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exotic diseases close to home. 199910520624
identification of a kunjin/west nile-like flavivirus in brains of patients with new york encephalitis.molecular analysis of brains from patients of the recent new york city encephalitis outbreak reveals the presence of a flavivirus not previously described in the americas.199910520637
update: west nile-like viral encephalitis--new york, 1999.the outbreak of human arboviral encephalitis attributable to a mosquito-transmitted west nile-like virus (wnlv) continues to wane in the northeast. as of october 5, the number of laboratory-positive cases had increased to 50 (27 confirmed and 23 probable), including five deaths. the increase in cases is mainly a result of completed retesting with west nile virus antigen of specimens previously tested with the related st. louis encephalitis virus antigen and to intensive retrospective case findin ...199910550041
outbreak of west nile-like viral encephalitis--new york, 1999.an outbreak of arboviral encephalitis was first recognized in new york city in late august and has since been identified in neighboring counties in new york state. although initially attributed to st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus based on positive serologic findings in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and serum samples using a virus-specific igm-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), the cause of the outbreak has been confirmed as a west nile-like virus based on the identification of viru ...199910563521
emerging diseases. west nile near the hudson. 199910567104
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: west nile-like viral encephalitis--new york, 1999. 199910568633
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: west nile virus encephalitis--new york, 1999. 199910573261
groups race to sequence and identify new york virus. 199910577182
origin of the west nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern united states.in late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern united states that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead chilean flamingo (phoenicopterus chilensis), together with partial sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein (e-glycoprotein) genes amplified from several other species ...199910600742
new york's lethal virus came from middle east, dna suggests. 199910610538
of mosquitoes, dead birds and epidemics. 199910620934
genetic analysis of west nile new york 1999 encephalitis virus.analysis of the genome of the flavivirus responsible for the 1999 new york city encephalitis epidemic cloned from human brain by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction indicates its identity as a lineage i west nile virus (wnv; wnv-ny1999) closely related to wnvs previously isolated in the middle east.199910622305
the west nile virus outbreak of 1999 in new york: the flushing hospital experience.west nile virus (wnv) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, which has been known to cause human infection in africa, the middle east, and southwestern asia. it has also been isolated in australia and sporadically in europe but never in the americas. clinical features include acute fever, severe myalgias, headache, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, and a roseolar rash. rarely is encephalitis or meningitis seen. during the month of august 1999, a cluster of 5 patients with fever, confusion, and weakness ...200010722421
new york's deadly virus may stage a comeback. 200010744526
[west nile-like virus is the cause of encephalitis in humans and horses and the death of hundreds of birds in new york]. 199910744548
pathology of fatal west nile virus infections in native and exotic birds during the 1999 outbreak in new york city, new york.west nile fever caused fatal disease in humans, horses, and birds in the northeastern united states during 1999. we studied birds from two wildlife facilities in new york city, new york, that died or were euthanatized and were suspected to have west nile virus infections. using standard histologic and ultrastructural methods, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we identified west nile virus as the cause of clinical dis ...200010810985
from the centers for disease control and prevention. surveillance for west nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes--new york, 2000. 200010836961
biohazards--emerging diseases. a plum of an island. 200010862416
update on emerging infections from the centers for disease control and prevention.update: surveillance for west nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes--new york, 2000. 200010874238
[infections resurgence]. 200010881144
west nile virus survives winter; no surprise, says cdc. 200010896507
the role of pathology in an investigation of an outbreak of west nile encephalitis in new york, 1999.an outbreak of encephalitis occurred in new york city in late august 1999, the first caused by west nile virus in north america. histopathologic and immunopathologic examinations performed on human autopsy materials helped guide subsequent laboratory and epidemiologic investigations that led to identification of the etiologic agent.200010905969
west nile virus finds a new ecological niche in queens, new york. 200010920778
recovery and identification of west nile virus from a hawk in winter.west nile virus was recovered from the brain of a red-tailed hawk that died in westchester county, n.y., in february 2000. multiple foci of glial cells, lymphocytes, and a few pyknotic nuclei were observed in the brain. three to 4 days after inoculation of vero cells with brain homogenates, cytopathic changes were detected. the presence of west nile virus antigen in fixed cells or cell lysates was revealed by fluorescent antibody testing or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. furthe ...200010921991
west nile virus activity--new york and new jersey, 2000.in late august 1999, an outbreak of encephalitis caused by west nile virus (wnv) was detected in new york city and subsequently identified in neighboring counties (1). in response, an extensive mosquito-control and risk-reduction campaign was initiated, including aerial and ground applications of mosquito adulticides throughout the affected areas. no human wnv infections were found in new york city with an onset date after the campaign was completed. cases continued to occur among humans in surr ...200010926307
update: west nile virus activity--northeastern united states, january-august 7, 2000.surveillance programs initiated in response to the 1999 west nile virus (wnv) outbreak have detected increased transmission in the northeastern united states (1). seventeen states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city (nyc), and washington, d.c., have conducted wnv surveillance and are reporting to cdc (1). surveillance for wnv infection includes monitoring of mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e.g., horses and humans) (2). this repo ...200010958587
from the centers for disease control and prevention. west nile virus activity--new york and new jersey, 2000. 200010970196
ribavirin inhibits west nile virus replication and cytopathic effect in neural cells.west nile virus (wnv) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen that was reported for the first time in the western hemisphere in august 1999, when an encephalitis outbreak in new york city resulted in 62 clinical cases and 7 deaths. wnv, for which no antiviral therapy has been described, was recently recovered from a pool of mosquitoes collected in new york city. in anticipation of the recurrence of wnv during the summer of 2000, an analysis was made of the efficacy of the nucleoside analogue riba ...200010979920
twelve die of west nile virus in israel. 200010999896
[the spread of the west nile virus, past new york 2000]. 200011002502
west nile fever heads north. 200011033722
potential for new york mosquitoes to transmit west nile virus.we evaluated the potential for several north american mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced west nile (wn) virus. mosquitoes collected in the new york city metropolitan area during the recent (1999) wn outbreak were allowed to feed on chickens infected with wn virus isolated from a crow that had died during this outbreak. these mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 weeks later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. culex pipiens mosquitoes were highly suscept ...200011037788
encephalitis in the 21 st century.as the 21st century begins, several outbreaks of encephalitis have been reported. an examination of these outbreaks brings into focus important epidemiological developments. specifically, urbanization and encroachment on natural environments, the ease of world travel, and global trade can lead to spread of vectors and viruses from the developing world to the developed world. this review focuses on two recent epidemics of encephalitis: west nile virus encephalitis in the eastern united states and ...200011051296
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, 2000.data reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
[west nile virus (wnv) encephalitis].a disease on the come back: west nile encephalitis has been known since the thirties. it generally occurs in africa and western asia, rarely in europe. the disease has disappeared from france since 1960, but has reappeared in the united states and in israel. a severe viral infection: west nile encephalitis is caused by a flavivirus. after 2 to 15 days incubation, the patient experiences fever, headache, diffuse pain, and sometimes skin rash. disorientation, stiff neck, convulsions and paralysis ...200011155732
lessons from the west nile viral encephalitis outbreak in new york city, 1999: implications for bioterrorism preparedness.the involvement and expertise of infectious disease physicians, microbiologists, and public health practitioners are essential to the early detection and management of epidemics--both those that are naturally occurring, such as the 1999 outbreak of west nile virus (wn virus) in new york city, and those that might follow covert acts of bioterrorism. the experience with the wn virus outbreak offers practical lessons in outbreak detection, laboratory diagnosis, investigation, and response that migh ...200111170918
infectious disease. the enigma of west nile. .fifteen months after the 1999 outbreak of west nile virus in new york city, which sickened 62 mostly elderly people and killed seven, scientists are still hard pressed to predict how abundant the virus will eventually become or how serious a public health threat it will pose. this summer, the human toll has been relatively mild, with just 18 cases and one death. but the virus has been found in more than 60 bird species and about a dozen mammals; in a little more than a year, it has spread to 11 ...200011185500
west nile viral encephalitis.west nile virus (wnv) has emerged in recent years in temperate regions of europe and north america, presenting a threat to both public and animal health. the most serious manifestation of infection is fatal encephalitis in humans and horses, as well as mortality in certain domestic and wild birds. a recent development in the epizootiology of this mosquito-borne flavivirus was the occurrence of a severe outbreak in new york city and surrounding areas. during this outbreak, mortality was observed ...200011189714
west nile virus in the new world: appearance, persistence, and adaptation to a new econiche--an opportunity taken. 200011192287
discovery and molecular characterization of west nile virus ny 1999. 200011192290
west nile virus in new york state: the 1999 outbreak and response plan for 2000. 200011192292
serosurveys for west nile virus infection--new york and connecticut counties, 2000.in 2000, 21 persons were reported with acute illness attributed to west nile virus (wnv) infection; 19 were hospitalized with encephalitis or meningitis. of the 21, 10 resided in the staten island borough (richmond county) of new york city. other ill persons resided in nine other counties--kings (brooklyn), new york (manhattan), and queens counties in new york; hudson, passaic, monmouth, morris, and bergen counties in new jersey; and fairfield county in connecticut. because ill persons represent ...200111215880
from the centers for disease control and prevention. serosurveys for west nile virus infection--new york and connecticut counties, 2000. 200111236769
vector competence of north american mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for west nile virus.we evaluated the potential for several north american mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced west nile (wn) virus. mosquitoes collected in the new york city metropolitan area during the recent wn virus outbreak, at the assateague island wildlife refuge, va, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with wn virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. these mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, disseminati ...200111296813
detection of arboviral rna directly from mosquito homogenates by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction.many arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important human pathogens medically. the development of an effective technique to detect the viruses by using nucleic acid amplification, such as polymerase chain reaction (pcr), improves not only clinical diagnosis but also virologic surveillance of mosquito vectors in the field. in this study, the development of an improved and simplified assay is described for detection of mosquitoes infected with eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus, cache va ...200111337046
the west nile virus: its recent emergence in north america.west nile fever emerged in new york in the summer of 1999 when seven people, several horses and thousands of wild birds died. it was soon established that the human disease and the mortality of birds were related. continued surveillance detected west nile virus in mosquitoes, birds, horses, small mammals, bats and humans, and has shown its spread to several northeastern states. these events confirm the establishment of west nile virus endemically in the united states.200111358716
infectious diseases. west nile researchers get ready for round three. 200111360978
from the centers for disease control and prevention. human west nile virus surveillance--connecticut, new jersey, and new york, 2000. 200111368043
update on viral encephalitis.over 100 viruses have been associated with acute central nervous system infections. the present review focuses on some of the most common agents of viral encephalitis, as well as important emerging viral encephalitides. in this context, the initial detection of west nile virus in the western hemisphere during the 1999 new york city outbreak, the first description of nipah virus in malaysia, and the appearance in asia of a new neurovirulent enterovirus 71 strain that causes severe neurologic dise ...200111371762
effect of incubation at overwintering temperatures on the replication of west nile virus in new york culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae).we examined the effect of simulated overwintering temperatures on west nile (wn) virus replication in culex pipiens l. derived from mosquitoes collected during the autumn 1999 wn epizootic in new york. the wn virus was a strain isolated from a dead crow also collected during this outbreak. virus was recovered from most mosquitoes held exclusively at 26 degres c. in contrast, none of the mosquitoes held exclusively at the lower temperatures had detectable infections. when mosquitoes were transfer ...200111372976
the outbreak of west nile virus infection in the new york city area in 1999.in late august 1999, an unusual cluster of cases of meningoencephalitis associated with muscle weakness was reported to the new york city department of health. the initial epidemiologic and environmental investigations suggested an arboviral cause.200111407341
west nile virus encephalitis in america. 200111407349
human west nile virus surveillance--connecticut, new jersey, and new york, 2000.west nile virus (wnv), a mosquitoborne arbovirus identified in new york in 1999, has become enzootic in the northeastern united states, affecting humans, birds, horses, and other mammals. although no human wnv infection was identified in connecticut or new jersey in 1999, 62 persons with wnv illness, including seven deaths, were detected in new york city (nyc) and nearby new york counties. in 2000, these jurisdictions implemented active surveillance (as) and enhanced passive surveillance (eps) t ...200111411831
the control of mosquito-borne diseases in new york city.mosquito control began in new york city in 1901. large-scale efforts to drain marshlands occurred through the 1930s, and aerial application of pesticide occurred as early as 1956. components of early mosquito-borne disease control were reimplemented in 1999-2000 in response to an outbreak of west nile virus, and included promoting public and health professional awareness regarding disease causation and prevention, providing free government laboratory testing, case reporting, mapping of mosquito ...200111419586
balancing the risks: vector control and pesticide use in response to emerging illness.the competing public health concerns of vector-borne disease and vector control strategies, particularly pesticide use, are inherently subjective and difficult to balance. disease response decisions must frequently be made in the absence of data or clear criteria. the factors to be weighed include the vector control measures versus those posed by the disease itself; short-term versus long-term disease management goals, specifically with regard to the issue of pesticide resistance; the need to di ...200111419588
risk communication, the west nile virus epidemic, and bioterrorism: responding to the communication challenges posed by the intentional or unintentional release of a pathogen in an urban setting.the intentional or unintentional introduction of a pathogen in an urban setting presents severe communication challenges. risk communication--a science-based approach for communicating effectively in high-concern situations--provides a set of principles and tools for meeting those challenges. a brief overview of the risk communication theoretical perspective and basic risk communication models is presented here, and the risk communication perspective is applied to the west nile virus epidemic in ...200111419589
epidemic west nile encephalitis, new york, 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey.in the summer of 1999, west nile virus was recognised in the western hemisphere for the first time when it caused an epidemic of encephalitis and meningitis in the metropolitan area of new york city, ny, usa. intensive hospital-based surveillance identified 59 cases, including seven deaths in the region. we did a household-based seroepidemiological survey to assess more clearly the public-health impact of the epidemic, its range of illness, and risk factors associated with infection.200111498211
west nile virus: a reemerging global pathogen. 200111585520
crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for west nile virus in the northeastern united states, 1999.in addition to human encephalitis and meningitis cases, the west nile (wn) virus outbreak in the summer and fall of 1999 in new york state resulted in bird deaths in new york, new jersey, and connecticut. from august to december 1999, 295 dead birds were laboratory-confirmed with wn virus infection; 262 (89%) were american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos). the new york state department of health received reports of 17,339 dead birds, including 5,697 (33%) crows; in connecticut 1,040 dead crows were ...200111585521
serologic evidence for west nile virus infection in birds in the new york city vicinity during an outbreak in 1999.as part of an investigation of an encephalitis outbreak in new york city, we sampled 430 birds, representing 18 species in four orders, during september 13-23, 1999, in queens and surrounding counties. overall, 33% were positive for west nile (wn) virus-neutralizing antibodies, and 0.5% were positive for st. louis encephalitis virus-neutralizing antibodies. by county, queens had the most seropositive birds for wn virus (50%); species with the greatest seropositivity for wn virus (sample sizes we ...200111585522
west nile virus isolates from mosquitoes in new york and new jersey, 1999.an outbreak of encephalitis due to west nile (wn) virus occurred in new york city and the surrounding areas during 1999. mosquitoes were collected as part of a comprehensive surveillance program implemented to monitor the outbreak. more than 32,000 mosquitoes representing 24 species were tested, and 15 wn virus isolates were obtained. molecular techniques were used to identify the species represented in the wn virus-positive mosquito pools. most isolates were from pools containing culex pipiens ...200111585523
dead bird surveillance as an early warning system for west nile virus.as part of west nile (wn) virus surveillance in new york state in 2000, 71,332 ill or dead birds were reported; 17,571 (24.6%) of these were american crows. of 3,976 dead birds tested, 1,263 (31.8%) were positive for wn virus. viral activity was first confirmed in 60 of the state's 62 counties with wn virus-positive dead birds. pathologic findings compatible with wn virus were seen in 1,576 birds (39.6% of those tested), of which 832 (52.8%) were positive for wn virus. dead crow reports preceded ...200111585524
mosquito surveillance and polymerase chain reaction detection of west nile virus, new york state.west nile (wn) virus was detected in the metropolitan new york city (nyc) area during the summer and fall of 1999. sixty-two human cases, 7 fatal, were documented. the new york state department of health initiated a departmental effort to implement a statewide mosquito and virus surveillance system. during the 2000 arbovirus surveillance season, we collected 317,676 mosquitoes, submitted 9,952 pools for virus testing, and detected 363 wn virus-positive pools by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). e ...200111585526
partial genetic characterization of west nile virus strains, new york state, 2000.we analyzed nucleotide sequences from the envelope gene of 11 west nile (wn) virus strains collected in new york state during the 2000 transmission season to determine whether they differed genetically from each other and from the initial strain isolated in 1999. the complete envelope genes of these strains were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. the resulting sequences were aligned, the genetic distances were computed, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. ten (0.7 ...200111585527
west nile encephalitis in israel, 1999: the new york connection.we describe two cases of west nile (wn) encephalitis in a married couple in tel aviv, israel, in 1999. reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on a brain specimen from the husband detected a wn viral strain nearly identical to avian strains recovered in israel in 1998 (99.9% genomic sequence homology) and in new york in 1999 (99.8%). this result supports the hypothesis that the 1999 wn virus epidemic in the united states originated from the introduction of a strain that had bee ...200111585528
dead crow densities and human cases of west nile virus, new york state, 2000.in 2000, staten island, new york, reported 10 human west nile virus cases and high densities of dead crows. surrounding counties with <2 human cases had moderate dead crow densities, and upstate counties with no human cases had low dead crow densities. monitoring such densities may be helpful because this factor may be determined without the delays associated with specimen collection and testing.200111585529
west nile virus infection in birds and mosquitoes, new york state, 2000.west nile (wn) virus was found throughout new york state in 2000, with the epicenter in new york city and surrounding counties. we tested 3,403 dead birds and 9,954 mosquito pools for wn virus during the transmission season. sixty-three avian species, representing 30 families and 14 orders, tested positive for wn virus. the highest proportion of dead birds that tested positive for wn virus was in american crows in the epicenter (67% positive, n=907). eight mosquito species, representing four gen ...200111585532
the relationships between west nile and kunjin viruses.until recently, west nile (wn) and kunjin (kun) viruses were classified as distinct types in the flavivirus genus. however, genetic and antigenic studies on isolates of these two viruses indicate that the relationship between them is more complex. to better define this relationship, we performed sequence analyses on 32 isolates of kun virus and 28 isolates of wn virus from different geographic areas, including a wn isolate from the recent outbreak in new york. sequence comparisons showed that th ...200111585535
rapid determination of hla b*07 ligands from the west nile virus ny99 genome.defined t cell epitopes for west nile (wn) virus may be useful for developing subunit vaccines against wn virus infection and diagnostic reagents to detect wn virus-specific immune response. we applied a bioinformatics (epimatrix) approach to search the wn virus ny99 genome for hla b*07 restricted cytotoxic t cell (ctl) epitopes. ninety-five of 3,433 wn virus peptides scored above a predetermined cutoff, suggesting that these would be likely to bind to hla b*07 and would also be likely candidate ...200111585536
exposure of domestic mammals to west nile virus during an outbreak of human encephalitis, new york city, 1999.we evaluated west nile (wn) virus seroprevalence in healthy horses, dogs, and cats in new york city after an outbreak of human wn virus encephalitis in 1999. two (3%) of 73 horses, 10 (5%) of 189 dogs, and none of 12 cats tested positive for wn virus-neutralizing antibodies. domestic mammals should be evaluated as sentinels for local wn virus activity and predictors of the infection in humans.200111585540
detection of north american west nile virus in animal tissue by a reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction assay.a traditional single-stage reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) procedure is effective in determining west nile (wn) virus in avian tissue and infected cell cultures. however, the procedure lacks the sensitivity to detect wn virus in equine tissue. we describe an rt-nested pcr (rt-npcr) procedure that identifies the north american strain of wn virus directly in equine and avian tissues.200111585541
west nile virus in overwintering culex mosquitoes, new york city, 2000.after the 1999 west nile (wn) encephalitis outbreak in new york, 2,300 overwintering adult mosquitoes were tested for wn virus by cell culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. wn viral rna and live virus were found in pools of culex mosquitoes. persistence in overwintering cx. pipiens may be important in the maintenance of wn virus in the northeastern united states.200111585542
west nile virus outbreak among horses in new york state, 1999 and 2000.west nile (wn) virus was identified in the western hemisphere in 1999. along with human encephalitis cases, 20 equine cases of wn virus were detected in 1999 and 23 equine cases in 2000 in new york. during both years, the equine cases occurred after human cases in new york had been identified.200111585543
fatal encephalitis and myocarditis in young domestic geese (anser anser domesticus) caused by west nile virus.during 1999 and 2000, a disease outbreak of west nile (wn) virus occurred in humans, horses, and wild and zoological birds in the northeastern usa. in our experiments, wn virus infection of young domestic geese (anser anser domesticus) caused depression, weight loss, torticollis, opisthotonus, and death with accompanying encephalitis and myocarditis. based on this experimental study and a field outbreak in israel, wn virus is a disease threat to young goslings and viremia levels are potentially ...200111585545
clinical findings of west nile virus infection in hospitalized patients, new york and new jersey, 2000.outbreaks of west nile (wn) virus occurred in the new york metropolitan area in 1999 and 2000. nineteen patients diagnosed with wn infection were hospitalized in new york and new jersey in 2000 and were included in this review. eleven patients had encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, and eight had meningitis alone. ages of patients ranged from 36 to 87 years (median 63 years). fever and neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms predominated. severe muscle weakness on neurologic examination was fo ...200111589170
equine west nile encephalitis, united states.after the 1999 outbreak of west nile (wn) encephalitis in new york horses, a case definition was developed that specified the clinical signs, coupled with laboratory test results, required to classify cases of wn encephalitis in equines as either probable or confirmed. in 2000, 60 horses from seven states met the criteria for a confirmed case. the cumulative experience from clinical observations and diagnostic testing during the 1999 and 2000 outbreaks of wn encephalitis in horses will contribut ...200111589171
west nile virus infection in mosquitoes, birds, horses, and humans, staten island, new york, 2000.west nile (wn) virus transmission in the united states during 2000 was most intense on staten island, new york, where 10 neurologic illnesses among humans and 2 among horses occurred. wn virus was isolated from aedes vexans, culex pipiens, cx. salinarius, ochlerotatus triseriatus, and psorophora ferox, and wn viral rna was detected in anopheles punctipennis. an elevated weekly minimum infection rate (mir) for cx. pipiens and increased dead bird density were present for 2 weeks before the first h ...200111589172
comparative west nile virus detection in organs of naturally infected american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos).widespread deaths of american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos)were associated with the 1999 outbreak of west nile (wn) virus in the new york city region. we compared six organs from 20 crow carcasses as targets for wn virus detection. half the carcasses had at least one positive test result for wn virus infection. the brain was the most sensitive test organ; it was the only positive organ for three of the positive crows. the sensitivity of crow organs as targets for wn virus detection makes crow de ...200111592255
west nile encephalitis: an emerging disease in the united states.in 1999, an epidemic of west nile virus (wnv) encephalitis occurred in new york city (nyc) and 2 surrounding new york counties. simultaneously, an epizootic among american crows and other bird species occurred in 4 states. indigenous transmission of wnv had never been documented in the western hemisphere until this epidemic. in 2000, the epizootic expanded to 12 states and the district of columbia, and the epidemic continued in nyc, 5 new jersey counties, and 1 connecticut county. in addition to ...200111595987
west nile virus: a case study in how ny state health information infrastructure facilitates preparation and response to disease outbreaks.new york's (ny) health information network (hin) provided timely access to west nile virus (wnv) data during the initial outbreak in the late summer 1999. in december 1999, ny developed a plan to deal with wnv in 2000 that required an integrated surveillance system for humans, birds, mammals, and mosquitoes. the hin infrastructure allowed ny to deploy this system statewide in three months. local health departments throughout ny used the system to report, track, and retrieve surveillance data as ...200111680034
west nile virus infection may be greater than previously thought. 200111697102
west nile virus activity in the united states, 2001.west nile virus (wnv) first appeared in the naive environment of the western hemisphere in 1999 in new york. genetic analysis determined that the virus was introduced into the united states from the mediterranean basin. this review discusses the spread of the virus in 2001 from the initial focus in queens, new york, to widespread activity in the eastern and midwestern united states. it concentrates on viral ecology, epizootiology, pathology, prediction, and prevention. research questions to furt ...200111792062
update: surveillance for west nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes--new york, 2000.following the 1999 west nile encephalitis outbreak in new york, guidelines were developed to direct surveillance, prevention, and control efforts in the eastern united states. as recommended in the guidelines, the new york city and new york state departments of health developed comprehensive west nile virus (wnv) surveillance and control programs, which included collecting overwintering culex mosquitoes to determine whether wnv might persist throughout the winter and initiate a zoonotic transmis ...200011795498
the west nile virus encephalitis outbreak in the united states (1999-2000): from flushing, new york, to beyond its borders.viruses cause most forms of encephalitis. the two main types responsible for epidemic encephalitis are enteroviruses and arboviruses. the city of new york reports about 10 cases of encephalitis yearly. establishing a diagnosis is often difficult. in august 1999, a cluster of five patients with fever, confusion, and weakness were admitted to a community hospital in flushing, new york. flaccid paralysis developed in four of the five patients, and they required ventilatory support. three, less seve ...200111797774
west nile virus: uganda, 1937, to new york city, 1999.west nile virus, first isolated in 1937, is among the earliest arthropod-borne viruses discovered by humans. its broad geographical distribution, not uncommon infection of humans, transmission by mosquitoes, and association with wild birds as enzootic hosts were well documented by the mid-1960s. however, west nile virus was not considered to be a significant human pathogen because most infections appeared to result in asymptomatic or only mild febrile disease. several epidemics had been document ...200111797781
sentinel chickens as a surveillance tool for west nile virus in new york city, 2000. 200111797795
west nile virus human surveillance in nassau county, new york: 1999-2000. 200111797796
west nile virus laboratory surveillance program: cost and time analysis. 200111797797
long-term stability of west nile virus igm and igg antibodies in diluted sera stored at 4 degrees c. 200111797802
"neon needles" in a haystack: the advantages of passive surveillance for west nile virus.passive surveillance is usually viewed as less efficient for case ascertainment than active surveillance. however, for diseases with nonhuman animal reservoirs, active surveillance can be like looking for a needle in a haystack and may be prohibitively expensive. fortunately for surveillance of west nile virus (wnv) in the northeast us, the dead crows have served as "neon needles in a haystack"--indicators of viral activity that call attention to themselves. in 2000, laboratory testing of dead b ...200111797803
west nile virus transmission and ecology in birds.the ecology of the strain of west nile virus (wnv) introduced into the united states in 1999 has similarities to the native flavivirus, st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus, but has unique features not observed with sle virus or with wnv in the old world. the primary route of transmission for most of the arboviruses in north america is by mosquito, and infected native birds usually do not suffer morbidity or mortality. an exception to this pattern is eastern equine encephalitis virus, which has an ...200111797804
west nile virus surveillance using sentinel birds.captive and free-ranging birds have been used for decades as living sentinels in arbovirus surveillance programs. this review summarizes information relevant to selecting sentinel bird species for use in surveillance of west nile (wn) virus. although experience using avian sentinels for wn virus surveillance is limited, sentinels should be useful for both detecting and monitoring wn virus transmission; however, sentinel bird surveillance systems have yet to be adequately tested for use with the ...200111797805
vector surveillance for west nile virus.west nile virus (wnv) was detected in the metropolitan new york city (nyc) area during the summer and fall of 1999. sixty-two human cases, including seven fatalities, were documented. the new york state department of health (nysdoh) initiated and implemented a statewide mosquito and wnv surveillance system. we developed a wnv response plan designed to provide local health departments (lhd) a standardized means to begin to assess basic mosquito population data and to detect wnv circulation in mos ...200111797806
west nile virus infection in birds and mammals.west nile virus (wnv) was found throughout new york state in year 2000. the epicenter was located in new york city with a high level of activity in the immediately surrounding counties, including rockland, westchester, nassau, and suffolk. during 2000, wnv testing was performed by the wadsworth center on 3,687 dead birds, representing 153 species, 46 families, and 18 orders. there were 1,203 wnv-positive birds, representing 63 species, 30 families and 14 orders. the percentage of wnv-positive bi ...200111797807
proceedings of the international conference on west nile virus. april 5-7, 2001. white plains, new york, usa. 200111822322
west nile virus in the united states.in the late summer of 1999, the first known cases of west nile virus infection in the western hemisphere were recorded in new york city. these first cases were the hallmarks of an outbreak of west nile virus infection that resulted in 7 deaths among 62 confirmed cases and an estimated 8200 asymptomatic to mild infections among residents and visitors in queens, new york. this article reviews west nile virus and its spread in the united states since its introduction in 1999.200211880738
effect of environmental temperature on the ability of culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) to transmit west nile virus.environmental temperature can affect the ability of mosquitoes to transmit an arbovirus. however, results of various studies indicate that these effects are not consistent among viruses or mosquito species, and there is no information available on the effect of environmental temperature on the ability of north american mosquito species to transmit west nile (wn) virus. we evaluated the effect of incubation temperature (18, 20, 26, or 30 degrees c) on the ability of culex pipiens l. derived from ...200211931261
public health and the media: the challenge now faced by bioterrorism. 200211937610
infectious cdna clone of the epidemic west nile virus from new york city.we report the first full-length infectious clone of the current epidemic, lineage i, strain of west nile virus (wnv). the full-length cdna was constructed from reverse transcription-pcr products of viral rna from an isolate collected during the year 2000 outbreak in new york city. it was cloned into plasmid pbr322 under the control of a t7 promoter and stably amplified in escherichia coli hb101. rna transcribed from the full-length cdna clone was highly infectious upon transfection into bhk-21 c ...200212021317
construction and characterization of subgenomic replicons of new york strain of west nile virus.the lineage i strain of west nile virus (wnv) frequently causes human epidemics, including the recent outbreak in north america (lanciotti et al., 1999, science 286:2333-2337). as an initial step in studying the replication and pathogenesis of wnv, we constructed several cdna clones of a wnv replicon derived from an epidemic strain (lineage i) isolated from the epicenter of new york city in the year 2000. replicon rnas were in vitro transcribed from cdna plasmids and transfected into bhk-21 cell ...200212069521
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