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west nile virus survives winter; no surprise, says cdc. 200010896507
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, 2000.data reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
human west nile virus surveillance--connecticut, new jersey, and new york, 2000.west nile virus (wnv), a mosquitoborne arbovirus identified in new york in 1999, has become enzootic in the northeastern united states, affecting humans, birds, horses, and other mammals. although no human wnv infection was identified in connecticut or new jersey in 1999, 62 persons with wnv illness, including seven deaths, were detected in new york city (nyc) and nearby new york counties. in 2000, these jurisdictions implemented active surveillance (as) and enhanced passive surveillance (eps) t ...200111411831
crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for west nile virus in the northeastern united states, 1999.in addition to human encephalitis and meningitis cases, the west nile (wn) virus outbreak in the summer and fall of 1999 in new york state resulted in bird deaths in new york, new jersey, and connecticut. from august to december 1999, 295 dead birds were laboratory-confirmed with wn virus infection; 262 (89%) were american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos). the new york state department of health received reports of 17,339 dead birds, including 5,697 (33%) crows; in connecticut 1,040 dead crows were ...200111585521
west nile virus surveillance in connecticut in 2000: an intense epizootic without high risk for severe human disease.in 1999, connecticut was one of three states in which west nile (wn) virus actively circulated prior to its recognition. in 2000, prospective surveillance was established, including monitoring bird deaths, testing dead crows, trapping and testing mosquitoes, testing horses and hospitalized humans with neurologic illness, and conducting a human seroprevalence survey. wn virus was first detected in a dead crow found on july 5 in fairfield county. ultimately, 1,095 dead crows, 14 mosquito pools, 7 ...200111585525
mosquito surveillance for west nile virus in connecticut, 2000: isolation from culex pipiens, cx. restuans, cx. salinarius, and culiseta melanura.fourteen isolations of west nile (wn) virus were obtained from four mosquito species (culex pipiens [5], cx. restuans [4], cx. salinarius [2], and culiseta melanura [3]) in statewide surveillance conducted from june through october 2000. most isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in densely populated residential locales in fairfield and new haven counties, where the highest rates of dead crow sightings were reported and where wn virus was detected in 1999. minimum field infection rate ...200111585530
from the centers for disease control and prevention. human west nile virus surveillance--connecticut, new jersey, and new york, 2000. 200111368043
multistate surveillance system in place for west nile virus. 200010638307
a phylogenetic approach to following west nile virus in connecticut.the 1999 outbreak of west nile (wn) virus in the northeastern united states was the first known natural occurrence of this flavivirus in the western hemisphere. in 1999 and 2000, 82 independent connecticut wn virus isolates were cultured from nine species of birds, five species of mosquitoes, and one striped skunk. nucleotide sequences obtained from these isolates identified 30 genetic changes, compared with wn-ny99, in a 921-nt region of the viral genome beginning at nucleotide position 205 and ...200111606791
surveillance for avian-borne arboviruses in connecticut, 2000. 200111797792
isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus and west nile virus from crows during increased arbovirus surveillance in connecticut, 2000.the emergence of the west nile virus (wnv) in the northeastern united states has drawn emphasis to the need for expanded arbovirus surveillance in connecticut. although the state of connecticut began a comprehensive mosquito-screening program in 1997, only since 1999 have there been efforts to determine the prevalence of arboviruses in bird populations in this state. herein, we report on our results of an arbovirus survey of 1,704 bird brains. included in this report are the first known isolatio ...200212164299
west nile virus serosurvey and assessment of personal prevention efforts in an area with intense epizootic activity: connecticut, 2000.west nile virus (wnv) can cause large outbreaks of febrile illness and severe neurologic disease. this study estimates the seroprevalence of wnv infection and assesses risk perception and practices regarding potential exposures to mosquitoes of persons in an area with intense epizootics in 1999 and 2000. a serosurvey of persons aged > or = 12 years was conducted in southwestern connecticut during october 10-15, 2000, using household-based stratified cluster sampling. participants completed a que ...200111797787
pre-west nile virus outbreak: perceptions and practices to prevent mosquito bites and viral encephalitis in the united states.mosquitoes can transmit over 100 of the viruses that can cause encephalitis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic disease in humans (chin 2000; gubler 1996; monath 1989). while much is known about the ecology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of the arboviral encephalitides (campbell et al. 2002; centers for disease control and prevention 1997; gubler 1998; hayes 1989; hubálek and halouzka 1999), little empirical research exists regarding the u.s. population's knowledge of mosquitoes and arbovir ...200314733669
knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about west nile virus--connecticut, 2002.since west nile virus (wnv) was first recognized in the united states in 1999, the geographic distribution has widened progressively, and the resulting human morbidity and mortality has increased. the cornerstones of wnv control and prevention are 1) surveillance with sustained and integrated mosquito control to detect the presence of wnv in areas where humans are at risk and 2) public education on the use of personal protective behaviors (ppbs) and peridomestic mosquito control to reduce the ri ...200313679793
discovery, distribution, and abundance of the newly introduced mosquito ochlerotatus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in connecticut, usa.the earliest documented specimen of an exotic east asian mosquito ochlerotatus (finlaya) japonicis japonicus (theobald) in the western hemisphere is reported along with the results of a state wide survey to determine the distribution and abundance of this mosquito in connecticut. ochlerotatus japonicus was collected from 87 locations in eight counties. it is established throughout the state and occurs in a variety of natural and artificial container habitats including discarded tire casings, bir ...200111761373
host feeding patterns of culex mosquitoes and west nile virus transmission, northeastern united states.to evaluate the role of culex mosquitoes as enzootic and epidemic vectors for wnv, we identified the source of vertebrate blood by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing portions of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial dna. all cx. restuans and 93% of cx. pipiens acquired blood from avian hosts; cx. salinarius fed frequently on both mammals (53%) and birds (36%). mixed-blood meals were detected in 11% and 4% of cx. salinarius and cx. pipiens, respectively. american robin was th ...200616704786
west nile virus activity--united states, august 18-24, 2004.during august 18-24, a total of 154 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, connecticut, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, south dakota, tennessee, and wisconsin).200415329654
epidemiology of west nile virus in connecticut: a five-year analysis of mosquito data 1999-2003.two hundred and ten isolations of west nile virus (wnv) were obtained from 17 mosquito species in six genera in statewide surveillance conducted in connecticut from june through october, 1999-2003. culex pipiens (86), culex salinarius (32), culex restuans (26), culiseta melanura (32), and aedes vexans (12) were implicated as the most likely vectors of wnv in the region based on virus isolation data. culex pipiens was abundant from july through september and is likely involved in early season enz ...200415682518
from the centers for disease control and prevention. serosurveys for west nile virus infection--new york and connecticut counties, 2000. 200111236769
remotely-sensed vegetation indices identify mosquito clusters of west nile virus vectors in an urban landscape in the northeastern united states.heterogeneity in urban landscapes can influence the effectiveness of mosquito-borne disease control. we used remotely sensed vegetation indices to discriminate among mosquito habitats within a densely populated urban environment in new haven, ct. aster derived vegetation indices were identified for 16 sites where adult mosquitoes were trapped over the summer of 2004. canonical correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between the environmental variables (normalized difference vegeta ...200818452400
genetic insights into the population structure of culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in the northeastern united states by using microsatellite analysis.members of the culex pipiens complex are considered as biting nuisance and vectors of important arbo-viruses including west nile virus (wnv). to analyze the genetic structure of urban and rural populations of cx. pipiens form pipiens and gain insights into behavioral implications, mosquitoes were collected from established wnv transmission foci in connecticut from october 2006 through october 2007, examined by using microsatellite markers, and compared with other populations from neighboring sta ...200818840738
fluorescent antibody test for rapid detection of west nile virus antigen in avian tissues.an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifa) was developed to detect west nile virus (wnv) antigens in tissues from avian species. the test samples used in the study consisted of 100 sets of tissues from dead crows that had been collected during the 2001 surveillance in connecticut. the test tissues were punctured with a fine point dacron cotton-tipped applicator and smeared in duplicate on 10-well diagnostic printed glass slides. among several fixatives tested, 4% paraformaldehyde was the best. ...200717626492
risk factors for human infection with west nile virus in connecticut: a multi-year analysis.the optimal method for early prediction of human west nile virus (wnv) infection risk remains controversial. we analyzed the predictive utility of risk factor data for human wnv over a six-year period in connecticut.200919943935
avian communal roosts as amplification foci for west nile virus in urban areas in northeastern united states.west nile virus (wnv) perpetuates in an enzootic transmission cycle involving culex mosquitoes and virus-competent avian hosts. in the northeastern united states, the enzootic vectors, cx. pipiens and cx. restuans, feed preferentially on american robins (turdus migratorius), suggesting a key role for this bird species in the wnv transmission cycle. we examined the role of american robin communal roosts as virus amplification foci in greater new haven, connecticut. robin communal roosts were loca ...201020134014
control of mosquitoes in catch basins in connecticut with bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, bacillus sphearicus, and spinosad.catch basins are a major source of culex pipiens pipiens, cx. restuans, and aedes japonicus in northeastern usa. vectobac cg (bacillus thuringiensis israelensis [bti]), vectolex cg (bacillus sphaericus [bs]), and vectobac 12as (bti), each applied at maximum label rate of 1.8 g, 1.8 g, and 0.193 ml per catch basin, respectively, significantly reduced the numbers of larvae for 1 wk. the dosages on the labels for treatment of mosquito larvae in catch basins, where mosquito breeding is continuous, a ...201121476447
molecular evolution of west nile virus in a northern temperate region: connecticut, usa 1999-2008.west nile virus (wnv) has become firmly established in northeastern us, reemerging every summer since its introduction into north america in 1999. to determine whether wnv overwinters locally or is reseeded annually, we examined the patterns of viral lineage persistence and replacement in connecticut over 10 consecutive transmission seasons by phylogenetic analysis. in addition, we compared the full protein coding sequence among wnv isolates to search for evidence of convergent and adaptive evol ...201121723580
importance of vertical and horizontal transmission of west nile virus by culex pipiens in the northeastern united states.west nile virus (wnv) has become established in the northeastern united states, where mosquitoes are inactive during winter. there have been no documented studies to explain how this virus survives winter and reinitiates infection in spring. we report that wnv was vertically transmitted to 2 f(1) female culex pipiens from a naturally infected female collected in stratford, connecticut. one vertically infected f(1) female, which was 168 days old, fed on a hamster that died 8 days later of west ni ...200617083043
first record of aedes japonicus japonicus in illinois: defining its spatial distribution and associated mosquito species.since the initial discovery of aedes japonicus japonicus in 1998 from sites in the northeastern united states (new york, connecticut, and new jersey), this invasive mosquito species now permeates local faunas throughout eastern north america and continues to expand its distribution westward. in july and august of 2006, the 1st reported specimens of ae. japonicus were detected in east central illinois at 2 woodlots in southern urbana. sampling efforts were concentrated around the site of the orig ...200717939502
nocturnal activity of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in a west nile virus focus in connecticut.six species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were collected in sufficient numbers for analysis in segregating traps set at 2-h intervals by using co2 and light as attractants in a west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) focus in stratford, ct. the kolmogorov-smirnov one-sided test for two samples was used to analyze the data. mosquito activity began shortly before sunset and continued until shortly after sunrise the next morning. all species had geometric means that were s ...200718047212
identification of avian- and mammalian-derived bloodmeals in aedes vexans and culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae) and its implication for west nile virus transmission in connecticut, u.s.a.to evaluate the host-feeding patterns of aedes vexans (meigen) and culiseta melanura (coquillett) as secondary vectors of west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) in northeastern united states, we identified the source of vertebrate bloodmeals by sequencing portions of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial dna. analysis of polymerase chain reaction products from a total of 119 ae. vexans revealed that 92.4% of individuals acquired blood solely from mammalian and 2.5% from av ...200617017250
west nile virus from female and male mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in subterranean, ground, and canopy habitats in connecticut.in total, 93,532 female mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were captured in traps placed in subterranean (catch basin), ground (approximately 1.5 m above ground), and canopy (approximately 7.0 m above ground) habitats in stamford and stratford, ct, during 2003-2005. culex pipiens l. was the most abundant (64.8%) of the 31 species identified. significantly greater numbers of cx. pipiens were captured in canopy-placed mosquito magnet experimental traps, and significantly greater numbers were collecte ...200617017241
modeling the spatial distribution of mosquito vectors for west nile virus in connecticut, usa.the risk of transmission of west nile virus (wnv) to humans is associated with the density of infected vector mosquitoes in a given area. current technology for estimating vector distribution and abundance is primarily based on centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) light trap collections, which provide only point data. in order to estimate mosquito abundance in areas not sampled by traps, we developed logistic regression models for five mosquito species implicated as the most likely v ...200616989568
serosurveys for west nile virus infection--new york and connecticut counties, 2000.in 2000, 21 persons were reported with acute illness attributed to west nile virus (wnv) infection; 19 were hospitalized with encephalitis or meningitis. of the 21, 10 resided in the staten island borough (richmond county) of new york city. other ill persons resided in nine other counties--kings (brooklyn), new york (manhattan), and queens counties in new york; hudson, passaic, monmouth, morris, and bergen counties in new jersey; and fairfield county in connecticut. because ill persons represent ...200111215880
hospital admissions syndromic surveillance--connecticut, september 200-november 2003.on september 11, 2001, the connecticut department of public health (cdph) initiated daily, statewide syndromic surveillance based on unscheduled hospital admissions (hass). the system's objectives were to monitor for outbreaks caused by category a biologic agents and evaluate limits in space and time of identified outbreaks. thirty-two acute-care hospitals were required to report their previous day's unscheduled admissions for 11 syndromes (pneumonia, hemoptysis, respiratory distress, acute neur ...200415714628
west nile encephalitis: an emerging disease in the united states.in 1999, an epidemic of west nile virus (wnv) encephalitis occurred in new york city (nyc) and 2 surrounding new york counties. simultaneously, an epizootic among american crows and other bird species occurred in 4 states. indigenous transmission of wnv had never been documented in the western hemisphere until this epidemic. in 2000, the epizootic expanded to 12 states and the district of columbia, and the epidemic continued in nyc, 5 new jersey counties, and 1 connecticut county. in addition to ...200111595987
isolation of west nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a cooper's hawk in connecticut.west nile (wn) virus, a mosquito-transmitted virus native to africa, asia, and europe, was isolated from two species of mosquitoes, culex pipiens and aedes vexans, and from brain tissues of 28 american crows, corvus brachyrhynchos, and one cooper's hawk, accipiter cooperii, in connecticut. a portion of the genome of virus isolates from four different hosts was sequenced and analyzed by comparative phylogenetic analysis. our isolates from connecticut were similar to one another and most closely r ...199910600741
northern range expansion of the asian tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus): analysis of mosquito data from connecticut, usa.the asian tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) is an invasive species and important arbovirus vector that was introduced into the u.s. in the 1980's where it continues to expand its range. winter temperature is an important constraint to its northward expansion, with potential range limits located between the 0° and -5°c mean cold month isotherm. connecticut is located within this climatic zone and therefore, ae. albopictus was monitored statewide to assess its northern range expansion and to delin ...201728545111
complete genome analysis and virulence characteristics of the louisiana west nile virus strain lsu-ar01.west nile virus (wnv) is a member of the flaviriridae family, which can cause significant morbidity and mortality in birds, horses, and humans. the wnv-lsu-ar01 strain was isolated from a dead blue jay in louisiana in 2001. phylogenetic analysis using 75 full wnv genomes revealed that the lsu-ar01 strain belongs to a distinct subclade among the north american strains. the lsu-ar01 strain differed from the ny-99 prototypic strain by 26 nucleotides causing six amino acid changes. an asparagine-to- ...200919130199
pathogenicity of west nile virus and response to vaccination in sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) using a killed vaccine.west nile virus was introduced into the united states in the vicinity of new york, new york, usa in 1999. the virus has since killed large numbers of birds nationwide, especially, but not limited to, crows (corvus brachyrhinchos). one sandhill crane (grus canadensis) at the bridgeport zoo (bridgeport, connecticut, usa) reportedly died from west nile virus, so sandhill cranes and endangered whooping cranes (grus americana), both in the wild and in captive breeding colonies at united states geolog ...200919569472
a two-year evaluation of elevated canopy trapping for culex mosquitoes and west nile virus in an operational surveillance program in the northeastern united states.the effectiveness of co2-baited centers for disease control and prevention miniature light traps elevated in the tree canopy (approximately 7.6 m) was compared with light traps placed at ground level (approximately1.5 m) and grass-sod infused gravid traps for collecting culex pipiens, culex restuans, and culex salinarius and detecting west nile virus (wnv) activity in an operational surveillance program that encompassed 12 ecologically diverse sites in connecticut in 2004 and 2005. more than twi ...200717847845
seroprevalence of powassan virus in new england deer, 1979-2010.powassan virus and its subtype, deer tick virus, are closely related tick-borne flaviviruses that circulate in north america. the incidence of human infection by these agents appears to have increased in recent years. to define exposure patterns among white-tailed deer, potentially useful sentinels that are frequently parasitized by ticks, we screened serum samples collected during 1979-2010 in connecticut, maine, and vermont for neutralizing antibody by using a novel recombinant deer tick virus ...201323568288
application of a degree-day model of west nile virus transmission risk to the east coast of the united states of america.a geographical information systems model that identifies regions of the united states of america (usa) susceptible to west nile virus (wnv) transmission risk is presented. this system has previously been calibrated and tested in the western usa; in this paper we use datasets of wnv-killed birds from south carolina and connecticut to test the model in the eastern usa. because their response to wnv infection is highly predictable, american crows were chosen as the primary source for model calibrat ...201223242676
west nile virus seroprevalence, connecticut, usa, 2000-2014.west nile virus (wnv) infection is mainly asymptomatic but can be severe in elderly persons. as part of studies on immunity and aging in connecticut, usa, we detected wnv seroconversion in 8.5% of nonimmunosuppressed and 16.8% of immunosuppressed persons. age was not a significant seroconversion factor. our findings suggest that immune factors affect seroconversion.201728322715
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