggregations of cases given the expected distribution based on the o ...200717428324
probable non-vector-borne transmission of zika virus, colorado, usa.clinical and serologic evidence indicate that 2 american scientists contracted zika virus infections while working in senegal in 2008. one of the scientists transmitted this arbovirus to his wife after his return home. direct contact is implicated as the transmission route, most likely as a sexually transmitted infection.201121529401
phylogenetic analysis of eastern equine encephalitis virus isolates from florida.abstract. florida has the highest degree of endemicity for eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) of any state in the united states and is the only state with year-round transmission of eeev. to further understand the viral population dynamics in florida, the genome sequence of six eeev isolates from central florida were determined. these data were used to identify the most polymorphic regions of the eeev genome from viruses isolated in florida. the sequence of these polymorphic regions was th ...201121540379
a multi-year study of mosquito feeding patterns on avian hosts in a southeastern focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus.abstract. eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that cycles in birds but also causes severe disease in humans and horses. we examined patterns of avian host use by vectors of eeev in alabama from 2001 to 2009 using blood-meal analysis of field-collected mosquitoes and avian abundance surveys. the northern cardinal (cardinalis cardinalis) was the only preferred host (fed on significantly more than expected based on abundance) of culiseta melanura, the enzootic vect ...201121540380
genetic differences between culex pipiens f. molestus and culex pipiens pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in new york.the definition and phylogenetic placement of the autogenous molestus form of culex pipiens has puzzled entomologists for decades. we identified genetic differences between cx. p. pipiens (l.) and cx. pipiens f. molestus forskål in the sh60 fragment described previously. single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, cloning, and sequencing of this fragment demonstrated high polymorphism within and among individual cx. p. pipiens, with common sh60 variants shared among individuals from distant ...200717294920
distribution and phylogenetic comparisons of a novel mosquito flavivirus sequence present in culex tarsalis mosquitoes from western canada with viruses isolated in california and a previous study, a new flavivirus genome sequence was identified in culex tarsalis mosquitoes obtained in alberta, canada and was shown to be genetically related to but distinct from members of the insect-specific flaviviruses. nonstructural protein 5-encoding sequences amplified from cx. tarsalis pools from western canada have shown a high similarity to genome sequences of novel flaviviruses isolated from mosquitoes in california and colorado. despite wide distribution of this virus, design ...201121734143
diapause-specific gene expression in the northern house mosquito, culex pipiens l., identified by suppressive subtractive this study we probe the molecular events underpinning diapause observed in overwintering females of culex pipiens. using suppressive subtractive hybridization (ssh) we have identified 40 genes that are either upregulated or downregulated during this seasonal period of dormancy. northern blot hybridizations have confirmed the expression of 32 of our ssh clones, including six genes that are upregulated specifically in early diapause, 17 that are upregulated in late diapause, and two upregulated ...200717098250
Genetic polymorphisms in host antiviral genes: associations with humoral and cellular immunity to measles vaccine.Host antiviral genes are important regulators of antiviral immunity and plausible genetic determinants of immune response heterogeneity after vaccination. We genotyped and analyzed 307 common candidate tagSNPs from 12 antiviral genes in a cohort of 745 schoolchildren immunized with two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Associations between SNPs/haplotypes and measles virus-specific immune outcomes were assessed using linear regression methodologies in Caucasians and African-Americans ...201121939710
spatial confidentiality and gis: re-engineering mortality locations from published maps about hurricane katrina.geographic information systems (gis) can provide valuable insight into patterns of human activity. online spatial display applications, such as google earth, can democratise this information by disseminating it to the general public. although this is a generally positive advance for society, there is a legitimate concern involving the disclosure of confidential information through spatial display. although guidelines exist for aggregated data, little has been written concerning the display of po ...200617032448
epidemic spread of lyme borreliosis, northeastern united states.we examined the degree of host specialization of different strains of borrelia burgdorferi, the tickborne pathogen that causes lyme borreliosis in the northeastern united states. we first assessed the genetic population structures of b. burgdorferi in ticks obtained from different mammalian host species and in questing ticks sampled in a woodland ecosystem in connecticut. by comparing the patterns found in our study with data from another cross-sectional study, we demonstrate that b. burgdorferi ...200616704808
theoretical potential of passerine filariasis to enhance the enzootic transmission of west nile virus.vertebrate reservoirs of arboviruses are often infected with microfilariae (mf). laboratory studies have shown that mf can enhance the infectivity of arboviruses to mosquitoes. soon after being ingested, mf penetrate the mosquito midgut. if the host blood also contains virus (i.e., vertebrate is dually infected), penetrating mf may introduce virus into the hemocoel. this can transform otherwise virus-incompetent mosquito species into virus-competent species and simultaneously accelerate viral de ...201223270173
targeted trapping of mosquito vectors in the chesapeake bay area of maryland.most adult mosquito surveillance in maryland is performed using dry ice-baited or unbaited centers for disease control (cdc) miniature light traps suspended approximately 1.5 m above the ground. however, standardized trapping methods may miss mosquito species involved in disease transmission cycles. during a 2-yr study, the effectiveness of the olfactory attractant 1-octen-3-ol alone and in combination with carbon dioxide was evaluated for collecting mosquito vector species. in addition, trap he ...200616619593
need for improved methods to collect and present spatial epidemiologic data for vectorborne diseases.improved methods for collection and presentation of spatial epidemiologic data are needed for vectorborne diseases in the united states. lack of reliable data for probable pathogen exposure site has emerged as a major obstacle to the development of predictive spatial risk models. although plague case investigations can serve as a model for how to ideally generate needed information, this comprehensive approach is cost-prohibitive for more common and less severe diseases. new methods are urgently ...200718258029
multidrug-resistant salmonella typhimurium in four animal 1999 and 2000, 3 state health departments reported 4 outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness due to salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium in employees, clients, and client animals from 3 companion animal veterinary clinics and 1 animal shelter. more than 45 persons and companion animals became ill. four independent investigations resulted in the testing of 19 human samples and >200 animal samples; 18 persons and 36 animals were culture-positive for s. typhimurium. one outbreak was due to mul ...200516102313
a space-time permutation scan statistic for disease outbreak detection.the ability to detect disease outbreaks early is important in order to minimize morbidity and mortality through timely implementation of disease prevention and control measures. many national, state, and local health departments are launching disease surveillance systems with daily analyses of hospital emergency department visits, ambulance dispatch calls, or pharmacy sales for which population-at-risk information is unavailable or irrelevant.200515719066
zoonotic infections among employees from great smoky mountains and rocky mountain national parks, 2008-2009.u.s. national park service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. to evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both great smoky mountains (grsm) and rocky mountain (romo) national parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a ...201222835153
wild birds and urban ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, chicago, illinois, usa, 2005-2010.bird-facilitated introduction of ticks and associated pathogens is postulated to promote invasion of tick-borne zoonotic diseases into urban areas. results of a longitudinal study conducted in suburban chicago, illinois, usa, during 2005-2010 show that 1.6% of 6,180 wild birds captured in mist nets harbored ticks. tick species in order of abundance were haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes dentatus, and i. scapularis, but 2 neotropical tick species of the genus amblyomma were sampled during th ...201223017244
potential role of deer tick virus in powassan encephalitis cases in lyme disease-endemic areas of new york, u.s.a.powassan virus, a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group of flaviviruses, encompasses 2 lineages with separate enzootic cycles. the prototype lineage of powassan virus (powv) is principally maintained between ixodes cookei ticks and the groundhog (marmota momax) or striped skunk (mephitis mephitis), whereas the deer tick virus (dtv) lineage is believed to be maintained between ixodes scapularis ticks and the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus). we report 14 cases of powassan encephalit ...201324274334
patients' request for and emergency physicians' prescription of antimicrobial prophylaxis for anthrax during the 2001 bioterrorism-related outbreak.inappropriate use of antibiotics by individuals worried about biological agent exposures during bioterrorism events is an important public health concern. however, little is documented about the extent to which individuals with self-identified risk of anthrax exposure approached physicians for antimicrobial prophylaxis during the 2001 bioterrorism attacks in the united states.200515634353
vector biodiversity did not associate with tick-borne pathogen prevalence in small mammal communities in northern and central california.vector and host abundance affect infection transmission rates, prevalence, and persistence in communities. biological diversity in hosts and vectors may provide "rescue" hosts which buffer against pathogen extinction and "dilution" hosts which reduce the force of infection in communities. anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-transmitted zoonotic pathogen that circulates in small mammal and tick communities characterized by varying levels of biological diversity. we examined the prevalence of a. p ...201424582513
severe sepsis caused by california serogroup orthobunyavirus. 201526401906
different populations of blacklegged tick nymphs exhibit differences in questing behavior that have implications for human lyme disease risk.animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. we studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of lyme disease in the eastern united states. lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. this led us to hypothes ...201525996603
using the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (brfss) for exposure tracking: experiences from washington of the goals of the national environmental public health tracking network is to link environmental data with chronic disease data as a means of improving our understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. such efforts will rely on the ongoing collection of population exposure information, and there are few systems in place to track population exposures. in many cases, exposures can be estimated by combining environmental contaminant data with data about human behaviors. the beha ...200415471738
comparison of smartcycler real-time reverse transcription-pcr assay in a public health laboratory with direct immunofluorescence and cell culture assays in a medical center for detection of influenza a virus.a single-tube real-time (fluorogenic) reverse transcription (rt)-pcr with the smartcycler instrument (smartcycler rt-pcr) for influenza a virus detection was evaluated with 238 respiratory specimens. direct immunofluorescence antibody staining (dfa) and primary rhesus monkey kidney cell culture were performed on-site at yale-new haven hospital. specimens were transported to the connecticut department of public health laboratory for real-time rt-pcr. cell culture detected influenza a virus in all ...200312904361
transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central alabama.a site near tuskegee, alabama was examined for vector activity of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in 2001. more than 23,000 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 34 species were collected during a 21-week period, and five species, culiseta melanura, aedes vexans, coquillettidia perturbans, culex erraticus, and uranotaenia sapphirina, were examined for the presence of virus using a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for eee virus. each species was infected at vario ...200312875303
the u.s.-mexico border infectious disease surveillance project: establishing bi-national border 1997, the centers for disease control and prevention, the mexican secretariat of health, and border health officials began the development of the border infectious disease surveillance (bids) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the u.s.-mexico border. during a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. the network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveilla ...200312533288
night of two town meetings. 200212405129
field investigations of winter transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus in florida.studies investigating winter transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) were conducted in hillsborough county, florida. the virus was detected in culiseta melanura and anopheles quadrimaculatus in february 2012 and 2013, respectively. during the winter months, herons were the most important avian hosts for all mosquito species encountered. in collections carried out in the summer of 2011, blood meals taken from herons were still common, but less frequently encountered than in winte ...201425070997
chagas disease risk in texas.chagas disease, caused by trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of latin america, including méxico. it is also endemic in texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (triatoma species) in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. yet, chagas disease is not reportable in texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and cani ...201020957148
la crosse virus in aedes albopictus mosquitoes, texas, usa, 2009.we report the arthropod-borne pediatric encephalitic agent la crosse virus in aedes albopictus mosquitoes collected in dallas county, texas, usa, in august 2009. the presence of this virus in an invasive vector species within a region that lies outside the virus's historically recognized geographic range is of public health concern.201020409384
habitat associations of eastern equine encephalitis transmission in walton county florida.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev; family togaviridae, genus alphavirus) a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne virus is endemic to eastern north america. the ecology of eeev in florida differs from that in other parts of the united states; eeev in the northeastern united states is historically associated with freshwater wetlands. no formal test of habitat associations of eeev in florida has been reported. geographical information sciences (gis) was used in conjunction with sentinel chicken ee ...022679885
mosquitoes associated with ditch-plugged and control tidal salt marshes on the delmarva peninsula.a study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from july to september) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the e.a. vaughn wetland management area on the maryland delmarva peninsula, usa. study marshes are characteristic of atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. in the autumn of 2008 (october and november) ditches were plugged near their ...201121909293
training programs to strengthen pennsylvania's public health response.this report describes pennsylvania's 9-year experience in implementing training programs to strengthen public health response to emerging infectious diseases. during the biannual 3-5-day-long pennsylvania public health institute (phi) events, which have been held since 2000, courses have covered topics such as emerging infectious disease outbreaks, monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in retail food, and zoonotic diseases commonly associated with companion animals. core competency cou ...200919635002
the incidence risk, clustering, and clinical presentation of la crosse virus infections in the eastern united states, 2003-2007.although la crosse virus (lacv) is one of the most common causes of pediatric arboviral infections in the united states, little has been done to assess its geographic distribution, identify areas of higher risk of disease, and to provide a national picture of its clinical presentation. therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the geographic distribution of lacv infections reported in the united states, to identify hot-spots of infection, and to present its clinical picture.200919582158
new york city's initiatives on diabetes and hiv/aids: implications for patient care, public health, and medical professionalism.two recent new york city department of health and mental hygiene initiatives expanded the mission and scope of public health, with implications for both new york and the nation. the programs target diabetes and hiv/aids for greater systemic and expanded reporting, surveillance, and intervention. these initiatives do not balance heightened surveillance and intervention with the provision of meaningful safeguards or resources for prevention and treatment. the programs intrude on the doctor-patient ...200818381989
susceptibility of florida mosquitoes to infection with chikungunya virus.chikungunya virus (chikv) has caused recent, large epidemics on islands in the indian ocean, raising the possibility of more widespread chikv epidemics. historically, chikv has been vectored by aedes aegypti, but these outbreaks likely also involved ae. albopictus. to examine the potential for an outbreak of chikv in florida, we determined the susceptibility to chikv of f1 ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus from florida. in addition, we also evaluated two well-characterized laboratory strains (rocke ...200818337338
do natural container habitats impede invader dominance? predator-mediated coexistence of invasive and native container-dwelling mosquitoes.predator-mediated coexistence of competitors occurs when a species that is superior in competition is also more vulnerable to a shared predator compared to a poorer competitor. the invasive mosquito aedes albopictus is usually competitively superior to ochlerotatus triseriatus. among second instar larvae, a. albopictus show a lesser degree of behavioral modification in response to water-borne cues from predation by the larval midge corethrella appendiculata than do o. triseriatus, rendering a. a ...200818075759
seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in obligate and facultative scavenging avian species in california.throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. to assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger ...201526606755
The demographic and socioeconomic factors predictive for populations at high-risk for la crosse virus infection in west virginia.Although a large body of literature exists for the environmental risk factors for La Crosse virus (LACV) transmission, the demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for developing LACV infection have not been investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for LACV infection in West Virginia from 2003 to 2007, using two forward stepwise discriminant analyses. The discriminant analyses were used to evaluate a number of demographic and socioeconomic ...201121980533
programmed ribosomal frameshift alters expression of west nile virus genes and facilitates virus replication in birds and mosquitoes.west nile virus (wnv) is a human pathogen of significant medical importance with close to 40,000 cases of encephalitis and more than 1,600 deaths reported in the us alone since its first emergence in new york in 1999. previous studies identified a motif in the beginning of non-structural gene ns2a of encephalitic flaviviruses including wnv which induces programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift (prf) resulting in production of an additional ns protein ns1'. we have previously demonstrated that mutant w ...201425375107
lymphocytic choriomeningitis with severe manifestations, missouri, usa. 201122000392
isolation of deer tick virus (powassan virus, lineage ii) from ixodes scapularis and detection of antibody in vertebrate hosts sampled in the hudson valley, new york state.deer tick virus, dtv, is a genetically and ecologically distinct lineage of powassan virus (powv) also known as lineage ii powv. human incidence of pow encephalitis has increased in the last 15 years potentially due to the emergence of dtv, particularly in the hudson valley of new york state. we initiated an extensive sampling campaign to determine whether powv was extant throughout the hudson valley in tick vectors and/or vertebrate hosts.201324016533
characterization of west nile viruses isolated from captive american flamingoes (phoenicopterus ruber) in medellin, colombia.serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in july of 2008 in medellin (colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. eighteen of 29 samples from american flamingoes (phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for west nile virus (wnv) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. selected positive samples were serially passaged and wnv was confirmed by immunofluorescence. two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. sequence ...201222802436
intestinal microbiota and species diversity of campylobacter and helicobacter spp. in migrating shorebirds in delaware bay.using 16s rrna gene sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., campylobacter and helicobacter) in red knot (calidris canutus; n = 40), ruddy turnstone (arenaria interpres; n = 35), and semipalmated sandpiper (calidris pusilla; n = 22) fecal samples collected during a migratory stopover in delaware bay. additionally, we studied the occurrence of campylobacter spp., enterococci, and waterfowl fecal source markers using quan ...201424413599
community-acquired meningitis in older adults: clinical features, etiology, and prognostic investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of community-acquired meningitis in older adults.201425370434
vector-host interactions of culiseta melanura in a focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in southeastern virginia.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern usa. culiseta (cs.) melanura is the primary vector of eeev in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-atlantic region. the objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in ...201526327226
arboviruses in north dakota, investigate arbovirus transmission in north dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by vero cell culture assay. seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of west nile virus (wnv), cache valley virus, jamestown canyon virus (jcv), and trivittatus virus are reported. snowshoe hare virus, potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. the risks of culex tarsalis and aede ...201425487728
west nile virus in the united states - a historical perspective.prior to 1999, west nile virus (wnv) was a bit player in the screenplay of global vector-borne viral diseases. first discovered in the west nile district of uganda in 1937, this culex sp.-transmitted virus was known for causing small human febrile outbreaks in africa and the middle east. prior to 1995, the last major human wnv outbreak was in the 1950s in israel. the epidemiology and ecology of wnv began to change in the mid-1990s when an epidemic of human encephalitis occurred in romania. the i ...201324335779
exploring genomic, geographic and virulence interactions among epidemic and non-epidemic st. louis encephalitis virus (flavivirus) louis encephalitis virus (slev) is a re-emerging arbovirus in south america. in 2005, an encephalitis outbreak caused by slev was reported in argentina. the reason for the outbreak remains unknown, but may have been related to virological factors, changes in vectors populations, avian amplifying hosts, and/or environmental conditions. the main goal of this study was to characterize the complete genome of epidemic and non-epidemic slev strains from argentina. seventeen amino acid changes were ...201526312485
variation in vector competence for dengue viruses does not depend on mosquito midgut binding affinity.dengue virus genotypes of southeast asian origin have been associated with higher virulence and transmission compared to other genotypes of serotype 2 (den-2). we tested the hypothesis that genetic differences in dengue viruses may result in differential binding to the midgut of the primary vector, aedes aegypti, resulting in increased transmission or vectorial capacity.201121610852
Fatal Outcomes in Family Transmission of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.Background. Mycoplasma pneumoniae continues to be a significant cause of community-acquired pneumonia and, on rare occasions, manifests as fulminant disease that leads to mortality, even in healthy individuals. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study on members of a family who were quarantined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2002 for respiratory failure and death of a 15-year-old brother (sibling 1) and a 13-year-old sister (sibling 2). Collected airway, cerebrospinal fl ...201222052890
surveillance for dengue and dengue-associated neurologic syndromes in the united states.autochthonous dengue virus transmission has occurred in the continental united states with increased frequency during the last decade; the principal vector, aedes aegypti, has expanded its geographic distribution in the southern united states. dengue, a potentially fatal arboviral disease, is underreported, and us clinicians encountering patients with acute febrile illness consistent with dengue are likely to not be fully familiar with dengue diagnosis and management. recently, investigators sug ...201425371183
a cluster of dengue cases in american missionaries returning from haiti, 2010.dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-borne dengue viruses (denv-1 to -4) that are endemic throughout the tropics. after returning from a 1-week missionary trip to haiti in october of 2010, 5 of 28 (18%) travelers were hospitalized for dengue-like illness. all travelers were invited to submit serum specimens and complete questionnaires on pre-travel preparations, mosquito avoidance practices, and activities during travel. denv infection was confirmed in seven (25%) travelers ...022232444
use of scented sugar bait stations to track mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission in california.laboratory and field research was conducted to determine if culex tarsalis coquillett expectorated west nile virus (wnv) during sugar feeding and if a lure or bait station could be developed to exploit this behavior for wnv surveillance. experimentally infected cx. tarsalis repeatedly expectorated wnv onto filter paper strips and into vials with wicks containing sucrose that was readily detectable by a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. few females (33%, n = 27) ...201223270177
ecology of potential west nile virus vectors in southeastern louisiana: enzootic transmission in the relative absence of culex quinquefasciatus.a study of west nile virus (wnv) ecology was conducted in st. tammany parish, louisiana, from 2002 to 2004. mosquitoes were collected weekly throughout the year using centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) light traps placed at 1.5 and 6 m above the ground and gravid traps. a total of 379,466 mosquitoes was collected. wnv was identified in 32 pools of mosquitoes comprising four species; 23 positive pools were from culex nigripalpus collected during 2003. significantly more positive poo ...201323478575
risk factors for west nile virus infection and disease in populations and individuals.west nile virus (wnv) is a mosquito-borne enveloped positive-strand rna virus that emerged in north america in 1999 in new york city. over the past 15 years, wnv has become established throughout the usa and has spread into canada, mexico and the caribbean. cdc reports indicate >41,000 clinical cases, including more than 1700 fatalities. an estimated 3 million people in the usa may have been infected to date. infection with wnv is dependent on many factors including climate, mosquito habitats an ...201525637260
vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci isolated from the saliva of wild songbirds.we analyzed highly vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria isolated from the saliva of migratory songbirds captured, sampled, and released from a bird-banding station in western kansas. individual bacterial isolates were identified by partial 16s rrna sequencing. most of the bacteria in this study were shown to be staphylococcus succinus with the majority being isolated from the american robin. some of these bacteria were shown to carry vana, vanb, and vanc vancomycin-resistance genes and ha ...201223224296
dengue surveillance in veterans affairs healthcare facilities, 2007-2010.although dengue is endemic in puerto rico (pr), 2007 and 2010 were recognized as epidemic years. in the continental united states (us), outside of the texas-mexico border, there had not been a dengue outbreak since 1946 until dengue re-emerged in key west, florida (fl), in 2009-2010. the objective of this study was to use electronic and manual surveillance systems to identify dengue cases in veterans affairs (va) healthcare facilities and then to clinically compare dengue cases in veterans prese ...201323516642
optimization of the cutoff value for a commercial anti-dengue virus igg immunoassay.a commercial anti-dengue virus (anti-denv) indirect igg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for serological diagnosis was evaluated for its utility in determining previous denv exposure in u.s. travelers. the boston area travel medicine network clinics used focus diagnostics anti-denv igg elisa to measure anti-denv igg antibodies in 591 pretravel specimens from u.s. residents who had traveled to countries where dengue is endemic. when using the manufacturer's index cutoff value for this el ...201323302742
powassan meningoencephalitis, new york, new york, usa.disease caused by powassan virus (powv), a tick-borne flavivirus, ranges from asymptomatic to severe neurologic compromise and death. two cases of powv meningoencephalitis in new york, usa, highlight diagnostic techniques, neurologic outcomes, and the effect of powv on communities to which it is endemic.023969017
an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis virus, maine, usa in 2009: outbreak description and entomological studies.from july to september, 2009, an outbreak of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) occurred in five counties in maine. the virus was isolated from 15 horses, 1 llama, and pheasants in three separate captive flocks. one wild turkey, screened before translocation, also showed exposure to the virus in january 2010. two pools of culiseta melanura (coquillett) tested positive for eeev during routine seasonal surveillance in york county in september, but none of the mosquitoes collected during rapi ...201223208877
temporal analysis of feeding patterns of culex erraticus in central blood meals in seven mosquito species previously shown to be infected with eastern equine encephalitis virus at a site in the tuskegee national forest in southcentral alabama were investigated. of 1374 blood meals derived from 88 different host species collected over 6 years from these seven mosquito species, 1099 were derived from culex erraticus. analysis of the temporal pattern of cx. erraticus meals using a runs test revealed that the patterns of feeding upon avian and mammalian hosts f ...201121395423
variation in western equine encephalomyelitis viral strain growth in mammalian, avian, and mosquito cells fails to explain temporal changes in enzootic and epidemic activity in california.the decrease in western equine encephalomyelitis virus (weev; togaviridae, alphavirus) activity in north america over the past 20-30 years has prompted research to determine if there have been concurrent declines in virulence. six (weev) strains isolated from culex tarsalis mosquitoes from california during each of the six preceding decades failed to show a consistent declining temporal trend in virus titer using mosquito (c6/36), avian (duck embryo fibroblast), or mammalian (vero) cells, result ...201121395409
winter severity predicts the timing of host shifts in the mosquito culex temperate regions, seasonal epidemics of many mosquito-borne viruses are triggered when mosquito populations shift from feeding on avian to mammalian hosts. we investigated effects of temperature on the timing of bird-to-mammal shifts using an 8 year dataset of blood-meals from a mosquito (culex erraticus) in alabama, usa. as expected, cx. erraticus shifted from avian to mammalian hosts each year. the timing of the shift, however, varied considerably among years. harshness of the preceding wi ...201222399787
la crosse virus field detection and vector competence of culex crosse virus (lacv), a leading cause of arboviral pediatric encephalitis in the united states, is emerging in appalachia. here, we report field and laboratory evidence that suggest lacv may be using culex mosquitoes as additional vectors in this region. this bunyavirus was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in two pools of culex mosquitoes in southwestern virginia and in six pools in west virginia. to assess vector competence, we offered lacv blood meals to field-coll ...201526175029
serological investigation of heartland virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) exposure in wild and domestic animals adjacent to human case sites in missouri 2012-2013.heartland virus (hrtv; bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) has recently emerged as a causative agent of human disease characterized by thrombocytopenia and leukopenia in the united states. the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum l.) has been implicated as a vector. to identify candidate vertebrate amplification hosts associated with enzootic maintenance of the virus, sera and ticks were sampled from 160 mammals (8 species) and 139 birds (26 species) captured near 2 human case residences in andrew and no ...201525870419
mesoniviruses are mosquito-specific viruses with extensive geographic distribution and host range.the family mesoniviridae (order nidovirales) comprises of a group of positive-sense, single-stranded rna ([+]ssrna) viruses isolated from mosquitoes.201424884700
spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in florida.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the usa, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. unlike other states, florida supports year-round eeev transmission. this research uses gis to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005-2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of eeev in florida.201223126615
encephalitis-associated hospitalizations among american indians and alaska natives.encephalitis produces considerable morbidity in the united states, but morbidity rates among american indian/alaska native (ai/an) people have not been described. hospitalization records listing an encephalitis diagnosis were analyzed by using indian health service direct/contract inpatient data. for 1998-2010, there were 436 encephalitis-associated hospitalizations among ai/an people, an average annual age-adjusted hospitalization rate of 3.1/100,000 population. the rate for infants (11.9) was ...201424515941
internally deleted wnv genomes isolated from exotic birds in new mexico: function in cells, mosquitoes, and mice.most rna viruses exist in their hosts as a heterogeneous population of related variants. due to error prone replication, mutants are constantly generated which may differ in individual fitness from the population as a whole. here we characterize three wnv isolates that contain, along with full-length genomes, mutants with large internal deletions to structural and nonstructural protein-coding regions. the isolates were all obtained from lorikeets that died from wnv at the rio grande zoo in albuq ...201222365325
rainfall influences survival of culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in a residential neighborhood in the mid-atlantic united states.measurement of the survival and dispersal rates of mosquito vectors is an important step in designing and implementing control strategies. vector survival plays a key role in determining the intensity of pathogen transmission, and vector movement determines the spatial scale on which control efforts must operate to be effective. we provide the first estimates of field survival and dispersal rates for culex pipiens l. in north america, an important enzootic and bridge vector for west nile virus ( ...022679852
microbial communities within field-collected culiseta melanura and coquillettidia perturbans.although mosquitoes are well-known vectors of human and animal diseases, pathogens are only minor components of their total endogenous microbial communities. the midguts of many insects, including mosquitoes, contain diverse microbial communities. in this study, we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to identify the diversity of bacteria in field-collected adult female culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae) (coquillett) and coquillettidia perturbans (diptera: culicidae) (walker). few si ...201323781871
immune responses of a native and an invasive bird to buggy creek virus (togaviridae: alphavirus) and its arthropod vector, the swallow bug (oeciacus vicarius).invasive species often display different patterns of parasite burden and virulence compared to their native counterparts. these differences may be the result of variability in host-parasite co-evolutionary relationships, the occurrence of novel host-parasite encounters, or possibly innate differences in physiological responses to infection between invasive and native hosts. here we examine the adaptive, humoral immune responses of a resistant, native bird and a susceptible, invasive bird to an a ...201323460922
the gulf coast: a new american underbelly of tropical diseases and poverty. 201424830815
comparison of enzootic risk measures for predicting west nile disease, los angeles, california, usa, los angeles, california, usa, 2 epidemics of west nile virus (wnv) disease have occurred since wnv was recognized in 2003. to assess which measure of risk was most predictive of human cases, we compared 3 measures: the california mosquito-borne virus surveillance and response plan assessment, the vector index, and the dynamic continuous-area space-time system. a case-crossover study was performed by using symptom onset dates from 384 persons with wnv infection to determine their relative envi ...022840314
surveillance potential of non-native hawaiian birds for detection of west nile virus.west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in north america in 1999. alaska and hawaii (hi) remain the only u.s. states in which transmission of wnv has not been detected. dead bird surveillance has played an important role in the detection of the virus geographically, as well as temporally. in north america, corvids have played a major role in wnv surveillance; however, the only corvid in hi is the endangered hawaiian crow that exists only in captivity, thus precluding the use of this species for ...201526304918
using undergraduate researchers to build vector and west nile virus surveillance capacity.vector surveillance for infectious diseases is labor intensive and constantly threatened by budget decisions. we report on outcomes of an undergraduate research experience designed to build surveillance capacity for west nile virus (wnv) in montana (usa). students maintained weekly trapping stations for mosquitoes and implemented assays to test for wnv in pools of culex tarsalis. test results were verified in a partnership with the state health laboratory and disseminated to the arbonet surveill ...201323912200
fluid spatial dynamics of west nile virus in the united states: rapid spread in a permissive host environment.the introduction of west nile virus (wnv) into north america in 1999 is a classic example of viral emergence in a new environment, with its subsequent dispersion across the continent having a major impact on local bird populations. despite the importance of this epizootic, the pattern, dynamics, and determinants of wnv spread in its natural hosts remain uncertain. in particular, it is unclear whether the virus encountered major barriers to transmission, or spread in an unconstrained manner, and ...201526512086
emergence of a new lineage of cache valley virus (bunyaviridae: orthobunyavirus) in the northeastern united states.cache valley virus (cvv; family bunyavidae, genus orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis that frequently infects humans and livestock in north and central america. in the northeastern united states, cvv transmission is unpredictable from year-to-year and may derive from the periodic extinction and reintroduction of new virus strains into this region. to evaluate this possibility, we sequenced and analyzed numerous cvv isolates sampled in connecticut during an 18-year period to determine h ...201525962774
phenotypic variation among culex pipiens complex (diptera: culicidae) populations from the sacramento valley, california: horizontal and vertical transmission of west nile virus, diapause potential, autogeny, and host selection.the vector competence and bionomics of culex pipiens form pipiens l. and cx. pipiens f. molestus forskäl were evaluated for populations from the sacramento valley. both f. pipiens and f. molestus females became infected, produced disseminated infections, and were able to transmit west nile virus. form molestus females also transmitted west nile virus vertically to egg rafts and f1 progeny, whereas f. pipiens females only transmitted to egg rafts. culex pipiens complex from urban sacramento blood ...201324043690
population genetic and admixture analyses of culex pipiens complex (diptera: culicidae) populations in california, united states.microsatellite markers were used to genetically characterize 19 culex pipiens complex populations from california. two populations showed characteristics of earlier genetic bottlenecks. the overall fst value and a neighbor-joining tree suggested moderate amounts of genetic differentiation. analyses using structure indicated k = 4 genetic clusters: cx. pipiens form pipiens l., cx. quinquefasciatus say, cx. pipiens form molestus forskäl, and a group of genetically similar individuals of hybrid ori ...201323958909
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