studies on the epidemiology of dictyocaulus filaria infection in blackface sheep on a low-ground scottish farm.the excretion of dictyocaulus filaria larvae in the faeces of blackface sheep on a heavily stocked lowland farm in south east scotland, showed considerable individual, week to week and year to year variation. patent infections were first observed in lambs in may or june but the heaviest and most prevalent infections occurred in the autumn. infection levels were generally low but infections tended to be prolonged and reinfection occurred following anthelmintic treatment until the late autumn or w ...1977146903
an outbreak of c welchii type c enterotoxaemia in young lambs in south west scotland. 1975164082
studies of louping-ill virus (flavivirus group) in wild red grouse (lagopus lagopus scoticus).studies were made to find evidence of louping-ill virus infection in free-living red grouse and relate this to their breeding success. in areas where ticks were abundant 61 (84%) adult grouse had antibody to the virus compared with 1 (10%) in areas where ticks were relatively scarce. of 162 chicks tested 25 were shown to be viraemic. infected chicks were of significantly less weight than comparably aged uninfected birds and the probability that they died was much greater than that of uninfected ...1978212479
antibodies to ovine adenoviruses in sheep in scotland. 1977415407
the biological selenium status of livestock in britain as indicated by sheep erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity.the reliability of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity as an indicator of selenium status in livestock is discussed. based on this measurement, a survey is described of the biological selenium status of sheep on each of 329 farms in britain. results showed that 47 per cent of these farms were probably unable to provide grazing livestock with sufficient selenium to maintain blood levels greater than 0.075 microgram per ml. increased selenium deficiency from the increasing use of home grow ...1979473499
field studies on enzootic abortion of ewes in south east scotland.statistical data were collected from 20 sheep flocks in which enzootic abortion of ewes (eae) was diagnosed by examination of fetal material and maternal blood samples. the abortion rate in the 10,645 ewes in these flocks was 7.6 per cent. thirteen of the flocks were fully vaccinated against eae but the abortion rate in these was still in the order of 6.5 per cent. eae was the major cause of the problem as ascertained from the laboratory examination of samples from a wide range of cases of abort ...1979552732
a study of the effects of copper deficiency in scottish blackface lambs on improved hill member of each pair of twin lambs from 37 five-and six-year-old scottish blackface ewes, grazing reseeded pasture suspected of causing a molybdenum-sulphur induced copper deficiency in sheep, was given an injection of 12.5 mg copper calcium edetate at about eight weeks of age. plasma copper concentrations of these lambs were maintained in the normal range by further injections of copper as required (treatment group). the remaining member of each twin pair received no copper therapy (control ...1979573017
a five-year study of the epidemiology of fascioliasis in the north, east and west of scotland. 1977608065
immunoglobulin concentrations in scottish blackface lambs on a hill farm.the serum immunoglobulin concentration in one- to 11-day-old scottish blackface lambs born outdoors on a hill farm were very similar to those in scottish blackface lambs born indoors on an experimental lowland farm. the concentrations were significantly higher in single lambs than in twins, and in lambs which survived for six months than in lambs which died, and showed significant annual variations which could not be related to the weather. they were significantly correlated with the ages of the ...1978653126
headfly damage in argyll and central scotland. 1978654043
an outbreak of s typhimurium in sheep and its outbreak of salmonella typhimurium in an upland sheep flock was characterised by rapid spread and heavy mortalities in ewes and young lambs. clinical signs included diarrhoea and abortion. abomasitis was the most striking and consistent post mortem lesion. vaccination was the only control method that was apparently successful. infection also occurred in the cattle, farm personnel, and a dog. following the outbreak, pasture contamination and excreting cattle provided a reservoir of infection s ...1976769302
procedures for large-scale antiserum production in sheep.the increased cost of maintaining and purchasing small laboratory animals used in the production of large quantities of antiserum resulted in a search for a more suitable animal. this paper describes the procedures used to raise antisera in scottish mountain sheep.1975807656
a survey of rotaviruses in sheep in scotland. 1977867760
a study of a strategic dosing programme against ovine fascioliasis on a hill a farm-scale veterinary preventive programme run from 1973 to 1976 the use of rafoxanide (flukanide; merck sharp & dohme) in the prophylaxis of ovine fascioliasis resulted in a marked reduction in the percentage of ewes passing fluke eggs in the faeces and an absence of clinical cases of fascioliasis throughout these years. three separate flocks of hill sheep were used in this study in which the aim of the dosing programme followed was to kill the majority of liver flukes (fasciola hepatica) ...1977878250
editorial: deer more profitable than sheep? 19751136124
studies in scottish hill sheep. i. changes in the susceptibility of the lamb to ostertagia spp. 19751141463
a study of the application of the stormont "wet day" fluke forecasting system in scotland. 19751148813
studies in scottish hill sheep. i. changes in the susceptibility of the breeding ewe to ostertagia spp. 19751168661
epidemiological studies on nematodirus species in sheep.faecal egg count and pasture larval studies on n battus and n filicollis in lambs showed distinct differences in epidemiology, the infective larvae of n battus hatching over a short restricted period in spring, whereas those of n filicollis show an extended period of hatching, beginning in autumn and increasing steadily through the winter to reach a spring peak. this difference was considered to be responsible for the much slower annual rate of increase recorded for n filicollis. pasture infecti ...19751215676
parasitic otitis in sheep associated with psoroptes infestation: a clinical and epidemiological study.parasitic otitis associated with psoroptes infestation was diagnosed in a small pedigree flock of sheep with aural haematomas, abscessation and cauliflower ears. thirteen of the 15 lambs were affected but the clinical signs were mild; small, discrete, crusty lesions on the inner aspect of the ear at the junction of its anterior and posterior borders were typical. nine of the 20 adults were affected but the lesions were more severe. eighteen of the 64 members of the breed society who responded to ...19921441096
scrapie: a clinical assessment. 19921604786
isolation of actinobacillus seminis from rams in the united kingdom.actinobacillus seminis was isolated from the semen of five rams on four farms. four of the rams had abnormal semen and three were also infertile. the isolates of a seminis showed similar phenotypic profiles and electrophoretic protein patterns to the type strain of a seminis but were distinct from histophilus ovis previously isolated from rams with epididymitis in scotland. the infection appeared to be subclinical but two of the five rams had palpable abnormalities of their testes. three rams we ...19911746101
[decontamination of soil after bacterial warfare experiments on gruinard island].bombs containing b. anthracis spores were detonated on gruinard island in 1942 and 1943 as a part of a british research programme set up in response to fears that the germans were developing biological weapons. in 1986 island was decontaminated by spraying with 5% formaldehyde. as a demonstration of confidence in the success of the decontamination operation a flock of 40 sheep was allowed to graze for several months with no ill effects.19911819816
body concentration of caesium-137 in patients from western isles of compare caesium-137 concentrations in patients from the western isles health board, glasgow area, and other parts of the scottish mainland, and to investigate the source of 137cs in patients from the western isles.19911906765
use of long-acting oxytetracycline against pasteurellosis in lambs.the efficacy of long-acting oxytetracycline in the control of pneumonic pasteurellosis in lambs was tested on seven scottish farms. after laboratory confirmation of pasteurella-related deaths in lambs, half the lambs in each flock were given long-acting oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg intramuscularly) and half were left untreated. on three farms a single treatment was given and on four farms two doses were administered four days apart. eighteen of the 878 control lambs died as a result of confirmed pa ...19902321337
molecular biology lies down with the lamb. 19902371561
the epidemiology of echinococcus granulosus in great britain. v. the status of subspecies of echinococcus granulosus in great britain.twenty-five years ago williams and sweatman suggested that in great britain there are two subspecies of echinococcus granulosus--e. granulosus granulosus and e. granulosus equinus. echinococcus granulosus granulosus does not mature either in foxes or in horses: e. granulosus equinus will mature in either. the prepatent period of e. granulosus granulosus in the definitive host is about 42 days while that of e. granulosus equinus is about 70 days. each subspecies has a characteristic morphology. m ...19892596902
staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in december 1984 and january 1985. bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin a produced by staphylococcus aureus was present. this was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the uk which was associated with poisoning and from which viable staph. aureus could not be isolated. subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from th ...19892691265
ovine parvovirus infection in scottish sheep. 19872821669
acute nephropathy in young lambs.acute renal failure was diagnosed by clinical, necropsy and histological criteria in 39 flocks (20 low ground, 13 hill and six marginal upland) in areas served by six veterinary investigation centres. forty-eight lambs of 12 different breeds or crosses were investigated. the mean age of affected lambs was 38 days (range seven to 84 days); 21 lambs (44 per cent) were aged seven to 28 days, while only eight (17 per cent) were older than two months. mortality in clinically affected lambs was almost ...19892916311
serological surveillance for maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in northern ireland.the results of serological testing for maedi-visna virus infection in indigenous and non-indigenous sheep in northern ireland, over a five year period (1980 to 1984) are presented. in tests carried out in 1980 and 1981 on pedigree breeds, 10 reactors were identified on seven farms and maedi-visna virus was isolated on three occasions from leucocyte cultures. none of the animals showed clinical signs of maedi-visna and all the reactors were subsequently destroyed. nine of the reactors were import ...19863010539
ram fertility in south-west scotland. 19883345416
keratoconjunctivitis in a hill sheep flock.keratoconjunctivitis affected many ewes on a large, experimental husbandry, hill farm in early and midwinter in two consecutive years. small sporadic outbreaks occurred among ewes during the following winters and among ewes and lambs in the summer and autumn. mycoplasma conjunctivae was isolated from conjunctival swabs taken from affected sheep. keratoconjunctivitis had not been recognised on the farm before and the infection was probably introduced with purchased rams. prompt treatment prevente ...19883363825
rickets associated with vitamin d deficiency in young outbreak of rickets in sheep under a year old (hoggs) appeared clinically as stiffness and rotation of the carpal joints. histological studies confirmed the diagnosis and biochemical analyses of blood demonstrated a primary vitamin d deficiency.19883394220
systemic diseases common in cattle this spring. 19883413955
a survey by questionnaire of parasitic worm control in cattle and sheep at the glasgow university lanark practice.the results of a questionnaire circulated in 1984 concerning parasitic worm control on cattle and sheep farms in a veterinary practice in the west of scotland are reported. control by grazing management or anthelmintic treatment was used in 92 per cent of the cattle herds and in all the sheep flocks. the use of anthelmintic drugs was greatest on farms where grazing control was also practised. benzimidazoles were the most frequently used anthelmintic drugs.19873424632
incidence of rupture of the liver in neonatal lambs in the north of scotland. 19863487877
border disease without nervous signs or fleece changes.a natural infection with border disease virus occurred in a flock on low ground in argyll in the spring of 1984. the outbreak was unusual in that the typical clinical signs of border disease, ie, tremor and, or, fleece changes were not present; manifestations of disease were restricted to abortion and the birth of small weak lambs. the disease was shown to have been introduced to the flock by four healthy ewes persistently infected with border disease virus among a group of 39 purchased in octob ...19873576934
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii in meat animals, cats and dogs in central scotland. 19873580823
group l beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection in meat handlers: another streptococcal zoonosis?group l, beta-haemolytic streptococci can cause infection in dogs, pigs, cattle and sheep but there have been very few reports in man. in studies of skin infection in meat handlers we cultured group l streptococci from clinically infected wounds, impetigo and paronychia of 15 patients involved in the slaughter and processing of chickens and pigs. staphylococcus aureus was also present in eight (53%) of the lesions. at least five other infections with group l streptococci in meat and animal handl ...19873678390
lean ewes and twin lamb disease common. 19863716121
less pasteurellosis in sheep. 19863716159
some aspects of tick-borne diseases of british sheep.the significance of tick-borne fever (tbf) and other tick-borne diseases of british sheep are reviewed. experimental and field studies were carried out to clarify the role of tbf as a pathogen per se and as a predisposing factor in other diseases. experimental tbf infection caused anorexia and depression in two- to three-week-old lambs, which under the stress of a hill environment could alone be a cause of mortality. nine out of 10 lambs experimentally inoculated with staphylococcus aureus durin ...19863754669
many causes of calf scours. 19873824853
brucellosis in animals. 1976941009
outbreak of posthitis in grazing wethers in scotland. 19853992856
nematodirus infection in lambs on an alternate grazing system of husbandry.the epidemiology of nematodirus battus infection under a husbandry system based on an annual alternation of sheep and cattle was studied from 1983 to 1985. pasture larval levels and sheep and cattle worm egg outputs were monitored from april to september each year. the level of n battus contamination on the sheep pasture and the number of clinically affected lambs increased over the three years despite grazing with cattle in the intervening year. examination of cattle faeces demonstrated that si ...19883222554
epidemiology of nematodirus battus infection in eastern scotland.a field investigation was carried out from 1981 to 1983 on the prevalence of nematodirus battus under different systems of lowland sheep management. pasture larval counts, ewe and lamb worm egg counts, and tracer lamb worm counts were carried out. as expected, contamination was generally greater on permanent pasture than on new leys as measured by pasture larval counts and lamb worm egg counts. however significant contamination was also recorded on young grass fields for which alternate grazing ...19854001558
ovine listerial encephalitis: analysis, hypothesis and synthesis.analysis of field data suggested that listerial encephalitis in sheep was most common in winter and early spring in the age groups of sheep which would be cutting, changing and possibly losing teeth. it was hypothesised that under these conditions ingested listeria monocytogenes could reach the fine dental terminals of the trigeminal nerve causing an ascending neuritis and encephalitis. experimental inoculation of organisms into the dental pulp demonstrated the feasibility of this route of infec ...19854002594
sheep histocompatibility antigens: a population level comparison between lymphocyte antigens previously defined in france, england and scotland, and sheep red cell groups.a comparison test was performed to look for correlations between the three nomenclature systems for sheep histocompatibility antigens which have been previously described in france, england and scotland. 187 french sheep from a wide variety of breeds were typed for lymphocyte antigens with antisera which detect the ola, p and ed series of antigens; they were also tested against 387 uncharacterized french antisera. six clusters of sera were found which showed correspondence between antigens of at ...19854003855
an epidemiological study of salmonella montevideo by biotyping.among 622 cultures of salmonella montevideo, 27 biotypes belonging to two biogroups were recognized. one biogroup (10di) was predominant in all animals in scotland but only in sheep in england and wales. the other (biogroup 2d) was responsible for almost all human, cattle and poultry infection in england and wales, but only 24% of human infection in scotland.19854020111
turkey problems herald christmas. 19892694581
q fever in north-east scotland. 19704098056
a myopathy of sheep associated with sarcocystis infection and monensin outbreak of muscle disease affected approximately 20 of 600 ewes in spring 1987 in south-east scotland. the clinical signs were a flaccid paralysis of the hind limbs and in severe cases collapse. serum creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were increased. clinically affected sheep had a mean reciprocal serum antibody titre in a sarcocystis immunofluorescence antibody test of 557 whereas 22 sheep from the same flock, sampled one year earlier, showed a mean reciprocal titre ...19892501929
maternal and lateral transmission of scrapie in sheep. 19744212154
isolation of ovine strains of parainfluenza virus serologically related to type 3. 19664291390
a speculative discussion of some problems arising from the use of ammonium nitrate fertiliser on acid soil.some personal farming experiences are described, and attention is drawn to four anomalies associated with the use of ammonium nitrate. these can be explained if the changes that took place in the formulation of fertilisers around 1960 have led to acidic soils becoming depleted in calcium, and if crops growing in high nitrogen conditions take up their nitrogen as ammonium. it is concluded that the fertiliser recommendations that have been formulated at rothamsted are unsuitable for use upon acidi ...19921488214
louping-ill virus in red grouse in scotland. 19744375344
a clinical study of ram infertilities in scotland. 19714397728
proceedings: ecology and control of headflies attacking sheep in the west of scotland. 19744419360
the recovery of pasteurella haemolytica from the tonsils of adult sheep. 19744445591
bracken retinopathy in sheep. 19724515549
the effects of nutrition and rainfall at the time of mating on the reproductive performance of ewes. 19734522378
the rut and the occurrence of oestrus in the soay sheep on st kilda. 19734522395
porcine and ovine lymphosarcoma: a review. 19734574189
an epidemiological survey of infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease) of sheep in southern scotland. 19734591586
causes of mortality among young scottish blackface lambs. 19744615429
studies of serological reactions in ovine toxoplasmosis encountered in intensively-bred sheep. 19724652151
the prophylaxis of ovine fascioliasis by the strategic use of rafoxanide. 19734693386
a further study of the epidemiology of ovine fascioliasis in scotland and its control using molluscicide. 19734721938
type ii ostertagiasis in housed sheep. 19734772560
the effect of premating stress on the onset of oestrus and on ovulation rate in scottish blackface ewes. 19734796187
evidence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in a strain of teladorsagia circumcincta (ostertagia circumcincta) isolated from goats in scotland.the efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and levamisole was determined in lambs individually infected with 5000 third stage larvae of teladorsagia (ostertagia) species isolated from a herd of goats with a history of benzimidazole resistance and where the efficacy of ivermectin had also suffered an apparent decline. efficacies, calculated using geometric means, for groups where treatments were directed against adult worms were 90.3 per cent (ivermectin), 43.4 per cent (fenbendazole) and 100 per c ...19921465512
isolation of y. pseudotuberculosis from a foal. 19744819707
red foot disease of lambs. 19744819708
a serological examination of scottish strains of louping ill and their relation to other members of the complex. 19664964505
liver fluke in great britain: a survey of affected livers.over a period of 15 months data were collected from abattoirs in great britain on 213,082 cattle and 362,838 sheep livers to determine the distribution and prevalence of damage by fasciola hepatica. the stock came from 8239 farms, and from livestock markets in 81 counties. 53 per cent of the farms had sent affected stock, with significant percentages in eastern as well as the western counties of england and scotland. 21 per cent of all cattle and 7 per cent of all sheep livers examined were affe ...19751202744
an investigation into dystocia in a south country cheviot abnormally high incidence of dystocia was encountered in the south country cheviot flock at the hill farming research organisation's research station at sourhope, yetholm, roxburghshire over the past four years, 1970 to 1973. lambing records were only available for 1972 and 1973 for sourhope ewes and gimmers of all breeds and showed the following: (see article) this meant that in terms of attention and vigilance, a high shepherding input was necessary with the south country cheviot flock. int ...19751202743
epidemiological studies on salmonella senftenberg. ii. infections in farm animals. 19695278164
salmonellosis in man and animals in n.e. scotland. a ten year review--1959-1968. 19705461451
the reproductive efficiency of british breeds of sheep in an equatorial environment. 19705529154
variation in carrier rates of pasteurella haemolytica in sheep flocks. i. normal flocks. 19705531124
osteodystrophic diseases of sheep. iv. osteomalacia and osteoporosis in lactating ewes on west scotland hill farms. 19705531125
seasonal variations in ovine urinary constituents, with special reference to ph and potassium concentration. 19715577426
observations on the development of periodontal disease in hill sheep and the effect of selenium injections. 19685689041
studies on the epidemiology of ovine fasciolosis in scotland. 19685753139
brucellosis in sheep. 19695812825
the isolation of a haemolytic neisseria from cattle and sheep in the north of scotland. 19665948840
virus infections in cattle and sheep in scotland 1975-1978.over the four-year period 1975-78 attempts were made to identify virus in samples from 1231 outbreaks of disease in cattle, and 682 outbreaks of disease in sheep. a virus identification was possible in 26 per cent of these disease outbreaks. the nature and significance of these virus infections is discussed.19806244693
outbreak of listeria meningoencephalitis in young outbreak of listeriosis occurred in five-week-old lambs in a flock of 200 dorset ewes and 240 lambs in-wintered. nine lambs were lost within a period of 10 days. no cases of stillbirth or abortion or cerebral listeriosis occurred in the ewes. silage had been fed on this farm to both cattle and sheep for 10 years without any previous problems. a description of the outbreak and the findings are reported.19836415890
seasonal variations in the gastro-intestinal nematode populations of scottish hil each of two consecutive years, groups of breeding ewes were removed from a hill farm in the west of scotland on four occasions, namely late pregnancy, early lactation, autumn and early winter. at slaughter the major nematode genus present in the alimentary tract was ostertagia, with o circumcincta the predominant species but three species previously found in scottish hill sheep, bunostomum trigonocephalum, strongyloides papillosis and chabertia ovina were absent. an absolute increase in total ...19751144923
assessment of ram fertility in hill flocks in argyll.examination of 1260 rams, involving 1540 semen examinations, revealed that 9 per cent of rams in hill flocks in argyll were subfertile as assessed by semen evaluation. although 34 lesions of the genitalia were identified, only 13 were associated with poor semen quality. a five year survey of one blackface flock resulted in the elimination, after three years, of a 17 per cent level of infertility following routine examination of all rams, with an increase of 2.27 per cent in the lamb crop. based ...19846464323
autumn nematodiriasis. 19846516192
autumn nematodiriasis. 19846523718
role of enzootic abortion and toxoplasmosis in an outbreak of abortion in a scottish sheep flock.during 1978-79 there was an outbreak of abortion in a large sheep flock during which approximately 10 per cent of the breeding ewes aborted. both toxoplasma gondii and chlamydia ovis (the agent of enzootic abortion of ewes) were considered to be involved. in the year following this outbreak (1979-80), 156 ewes (11.4 per cent) aborted and the majority of cases were diagnosed as enzootic abortion: only one case showed gross pathology typical of toxoplasmosis. serology carried out on sera collected ...19836649377
william ford robertson (1867-1923): his study of neuroglia. 19751102820
serogroups of bacteroides nodosus isolated from ovine footrot in britain. 19853992861
warble infestation of sheep. 19836836895
the diagnosis, occurrence and distribution of sheep pulmonary adenomatosis in scotland 1975 to 1981. 19836839123
copper poisoning in sheep from north ronaldsay maintained on a diet of terrestrial herbage.copper toxicity occurred in north ronaldsay sheep fed on a diet of terrestrial herbage relatively high in molybdenum. five sheep were taken from the island of north ronaldsay, orkney to the veterinary investigation centre at thurso and fed solely on the herbage of the laboratory paddocks, supplemented in winter by hay made from these paddocks. the level of copper, molybdenum, zinc and total sulphur in the terrestrial herbage was analysed, together with the seaweeds which form the major part of t ...19827147642
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