Publications

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an outbreak of c welchii type c enterotoxaemia in young lambs in south west scotland. 1975164082
studies of louping-ill virus (flavivirus group) in wild red grouse (lagopus lagopus scoticus).studies were made to find evidence of louping-ill virus infection in free-living red grouse and relate this to their breeding success. in areas where ticks were abundant 61 (84%) adult grouse had antibody to the virus compared with 1 (10%) in areas where ticks were relatively scarce. of 162 chicks tested 25 were shown to be viraemic. infected chicks were of significantly less weight than comparably aged uninfected birds and the probability that they died was much greater than that of uninfected ...1978212479
antibodies to ovine adenoviruses in sheep in scotland. 1977415407
the biological selenium status of livestock in britain as indicated by sheep erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity.the reliability of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity as an indicator of selenium status in livestock is discussed. based on this measurement, a survey is described of the biological selenium status of sheep on each of 329 farms in britain. results showed that 47 per cent of these farms were probably unable to provide grazing livestock with sufficient selenium to maintain blood levels greater than 0.075 microgram per ml. increased selenium deficiency from the increasing use of home grow ...1979473499
field studies on enzootic abortion of ewes in south east scotland.statistical data were collected from 20 sheep flocks in which enzootic abortion of ewes (eae) was diagnosed by examination of fetal material and maternal blood samples. the abortion rate in the 10,645 ewes in these flocks was 7.6 per cent. thirteen of the flocks were fully vaccinated against eae but the abortion rate in these was still in the order of 6.5 per cent. eae was the major cause of the problem as ascertained from the laboratory examination of samples from a wide range of cases of abort ...1979552732
a study of the effects of copper deficiency in scottish blackface lambs on improved hill pasture.one member of each pair of twin lambs from 37 five-and six-year-old scottish blackface ewes, grazing reseeded pasture suspected of causing a molybdenum-sulphur induced copper deficiency in sheep, was given an injection of 12.5 mg copper calcium edetate at about eight weeks of age. plasma copper concentrations of these lambs were maintained in the normal range by further injections of copper as required (treatment group). the remaining member of each twin pair received no copper therapy (control ...1979573017
a five-year study of the epidemiology of fascioliasis in the north, east and west of scotland. 1977608065
immunoglobulin concentrations in scottish blackface lambs on a hill farm.the serum immunoglobulin concentration in one- to 11-day-old scottish blackface lambs born outdoors on a hill farm were very similar to those in scottish blackface lambs born indoors on an experimental lowland farm. the concentrations were significantly higher in single lambs than in twins, and in lambs which survived for six months than in lambs which died, and showed significant annual variations which could not be related to the weather. they were significantly correlated with the ages of the ...1978653126
headfly damage in argyll and central scotland. 1978654043
an outbreak of s typhimurium in sheep and its consequences.an outbreak of salmonella typhimurium in an upland sheep flock was characterised by rapid spread and heavy mortalities in ewes and young lambs. clinical signs included diarrhoea and abortion. abomasitis was the most striking and consistent post mortem lesion. vaccination was the only control method that was apparently successful. infection also occurred in the cattle, farm personnel, and a dog. following the outbreak, pasture contamination and excreting cattle provided a reservoir of infection s ...1976769302
procedures for large-scale antiserum production in sheep.the increased cost of maintaining and purchasing small laboratory animals used in the production of large quantities of antiserum resulted in a search for a more suitable animal. this paper describes the procedures used to raise antisera in scottish mountain sheep.1975807656
brucella abortus infection in sheep. i. field case. 1976816418
a survey of rotaviruses in sheep in scotland. 1977867760
brucellosis in animals. 1976941009
william ford robertson (1867-1923): his study of neuroglia. 19751102820
editorial: deer more profitable than sheep? 19751136124
studies in scottish hill sheep. i. changes in the susceptibility of the lamb to ostertagia spp. 19751141463
a study of the application of the stormont "wet day" fluke forecasting system in scotland. 19751148813
studies in scottish hill sheep. i. changes in the susceptibility of the breeding ewe to ostertagia spp. 19751168661
an investigation into dystocia in a south country cheviot flock.an abnormally high incidence of dystocia was encountered in the south country cheviot flock at the hill farming research organisation's research station at sourhope, yetholm, roxburghshire over the past four years, 1970 to 1973. lambing records were only available for 1972 and 1973 for sourhope ewes and gimmers of all breeds and showed the following: (see article) this meant that in terms of attention and vigilance, a high shepherding input was necessary with the south country cheviot flock. int ...19751202743
liver fluke in great britain: a survey of affected livers.over a period of 15 months data were collected from abattoirs in great britain on 213,082 cattle and 362,838 sheep livers to determine the distribution and prevalence of damage by fasciola hepatica. the stock came from 8239 farms, and from livestock markets in 81 counties. 53 per cent of the farms had sent affected stock, with significant percentages in eastern as well as the western counties of england and scotland. 21 per cent of all cattle and 7 per cent of all sheep livers examined were affe ...19751202744
epidemiological studies on nematodirus species in sheep.faecal egg count and pasture larval studies on n battus and n filicollis in lambs showed distinct differences in epidemiology, the infective larvae of n battus hatching over a short restricted period in spring, whereas those of n filicollis show an extended period of hatching, beginning in autumn and increasing steadily through the winter to reach a spring peak. this difference was considered to be responsible for the much slower annual rate of increase recorded for n filicollis. pasture infecti ...19751215676
parasitic otitis in sheep associated with psoroptes infestation: a clinical and epidemiological study.parasitic otitis associated with psoroptes infestation was diagnosed in a small pedigree flock of sheep with aural haematomas, abscessation and cauliflower ears. thirteen of the 15 lambs were affected but the clinical signs were mild; small, discrete, crusty lesions on the inner aspect of the ear at the junction of its anterior and posterior borders were typical. nine of the 20 adults were affected but the lesions were more severe. eighteen of the 64 members of the breed society who responded to ...19921441096
a speculative discussion of some problems arising from the use of ammonium nitrate fertiliser on acid soil.some personal farming experiences are described, and attention is drawn to four anomalies associated with the use of ammonium nitrate. these can be explained if the changes that took place in the formulation of fertilisers around 1960 have led to acidic soils becoming depleted in calcium, and if crops growing in high nitrogen conditions take up their nitrogen as ammonium. it is concluded that the fertiliser recommendations that have been formulated at rothamsted are unsuitable for use upon acidi ...19921488214
scrapie: a clinical assessment. 19921604786
isolation of actinobacillus seminis from rams in the united kingdom.actinobacillus seminis was isolated from the semen of five rams on four farms. four of the rams had abnormal semen and three were also infertile. the isolates of a seminis showed similar phenotypic profiles and electrophoretic protein patterns to the type strain of a seminis but were distinct from histophilus ovis previously isolated from rams with epididymitis in scotland. the infection appeared to be subclinical but two of the five rams had palpable abnormalities of their testes. three rams we ...19911746101
[decontamination of soil after bacterial warfare experiments on gruinard island].bombs containing b. anthracis spores were detonated on gruinard island in 1942 and 1943 as a part of a british research programme set up in response to fears that the germans were developing biological weapons. in 1986 island was decontaminated by spraying with 5% formaldehyde. as a demonstration of confidence in the success of the decontamination operation a flock of 40 sheep was allowed to graze for several months with no ill effects.19911819816
body concentration of caesium-137 in patients from western isles of scotland.to compare caesium-137 concentrations in patients from the western isles health board, glasgow area, and other parts of the scottish mainland, and to investigate the source of 137cs in patients from the western isles.19911906765
use of long-acting oxytetracycline against pasteurellosis in lambs.the efficacy of long-acting oxytetracycline in the control of pneumonic pasteurellosis in lambs was tested on seven scottish farms. after laboratory confirmation of pasteurella-related deaths in lambs, half the lambs in each flock were given long-acting oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg intramuscularly) and half were left untreated. on three farms a single treatment was given and on four farms two doses were administered four days apart. eighteen of the 878 control lambs died as a result of confirmed pa ...19902321337
molecular biology lies down with the lamb. 19902371561
a myopathy of sheep associated with sarcocystis infection and monensin administration.an outbreak of muscle disease affected approximately 20 of 600 ewes in spring 1987 in south-east scotland. the clinical signs were a flaccid paralysis of the hind limbs and in severe cases collapse. serum creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were increased. clinically affected sheep had a mean reciprocal serum antibody titre in a sarcocystis immunofluorescence antibody test of 557 whereas 22 sheep from the same flock, sampled one year earlier, showed a mean reciprocal titre ...19892501929
the epidemiology of echinococcus granulosus in great britain. v. the status of subspecies of echinococcus granulosus in great britain.twenty-five years ago williams and sweatman suggested that in great britain there are two subspecies of echinococcus granulosus--e. granulosus granulosus and e. granulosus equinus. echinococcus granulosus granulosus does not mature either in foxes or in horses: e. granulosus equinus will mature in either. the prepatent period of e. granulosus granulosus in the definitive host is about 42 days while that of e. granulosus equinus is about 70 days. each subspecies has a characteristic morphology. m ...19892596902
staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in december 1984 and january 1985. bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin a produced by staphylococcus aureus was present. this was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the uk which was associated with poisoning and from which viable staph. aureus could not be isolated. subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from th ...19892691265
turkey problems herald christmas. 19892694581
an assessment of the risks to the health of grazing animals from the radioactive contamination of pastures.as a result of the chernobyl accident sheep and cattle in wales, cumbria and scotland became contaminated with radionuclides of caesium and iodine. in the worst case, the maximum levels of contamination were of the order of 4000 bq/kg of caesium-137 and 2000 bq/kg of caesium-134 in muscle and 2,000,000 bq/kg of iodine-131 in the thyroid gland. calculations show that the radiation dose rates to the animals from these burdens of the radionuclides of caesium would have been approximately one thousa ...19892736377
chernobyl radiocaesium in an upland sheep farm ecosystem.following the deposition of radiocaesium from the chernobyl accident the movement and slaughter of sheep in upland areas of west cumbria, scotland and wales was restricted. studies on the radioecology of cs-137 and cs-134 have been conducted at a farm within the affected area of west cumbria since july 1986. the radiocaesium activity of upland sheep was found to decline when they were brought on to the farms' enclosed pastures and rise when they were returned to the open fell, where the radiocae ...19892736378
transfer of radiocesium from different environmental sources to ewes and suckling lambs.indoor experiments are described that compare the transfer of radiocesium to ewe and lamb tissues from different sources. lactating ewes were fed either perennial ryegrass contaminated by chernobyl fallout, or saltmarsh vegetation contaminated by marine discharges from the sellafield reprocessing plant. the transfer to ewe tissues and milk was greater from the chernobyl contaminated herbage than from saltmarsh vegetation. lambs receiving a mixture of vegetation and milk were given radiocesium fr ...19892793473
ovine parvovirus infection in scottish sheep. 19872821669
occurrence and properties of fy(att25)+ escherichia coli associated with diarrhoea in calves.escherichia coli producing the adhesive antigen fy(att25) were isolated from 46 of 1341 (3.4 per cent) e coli isolated from calves on 20 of 164 (12.1 per cent) farms in scotland and england. twenty of the 46 calves had diarrhoea and in nine of these animals there were mixed infections with rotavirus, coronavirus, cryptosporidium and salmonella typhimurium. the f41 fimbrial adhesin was found on one of the fy(att25)+ e coli. this strain also produced heat stable enterotoxin. the remaining fy(att25 ...19872889286
acute nephropathy in young lambs.acute renal failure was diagnosed by clinical, necropsy and histological criteria in 39 flocks (20 low ground, 13 hill and six marginal upland) in areas served by six veterinary investigation centres. forty-eight lambs of 12 different breeds or crosses were investigated. the mean age of affected lambs was 38 days (range seven to 84 days); 21 lambs (44 per cent) were aged seven to 28 days, while only eight (17 per cent) were older than two months. mortality in clinically affected lambs was almost ...19892916311
cesium-137, 134cs and 110mag in lambs grazing pasture in ne scotland contaminated by chernobyl fallout.the decline in cs radioisotope levels has been studied in tissues from lambs grazing lowland pasture. the lambs were slaughtered 18 and 115 d after contamination with chernobyl fallout. during this time the cs activity decreased to 13% of the initial amount in animals that had continued to graze contaminated pasture and to 3.5% in animals consuming uncontaminated feed. the 137cs concentration in grass from the field grazed by the lambs decreased with a half-time of 22 d over the period 11-100 d ...19892925385
serological surveillance for maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in northern ireland.the results of serological testing for maedi-visna virus infection in indigenous and non-indigenous sheep in northern ireland, over a five year period (1980 to 1984) are presented. in tests carried out in 1980 and 1981 on pedigree breeds, 10 reactors were identified on seven farms and maedi-visna virus was isolated on three occasions from leucocyte cultures. none of the animals showed clinical signs of maedi-visna and all the reactors were subsequently destroyed. nine of the reactors were import ...19863010539
alexander wood (1725-1807): deacon of the incorporation of surgeons, surgeon-in-ordinary, edinburgh royal infirmary, and 'doctor of mirth'.this account of the edinburgh surgeon, alexander wood (1725-1807), brings together information from a number of sources including the diaries of his friend and patient, james boswell, and anecdotes recorded by james paterson who wrote the biographical notes for kay's portraits. wood was a fashionable eccentric who took a sheep and raven on his home visits and he was as popular with the poor and working classes as he was with more well-to-do patients. he was a deacon of the incorporation of surge ...19883067353
real-time ultrasonic scanning in sheep: the results of the first year of its application on farms in south-west scotland.after a two-day period of instruction in the use of a linear real-time ultrasonic scanning machine the results obtained by three operators scanning a variety of types of ewe under different conditions were recorded and compared with the actual lambing results. in the first season an overall accuracy of 95 per cent was achieved for the diagnosis of barren ewes and ewes carrying either one or two or more lambs. however, monitoring the accuracy achieved for the diagnosis of zero, one, two, three or ...19873310374
ram fertility in south-west scotland. 19883345416
keratoconjunctivitis in a hill sheep flock.keratoconjunctivitis affected many ewes on a large, experimental husbandry, hill farm in early and midwinter in two consecutive years. small sporadic outbreaks occurred among ewes during the following winters and among ewes and lambs in the summer and autumn. mycoplasma conjunctivae was isolated from conjunctival swabs taken from affected sheep. keratoconjunctivitis had not been recognised on the farm before and the infection was probably introduced with purchased rams. prompt treatment prevente ...19883363825
rickets associated with vitamin d deficiency in young sheep.an outbreak of rickets in sheep under a year old (hoggs) appeared clinically as stiffness and rotation of the carpal joints. histological studies confirmed the diagnosis and biochemical analyses of blood demonstrated a primary vitamin d deficiency.19883394220
a survey by questionnaire of parasitic worm control in cattle and sheep at the glasgow university lanark practice.the results of a questionnaire circulated in 1984 concerning parasitic worm control on cattle and sheep farms in a veterinary practice in the west of scotland are reported. control by grazing management or anthelmintic treatment was used in 92 per cent of the cattle herds and in all the sheep flocks. the use of anthelmintic drugs was greatest on farms where grazing control was also practised. benzimidazoles were the most frequently used anthelmintic drugs.19873424632
incidence of rupture of the liver in neonatal lambs in the north of scotland. 19863487877
border disease without nervous signs or fleece changes.a natural infection with border disease virus occurred in a flock on low ground in argyll in the spring of 1984. the outbreak was unusual in that the typical clinical signs of border disease, ie, tremor and, or, fleece changes were not present; manifestations of disease were restricted to abortion and the birth of small weak lambs. the disease was shown to have been introduced to the flock by four healthy ewes persistently infected with border disease virus among a group of 39 purchased in octob ...19873576934
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii in meat animals, cats and dogs in central scotland. 19873580823
a census of the prevalence of vaginal prolapse in sheep flocks in the borders region of scotland.a postal census of vaginal prolapse in sheep flocks in the borders region of scotland yielded 540 replies from 963 owners (56 per cent). there were 262,250 ewes in 976 flocks and 2573 vaginal prolapses were reported. analysis of the data revealed that 390 (40 per cent) of the flocks had no vaginal prolapses and in 237 (24.3 per cent) the reported prevalence was between 0.1 per cent and 1.0 per cent. only 63 (6.5 per cent) of flocks had a greater than 5 per cent prevalence of vaginal prolapses. t ...19873617413
group l beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection in meat handlers: another streptococcal zoonosis?group l, beta-haemolytic streptococci can cause infection in dogs, pigs, cattle and sheep but there have been very few reports in man. in studies of skin infection in meat handlers we cultured group l streptococci from clinically infected wounds, impetigo and paronychia of 15 patients involved in the slaughter and processing of chickens and pigs. staphylococcus aureus was also present in eight (53%) of the lesions. at least five other infections with group l streptococci in meat and animal handl ...19873678390
lean ewes and twin lamb disease common. 19863716121
less pasteurellosis in sheep. 19863716159
observation of 110m ag in chernobyl fallout. 19863736660
some aspects of tick-borne diseases of british sheep.the significance of tick-borne fever (tbf) and other tick-borne diseases of british sheep are reviewed. experimental and field studies were carried out to clarify the role of tbf as a pathogen per se and as a predisposing factor in other diseases. experimental tbf infection caused anorexia and depression in two- to three-week-old lambs, which under the stress of a hill environment could alone be a cause of mortality. nine out of 10 lambs experimentally inoculated with staphylococcus aureus durin ...19863754669
many causes of calf scours. 19873824853
further investigations of a hydatid focus in north-west scotland.a serological survey carried out on 1379 school-children from skye and mallaig in the n.w. of scotland failed to show evidence of subclinical cases of hydatidosis. there appeared to be a relatively low level of exposure to the parasite, as judged by elisa and iha tests. thirty-one children reacted positively in the elisa; only one child had a transient positive result in the iha test. surveillance of these children will be continued for the present but the duration required is uncertain. the loc ...19863950391
outbreak of posthitis in grazing wethers in scotland. 19853992856
serogroups of bacteroides nodosus isolated from ovine footrot in britain. 19853992861
epidemiology of nematodirus battus infection in eastern scotland.a field investigation was carried out from 1981 to 1983 on the prevalence of nematodirus battus under different systems of lowland sheep management. pasture larval counts, ewe and lamb worm egg counts, and tracer lamb worm counts were carried out. as expected, contamination was generally greater on permanent pasture than on new leys as measured by pasture larval counts and lamb worm egg counts. however significant contamination was also recorded on young grass fields for which alternate grazing ...19854001558
ovine listerial encephalitis: analysis, hypothesis and synthesis.analysis of field data suggested that listerial encephalitis in sheep was most common in winter and early spring in the age groups of sheep which would be cutting, changing and possibly losing teeth. it was hypothesised that under these conditions ingested listeria monocytogenes could reach the fine dental terminals of the trigeminal nerve causing an ascending neuritis and encephalitis. experimental inoculation of organisms into the dental pulp demonstrated the feasibility of this route of infec ...19854002594
sheep histocompatibility antigens: a population level comparison between lymphocyte antigens previously defined in france, england and scotland, and sheep red cell groups.a comparison test was performed to look for correlations between the three nomenclature systems for sheep histocompatibility antigens which have been previously described in france, england and scotland. 187 french sheep from a wide variety of breeds were typed for lymphocyte antigens with antisera which detect the ola, p and ed series of antigens; they were also tested against 387 uncharacterized french antisera. six clusters of sera were found which showed correspondence between antigens of at ...19854003855
an epidemiological study of salmonella montevideo by biotyping.among 622 cultures of salmonella montevideo, 27 biotypes belonging to two biogroups were recognized. one biogroup (10di) was predominant in all animals in scotland but only in sheep in england and wales. the other (biogroup 2d) was responsible for almost all human, cattle and poultry infection in england and wales, but only 24% of human infection in scotland.19854020111
prolonged gestation in sheep in western scotland associated with diffuse neuronal necrosis of the fetal central nervous system.a specific disorder of sheep resulting in gestation periods extending up to eight months is reported for the first time. the condition, which is of low prevalence, occurs on hill farms in coastal regions of western scotland and affected ewes usually die unless relieved of their fetuses by surgery. the fetuses may weigh up to 12 kg and have long hairy coats, skeletal deformities, precocious gonadal development and extensive liquefaction of central nervous system tissue. the aetiology has not been ...19854049701
q fever in north-east scotland. 19704098056
maternal and lateral transmission of scrapie in sheep. 19744212154
isolation of ovine strains of parainfluenza virus serologically related to type 3. 19664291390
a survey of sheep sera for antibodies to an ovine strain of parainfluenza 3 virus. 19694309313
louping-ill virus in red grouse in scotland. 19744375344
a clinical study of ram infertilities in scotland. 19714397728
proceedings: ecology and control of headflies attacking sheep in the west of scotland. 19744419360
the recovery of pasteurella haemolytica from the tonsils of adult sheep. 19744445591
bracken retinopathy in sheep. 19724515549
the effects of nutrition and rainfall at the time of mating on the reproductive performance of ewes. 19734522378
the rut and the occurrence of oestrus in the soay sheep on st kilda. 19734522395
porcine and ovine lymphosarcoma: a review. 19734574189
an epidemiological survey of infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease) of sheep in southern scotland. 19734591586
causes of mortality among young scottish blackface lambs. 19744615429
studies of serological reactions in ovine toxoplasmosis encountered in intensively-bred sheep. 19724652151
the prophylaxis of ovine fascioliasis by the strategic use of rafoxanide. 19734693386
a further study of the epidemiology of ovine fascioliasis in scotland and its control using molluscicide. 19734721938
type ii ostertagiasis in housed sheep. 19734772560
the effect of premating stress on the onset of oestrus and on ovulation rate in scottish blackface ewes. 19734796187
observations on the control of nematodes in housed young female sheep. 19744816770
isolation of y. pseudotuberculosis from a foal. 19744819707
red foot disease of lambs. 19744819708
a serological examination of scottish strains of louping ill and their relation to other members of the complex. 19664964505
factors involved in middle ear infection (otitis media) in lambs. 19725079245
the epidemiology of louping ill in ayrshire, scotland. ii. ectoparasites of small mammals (ixodidae). 19715163209
epidemiological studies on salmonella senftenberg. ii. infections in farm animals. 19695278164
salmonellosis in man and animals in n.e. scotland. a ten year review--1959-1968. 19705461451
the reproductive efficiency of british breeds of sheep in an equatorial environment. 19705529154
variation in carrier rates of pasteurella haemolytica in sheep flocks. i. normal flocks. 19705531124
osteodystrophic diseases of sheep. iv. osteomalacia and osteoporosis in lactating ewes on west scotland hill farms. 19705531125
seasonal variations in ovine urinary constituents, with special reference to ph and potassium concentration. 19715577426
observations on the development of periodontal disease in hill sheep and the effect of selenium injections. 19685689041
studies on the epidemiology of ovine fasciolosis in scotland. 19685753139
a new adenovirus from sheep. 19744138913
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