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evidence of leishmania donovani infection in household members residing with visceral leishmaniasis patients. 19921344960
evaluation of different culture media for isolation of leishmania donovani. 19807320480
amarogentin, a naturally occurring secoiridoid glycoside and a newly recognized inhibitor of topoisomerase i from leishmania donovani.a meoh extract of swertia chirata found to inhibit the catalytic activity of topoisomerase i of leishmania donovani was subjected to fractionation to yield three secoiridoid glycosides: amarogentin (1), amaroswerin (2), and sweroside (3). amarogentin is a potent inhibitor of type i dna topoisomerase from leishmania and exerts its effect by interaction with the enzyme, preventing binary complex formation.19968984149
genetic polymorphism of leishmania species using kinetoplast dna restriction fragment length polymorphism and cdna probe of leishmania donovani.leishmaniasis represents a group of diseases that range from simple cutaneous lesions through metastasizing diffused cutaneous to severe systemic infection depending upon the taxon to which the causative parasite belongs. therefore, it is important to identify the infecting leishmania. methods presently being used, including immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology have one or the other limitations, leaving scope for the search for newer probes. this study reports the characterization of l ...19989574904
[on the susceptibility of some xerothermophilic rodents for experimental infections with leishmania donovani (calcutta strain)]. 196414316627
purification, characterization of o-acetylated sialoglycoconjugates-specific igm, and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis and follow-up of indian visceral leishmaniasis patients.the surface expression of 9-o-acetylated sialic acid (9-oacsa) is elevated on hematopoietic cells and erythrocytes of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) patients. in this study, we show that vl patients contain elevated levels of igm antibodies directed against 9-o-acetylated sialoglycoconjugates (9-oacsg). these antibodies were affinity purified with bovine submaxillary protein as the affinity matrix containing the terminal epitope, 9-oacsaalpha2-6galnac. they also bound to 9-oacsgs on hematopoietic c ...200415380274
post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a histopathological study.post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis follows an attack of visceral leishmaniasis and is caused by the same organism, i.e. leishmania donovani.200516394433
challenges in the diagnosis of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) is a dermatosis that occurs as a sequel of visceral leishmaniasis (vl). elimination of vl requires detection and treatment of pkdl, necessarily because of its capacity to serve as a reservoir for the causative parasite, leishmania donovani. diagnosis of pkdl presents a challenge due to low parasite burden in the lesions. in this article we have reviewed the recent advances in the development of immunological and molecular methods for diagnosis of pkdl.200616778312
transfusion transmitted leishmaniasis: a case report and review of literature.leishmaniasis is caused by the infection of haemoparasite leishmania . the disease is a major public health problem in at least 88 countries, including india. various species of leishmania are involved in causing this disease. in india, leishmania donovani species causes visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar. the parasite is mainly transmitted from infected to uninfected person through the bites of female sandfly. rarely the parasite can transmit through placenta from mother to child, through sexu ...200616912434
first case of indigenous visceral leishmaniasis from central india.visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the eastern states of india, but central india remains free of leishmaniais. this report describes the first indigenous case of visceral leishmaniasis in a seven-year-old girl from central india. the child presented with fever for 10 days and was diagnosed by bone marrow examination, serology using rke16 and rk39 antigens, and a polymerase chain reaction specific for the kinesin gene. sequencing of the immunodominant region of the kinesin gene of the parasite ...200717620636
upregulation of surface proteins in leishmania donovani isolated from patients of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.five to fifteen percent of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) patients in india develop post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl), usually 1-2 years after apparent clinical cure. there is evidence pointing to a role played by the host immune responses in the disease pathogenesis, however, the contribution of changes in parasite gene expression has not been explored. highly sensitive gene expression microarray technology was employed to identify genes that are differentially expressed in leishmania par ...200616469521
the molecular characterization of clinical isolates from indian kala-azar patients by mlee and rapd-pcr.kala-azar is a serious health problem in india. the situation has worsened further due to the occurrence of cases unresponsive to antimonials. about 30-50% patients do not respond to the prevailing regimen of antimonials. the etiological agent for indian kala-azar has long been known to be leishmania donovani. recently, in a somewhat startling report, it was claimed that l. tropica causes nearly 25% of current kala-azar cases in india. it was also suggested that this might be in some way related ...200515990683
inhibition of abc transporters abolishes antimony resistance in leishmania infection.the emergence of antimony (sb) resistance has jeopardized the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in various countries. previous studies have considered the part played by leishmanial parasites in antimony resistance, but the involvement of host factors in the clinical scenario remained to be investigated. here we show that unlike infection with sb-sensitive (sbs) leishmania donovani, infection with sb-resistant (sb r) l. donovani induces the upregulation of multidrug resistance-associated prote ...200818056276
efficacy of desmodium gangeticum extract and its fractions against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.crude ethanolic extract of indian medicinal plant, desmodium gangeticum (a001) and its three fractions-hexane (f002), n-butanol (f003) and aqueous (f004) were evaluated chemoprophylactically and chemotherapeutically against experimental visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters. ethanolic extract showed 41.2+/-5.3% inhibition of parasite multiplication when administered at a dose of 250 mg/kgx2 on day -7 and +7 of leishmania donovani challenge. its n-butanol fraction exhibited better efficacy than the ...200515763367
increased levels of interleukin-10 and igg3 are hallmarks of indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl), an established sequela of visceral leishmaniasis (vl), is proposed to facilitate anthroponotic transmission of vl, especially during interepidemic periods. immunopathological mechanisms responsible for indian pkdl are still poorly defined.200818444882
leishmania donovani is the only cause of visceral leishmaniasis in east africa; previous descriptions of l. infantum and "l. archibaldi" from this region are a consequence of convergent evolution in the isoenzyme data.isoenzyme-based studies have identified 3 taxa/species/'phylogenetic complexes' as agents of visceral leishmaniasis in sudan: l. donovani, l. infantum and "l. archibaldi". however, these observations remain controversial. a new chitinase gene phylogeny was constructed in which stocks of all 3 putative species isolated in sudan formed a monophyletic clade. in order to construct a more robust classification of the l. donovani complex, a panel of 16 microsatellite markers was used to describe 39 st ...200415521628
genetic polymorphism within the leishmania donovani complex: correlation with geographic origin.random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) was used to detect intraspecific diversity for the leishmania donovani complex. fifty-two decameric to 21-meric primers of arbitrary sequence were applied to 15 strains that belong to nine zymodemes. strains belonging to the species l. major and l. tropica were used as outgroups. a total of 902 amplicons generated by rapd were scored. most primers produced species-specific profiles, only 0.6% amplicons were shared by all species, while 4.3% amplicons were ...200415211001
post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) is a complication of visceral leishmaniasis (vl); it is characterised by a macular, maculopapular, and nodular rash in a patient who has recovered from vl and who is otherwise well. the rash usually starts around the mouth from where it spreads to other parts of the body depending on severity. it is mainly seen in sudan and india where it follows treated vl in 50% and 5-10% of cases, respectively. thus, it is largely restricted to areas where leishmania ...200312560194
serodiagnostic and immunoprophylactic potential of a 78kda protein of leishmania donovani of indian origin.the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis due to leishmania donovani using crude parasite antigen is complicated in many endemic areas by cross-reactions with serum from humans infected with other protozoan diseases. the search for pure antigens avoiding such cross-reactions is in progress. developing a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis has been much more successful than against visceral leishmaniasis. immunoprophylactic studies using various combinations of antigens and adjuvants are al ...200211951057
characterization of the glucosyltransferases that assemble the side chains of the indian leishmania donovani lipophosphoglycan.the life cycle of leishmania parasites within its sand fly vector involves the development of extracellular promastigotes from a noninfective, "procyclic" stage into an infective, "metacyclic" stage that is adapted for transmission in the fly and survival in the mammalian host. lipophosphoglycan (lpg), the predominant surface glycoconjugate in both procyclic and metacyclic stages, is a critical virulence determinant. lpg is a multidomain molecule; the structural polymorphisms among species lie i ...199910600177
vaccination of langur monkeys (presbytis entellus) against leishmania donovani with autoclaved l. major plus bcg.the protective potential of killed leishmania major (alm) along with bcg was evaluated against l. donovani in indian langur monkeys in single and triple dose schedules. a delayed protection was observed in monkeys after a single dose schedule of alm (3 mg)+bcg (3 mg) given intradermally 2 months before intravenous challenge with l. donovani. triple dose schedule each of 1 mg alm + 1 mg bcg was more effective. the status remained unchanged until the end of the experiment (approximately 8 months). ...19989550214
evaluation of antibody responses in indian kala-azar by immunoblot.when infected with leishmania species, patients develop specific antibodies that constitute the basis of serodiagnosis. using western blot analysis we studied the specificity of anti-leishmania donovani antibodies in patients with visceral leishmaniasis, healthy subjects living in an endemic and non-endemic areas, and patients of other infectious diseases like malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis and tropical splenomegaly. sera from patients with kala-azar recognised numerous antigens that had a molec ...19958624503
clinicopathological study of clinically undiagnosed cases of kala-azar with special reference to grading of parasites.clinicopathological study of 34 clinically undiagnosed cases of kala-azar has been undertaken with a view to establish the diagnosis and correlate the quantitative grading of leishmania donovani in bone marrow/splenic aspirates with clinical features and duration of disease. the ages of the patients were between 5 and 45 years. the duration of illnesses ranged from 2-24 months with 47% having 2 months' duration. splenomegaly was less than 7 cm in 70.5% cases. anaemia, leucopenia and mild thrombo ...19958522820
comparative evaluation of serological tests in indian kala-azar.data on 41 kala-azar patients were collected and the series of serological tests employed to diagnose the disease were compared depending upon their sensitivity and specificity indices. the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was found to be 100% sensitive and specific. the direct agglutination test (dat) involving detection of agglutinating antibodies against leishmania donovani was 97.2% efficient. the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) had a specificity of 75% while other tests s ...19947966534
immune complexes in indian kala-azar.patients with indian kala-azar were investigated for the presence of circulating immune complexes by the platelet aggregation test, complement deviation test, and polyethylene glycol precipitation test. circulating antibodies were tested by the conventional indirect immunofluorescence test using leptomonad forms of leishmania donovani and crithidia luciliae. the serum complement level (c3) was measured using the mancini technique. the results indicate that a large number of patients with indian ...19826761008
cell-mediated immune response in indian kala-azar and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.cell-mediated immune (cmi) response in 16 indian kala-azar (ka) and 12 post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkadl) patients was studied in detail by in vitro lymphocyte transformation experiments and by in vivo skin testing. peripheral blood lymphocytes of active ka patients failed to be stimulated by leishmania antigen. on the other hand, lymphocytes from a majority of the active ka patients could be stimulated by phytohemagglutinin. active ka patients also failed to show delayed type hypersens ...19836642649
detection of leptomonas sp. parasites in clinical isolates of kala-azar patients from india.we report here nine unusual cases of kala-azar, of which parasites were isolated and found by 18s rrna gene sequencing to be most similar to leptomonas species. one of these isolates was used to inoculate balb/c mice; organs were collected and directly submitted to a genus-specific rdna-its1 pcr analysis: this revealed the presence of both leptomonas sp. and leishmania donovani. therefore, we conclude that there was a mixed infection of leptomonas sp. and l. donovani in this isolate. we consider ...201020633704
cumulative cardiac toxicity of sodium stibogluconate and amphotericin b in treatment of kala-azar.kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis is a disseminated protozoal infection caused by parasites of the genus leishmania (leishmania donovani in india). conventional therapy for visceral leishmaniasis continues to be pentavalent antimony (sodium antimony gluconate [sag]). amphotericin b is widely used for sag-unresponsive cases and sometimes even as a first-line drug, especially in endemic areas. with the conventional regimen of sag, cardiac toxicity has been reported in 8% to 17% of cases with 5% ...201120823781
a comparison of five selective media for the primary isolation of leishmania strains in india.leishmania parasites of the three distinct pathogenic forms of indian origin (cutaneous, visceral and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis) were assessed with five selective media for their rate of primary isolation. leishmania donovani strains showed the higher rate of isolation in modified tobie's medium, and leishmania tropica in tobie's with fcs. however, strains of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) showed 100% isolation in schneider's with fcs medium. but as a whole modified tobie's ...19873432954
mapping the antigenicity of the parasites in leishmania donovani infection by proteome serology.leishmaniasis defines a cluster of protozoal diseases with diverse clinical manifestations. the visceral form caused by leishmania donovani is the most severe. so far, no vaccines exist for visceral leishmaniasis despite indications of naturally developing immunity, and sensitive immunodiagnostics are still at early stages of development.200617183669
isolated leishmanial lymphadenopathy - a rare type of leishmaniasis in india: a case report.a patient presented with isolated, soft to firm, inguinal swelling since childhood clinically thought to be a benign lipomatous lesion. fine-needle aspiration of the swelling revealed amastigote form of leishmania donovani in a background of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. excision of the swelling resulted in reversal of positive aldehyde test. isolated leishmanial lymphadenopathy in an immunocompetent person, is a rare manifestation of leishmaniasis in india. the possible role of transplacental ...201121538958
study of parasite kinetics with antileishmanial drugs using real-time quantitative pcr in indian visceral leishmaniasis.objectives this study describes parasite kinetics in the blood of visceral leishmaniasis patients treated with liposomal amphotericin b (l-amb) or a preformed fat emulsion of amphotericin b (apl) using real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr). methods forty-six patients were treated with a single dose (15 mg/kg of body weight) of either l-amb (n = 13) or apl (n = 33). qpcr was used to estimate parasite kinetics by detection of leishmania donovani dna using kinetoplast dna-specific primers in peripheral ...201121609983
an unusual case of amphotericin b refractoriness in visceral leishmaniasis from a non-endemic region of india.a patient with visceral leishmaniasis showing inadequate response to amphotericin-b belonging to non-endemic region is reported, with l. donovani showing increased tolerance to amphotericin-b in vivo. four snps, detected in the cysteine proteinase b gene, resulted in changes to the deduced amino acid sequence: valine→alanine, arginine→leucine. over and under expression of protein/s was observed in 65-80 kda range and 20 kda, respectively.201121613432
visceral leishmaniasis, or kala azar (ka): high incidence of refractoriness to antimony is contributed by anthroponotic transmission via post-ka dermal leishmaniasis.individuals with visceral leishmaniasis, or kala azar (ka) and individuals with post-ka dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) are considered to be reservoirs of transmission of leishmania donovani in india. when intracellular amastigotes were used to assess the natural susceptibility that pkdl isolates and ka isolates have to sodium antimony gluconate (sag), the mean ed(50) was found to be 12.0+/-2.49 and 11.0+/-1.38 microg/ml, respectively; and there was a significant correlation with the clinical respon ...200616826477
arbitrary-primed pcr for genomic fingerprinting and identification of differentially regulated genes in indian isolates of leishmania donovani.the arbitrary-primed pcr (ap-pcr) technique was employed with the twin goals of identifying genetic polymorphisms within the indian isolates and to identify differentially expressed gene sequences. the parasite isolates from indian kala-azar patients could be differentiated from leishmania donovani isolates from distinct geographic regions. moreover, differences within the indian isolates could also be identified. a majority (17/19) of the indian isolates gave identical ap-pcr pattern, while two ...200415172218
studies on stibanate resistant leishmania donovani isolates of indian origin.studies with 26 clones of l. donovani promastigotes derived from three different indian isolates indicated that wild type parasites are mixture of stibanate sensitive and resistant cells. both forms of the parasite were resistant to the drug. infection with resistant parasites appears to be the primary reason of high rate of pentavalent antimony unresponsiveness among indian kala-azar patients. it was observed that the resistant parasites originated as a result of irregular and often incomplete ...200111495284
immunoglobulin subclass distribution and diagnostic value of leishmania donovani antigen-specific immunoglobulin g3 in indian kala-azar patients.visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, a fatal tropical disease, remains problematic, as early diagnosis is difficult and treatment often results in drug resistance and relapse. we have developed a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), using leishmanial membrane antigenic extracts (lag) to detect specific antibody responses in 25 untreated indian visceral leishmaniasis patients. to investigate the pathogenetic significance of isotype markers in kala-azar, relative levels of specifi ...199910066659
recent kala-azar cases in india: isozyme profiles of leishmania parasites.in this study, three who recommended reference strains of leishmania donovani (dd8), l. tropica (k27) and l. major (5 askh) were compared by isozyme analysis of 9 soluble enzymes using cellulose acetate electrophoresis (cae). the isozyme profile of the three species showed distinct electrophoretic mobilities of the enzymes studied. this technique was applied to study the enzyme patterns of 8 clinical isolates of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) colle ...19958543361
indian kala-azar caused by leishmania tropica.kala-azar, or visceral leishmaniasis, in india is generally assumed to be a result of infection with leishmania donovani. 15 parasite isolates collected over the past 10 years from patients with classical disease were typed by monoclonal antibodies, isoenzymes, and kdna analysis. 4 were shown to be l tropica, a species historically associated with cutaneous disease and more recently a mild "visceralising" disease from the desert storm experience. the results confirm that l tropica is a co-endemi ...19957715298
serodiagnosis of indian kala-azar: evaluation of ifa, elisa and ciep tests.the sensitivity and specificity of three serological tests viz. indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (ciep) for the diagnosis of indian kala-azar were evaluated. of the 209 patients in whom leishmania donovani parasite could be demonstrated in bone marrow, 207 (99.04 per cent) could be diagnosed with ifat, 203 (96.6 per cent) with ciep and 208 (99.5 per cent) with elisa. none of these serological tests was pos ...19911940218
Serological markers of sand fly exposure to evaluate insecticidal nets against visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal: a cluster-randomized trial.Visceral leishmaniasis is the world' second largest vector-borne parasitic killer and a neglected tropical disease, prevalent in poor communities. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) are a low cost proven vector intervention method for malaria control; however, their effectiveness against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is unknown. This study quantified the effect of LNs on exposure to the sand fly vector of VL in India and Nepal during a two year community intervention trial.201121931871
genetic fingerprinting and identification of differentially expressed genes in isolates of leishmania donovani from indian patients of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) is an unusual dermatosis that develops as a sequel in 5-15% of cured cases of kala-azar (ka) after months or years of treatment in india. molecular differences are reported to exist between the ka and pkdl isolates which may underlie the diversity in clinical manifestations of the disease. here, arbitrary primed-pcr (ap-pcr) has been used for genetic fingerprinting of parasite isolates from dermal lesions of pkdl patients (n=14) and compared with bone-m ...200817761024
il-10- and tgf-beta-mediated susceptibility in kala-azar and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: the significance of amphotericin b in the control of leishmania donovani infection in india.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) or kala-azar is known to be associated with a mixed th1-th2 response, and effective host defense requires the induction of ifn-gamma and il-12. we address the role of the differential decline of il-10 and tgf-beta in response to sodium antimony gluconate (sag) and amphotericin b (amb), the therapeutic success of sag and amb in indian vl, and the significance of il-10 and tgf-beta in the development and progression of post-kazla-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl). in the ...200717911647
identification, purification, and characterization of a secretory serine protease in an indian strain of leishmania donovani.an aprotinin sensitive serine protease was identified in the culture supernatant of the indian strain of leishmania donovani (mhom/in/1983/ag83). the protease was subsequently purified and characterized. the apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was 115 kda in sds-page under non-reducing condition, while on reduction it showed a 56 kda protein band indicating that the protease is a dimeric protein. the purified enzyme was optimally active at the ph and temperature of 7.5 and 28 degrees c, respec ...200918587671
identification of genetic markers in sodium antimony gluconate (sag) sensitive and resistant indian clinical isolates of leishmania donovani through amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp).sodium antimony gluconate (sag) is currently used worldwide as the first-line drugs for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) since 1940s. unfortunately, the resistance of leishmania parasite to this drug is increasing in several parts of the world. the mechanism of drug resistance in clinical isolates is still not very clear. earlier, we have established a differentiation between six clinical isolates as sensitive and resistant on the basis of their sensi ...200919283900
comparative in vivo expression of amastigote up regulated leishmania genes in three different forms of leishmaniasis.in old world leishmania infections in india, leishmania donovani is responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) while l. tropica is responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in humans. the molecular differences between the two species of leishmania and within the same species causing distinct pathologies that govern the outcome of infection and pathogenesis in the human host are unknown. quantitative expression of selected genes was evaluated dir ...201019963076
diagnostic and prognostic potential of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leishmaniasis in india.a leishmania donovani species-specific monoclonal antibody (monoclonal antibody d2) was evaluated for its diagnostic and prognostic potential by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa) in sera from indian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and seven patients with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl). these results were compared with those obtained by microscopy with giemsa-stained tissue smears and a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (direct elisa) with crud ...199910391861
enhanced lesional foxp3 expression and peripheral anergic lymphocytes indicate a role for regulatory t cells in indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) is a low-frequency (5-10%) dermal sequela of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) caused by leishmania donovani; importantly, affected individuals are speculated to be parasite reservoirs. insight into its immunopathogenesis could translate into rational immunomodulatory therapeutic approaches against leishmaniases. in patients with pkdl (n=21), peripheral lymphocytes were analyzed for surface markers, intracellular cytokines, and lymphoproliferative resp ...201020032994
the use of remote sensing in the identification of the eco-environmental factors associated with the risk of human visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) on the gangetic plain, in north-eastern india.human visceral leishmaniasis (vl) or kala-azar remains a major cause of mortality, particularly in the developing world. the disease is common in the internal regions of north-eastern india, which have a tropical or sub-tropical climate. in a recent study on vl in this region, the relationship between the incidence of vl and certain physio-environmental factors was explored, using a combination of a geographical information system (gis), satellite imagery and data collected 'on the ground'. some ...201020149291
Incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infections in high-endemic foci in India and Nepal: a prospective study.Incidence of Leishmania donovani infection and Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) was assessed in a prospective study in Indian and Nepalese high-endemic villages. DAT-seroconversion was used as marker of incident infection in 3 yearly surveys. The study population was followed up to month 30 to identify incident clinical cases. In a cohort of 9034 DAT-negative individuals with neither active signs nor history of VL at baseline, 42 VL cases and 375 asymptomatic seroconversions were recorded in the firs ...201121991397
evaluation of anti-leishmanial activity of selected indian plants known to have antimicrobial properties.the severe toxicity, exorbitant cost and the emerging resistance of leishmania spp. against most of the currently used drugs led to the urgent need for exploiting our traditional ayurvedic knowledge to treat visceral leishmaniasis. the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of various extracts from ten traditionally used indian medicinal plants. the methanolic extract from only two plants, withania somnifera dunal (ashwagandha) and allium sativum linn. (garlic), ...200919593584
the paraphyletic composition of leishmania donovani zymodeme mon-37 revealed by multilocus microsatellite typing.multilocus microsatellite typing (mlmt) was employed to compare strains of leishmania donovani belonging to the mon-37 zymodeme (mon-37 strains) from cyprus and israel to mon-37 strains from the indian subcontinent, the middle east, china and east africa as well as strains of other zymodemes. the mlmt data were processed with a distance-based method for construction of phylogenetic trees, factorial correspondence analysis and a bayesian model-based clustering algorithm. all three approaches assi ...200919376262
assessing aquaglyceroporin gene status and expression profile in antimony-susceptible and -resistant clinical isolates of leishmania donovani from india.clinical resistance to pentavalent antimonials results from an interplay between uptake, efflux and sequestration in leishmania. aquaglyceroporins (aqps) have been shown to facilitate uptake of trivalent metalloids. down-regulation of aqp1 in leishmania results in resistance to trivalent antimony, whereas overexpression of aqp1 in drug-resistant parasites can reverse the resistance. the present work investigates the role of aqp1 in monitoring antimonial resistance in indian leishmaniasis.201020067981
in vitro susceptibility of field isolates of leishmania donovani to miltefosine and amphotericin b: correlation with sodium antimony gluconate susceptibility and implications for treatment in areas of endemicity.indian leishmania donovani isolates (n = 19) from regional zones representing various levels of antimony resistance displayed significantly (p < 0.01) correlated results with respect to in vitro susceptibility to the antileishmanial drugs sodium antimony gluconate, amphotericin b, and miltefosine, raising the possibility of cross-resistance mechanisms operating in the field isolates. the results of gene expression analysis of ldmt and ldros3 were suggestive of alternate mechanisms of miltefosine ...200919015344
risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis and asymptomatic leishmania donovani infection in india and nepal.there is increasing interest in the role of asymptomatic infection in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (vl). we studied the individual, household and environmental factors associated with asymptomatic leishmania donovani infected individuals and vl. 7,538 individuals living in vl endemic villages in india and nepal were divided into three mutually exclusive groups based on their vl history and direct agglutination test (dat) results in yearly serosurveys over a two-year period. the groups ...201424498159
A novel 12.6-kDa protein of Leishmania donovani for the diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis.For the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), rK39 antigen-based rapid test is widely used. Unfortunately, up to 32% healthy individuals from endemic region test positive with this antigen. There is an urgent need to search for a more specific antigen with sensitivity similar to rK39.201121923256
indian mucosal leishmaniasis due to leishmania donovani infection. 200818199877
genetic markers for antimony resistant clinical isolates differentiation from indian kala-azar.visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is caused by the protozoan parasites belonging to the genus leishmania. once thought eradicated from the indian subcontinent, the disease came back with drug resistance to almost all prevalent drugs. molecular epidemiological studies revealed the polymorphic nature of the population of the main player of the disease, leishmania donovani and involvement of other species (l. tropica) and other genus (leptomonas) with the disease. this makes control measures almo ...201627629023
Recent advances in post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a challenge for clinicians and researchers, because its burden is poorly investigated and pathogenesis is disputable. However, recent studies contributed to understanding of the pathogenesis of PKDL especially its association with host immunological factors, and also how to improve its diagnosis and treatment. This review focuses on recent advances in diagnosis, new insights into pathogenesis and case management.201121885919
characteristics of phlebotomine sandflies in selected areas of sri lanka.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) is an endemic disease in sri lanka. studies on vector aspects, although important for better understanding of disease transmission dynamics, are still limited. the present study describes the species distribution and behavioral patterns of sandflies within selected disease-prevalent zones in the country. adult sandflies were collected from several field sites over a two-year duration in sri lanka using cattle-baited net traps, cdc light traps and manual methods. spec ...201526867357
mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of leishmania donovani soluble proteins in indian clinical isolate.leishmania donovani, a causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis (vl), is responsible for high mortality throughout the world. due to the unsatisfactory treatment measures and increasing drug resistance, there has been an urgent need to develop novel drug/vaccine targets against vl. the aim of this study was to identify novel targets in soluble l. donovani (sld) protein. sld protein was isolated and resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed through maldi-tof/tof-based mass ...201424115687
visceral leishmaniasis in the indian subcontinent: modelling epidemiology and control.in the indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (vl). in 2005, the governments of india, nepal and bangladesh started the first regional vl elimination program with the aim to reduce the annual incidence to less than 1 per 10,000 by 2015. a mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic quantifications of transmission, disease and intervention parameters. this model was used to predict the effects of different ...201122140589
induction of il-10 and tgfβ from cd4+cd25+foxp3+ t cells correlates with parasite load in indian kala-azar patients infected with leishmania donovani.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is distinguished by a complex interplay of immune response and parasite multiplication inside host cells. however, the direct association between different immunological correlates and parasite numbers remains largely unknown.201626829554
mannose-binding lectin (mbl) as a susceptible host factor influencing indian visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis (vl), caused by leishmania donovani is endemic in the indian sub-continent. mannose-binding lectin (mbl) is a complement lectin protein that binds to the surface of leishmania promastigotes and results in activation of the complement lectin cascade. we utilized samples of 218 vl patients and 215 healthy controls from an indian population. mbl2 functional variants were genotyped and the circulating mbl serum levels were measured. mbl serum levels were elevated in patients c ...201526297290
up regulation of a2b adenosine receptor on monocytes are crucially required for immune pathogenicity in indian patients exposed to leishmania donovani.adenosine, an endogenous purine nucleoside is one such extracellular signalling molecule whose role in regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines and immune pathogenicity in visceral leishmaniasis is not fully understood. here, we investigated the relationship between leishmania donovani infection and expression of a2b receptor on monocytes in vl patients in their pre and post treatment stage. we also investigated the molecular mechanisms influencing the interaction between immunopathogenicity an ...201626748211
compararative evaluation of rk9, rk26 and rk39 antigens in the serodiagnosis of indian visceral leishmaniasis.this study was designed for comparative evaluation of two relatively newer recombinant hydrophilic antigens, rk9 and rk26 of leishmania chagasi along with rk39 (a 39-aminoacid-repetitive immunodominant b-cell epitope of kinesin-related antigen from l. chagasi) and crude soluble antigen (csa) for the serodiagnosis of indian visceral leishmaniasis (vl) patients by quantitative elisa.201020212344
evaluation of antileishmanial activity of south indian medicinal plants against leishmania donovani.infections due to protozoa of the genus leishmania are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries. the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antileishmanial activity of the acetone and methanol leaf extracts of anisomeles malabarica, flower of gloriosa superba, leaf of ocimum basilicum, leaf and seed of ricinus communis against promastigotes form of leishmania donovani. antiparasitic evaluations of different plant crude extracts were performed on 96 w ...201222771864
genetic markers for ssg resistance in leishmania donovani and ssg treatment failure in visceral leishmaniasis patients of the indian subcontinent.the current standard to assess pentavalent antimonial (ssg) susceptibility of leishmania is a laborious in vitro assay of which the result has little clinical value because ssg-resistant parasites are also found in ssg-cured patients. candidate genetic markers for clinically relevant ssg-resistant parasites identified by full genome sequencing were here validated on a larger set of clinical strains. we show that 3 genomic locations suffice to specifically detect the ssg-resistant parasites found ...201222753945
genetic typing reveals monomorphism between antimony sensitive and resistant leishmania donovani isolates from visceral leishmaniasis or post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases in india.resistance to pentavalent antimonials has emerged as a major hurdle to the treatment and control of visceral leishmaniasis (vl), also known as kala-azar (ka), caused by leishmania donovani. in india, over 60% of ka patients are unresponsive to the first-line drug sodium antimony gluconate (sag). resistance determinants in laboratory strains are partly known; however, the mechanism operating in field isolates is not well understood. in this study, we attempted to analyze the genetic polymorphism ...201222752721
Downregulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 of Leishmania donovani Field Isolates Is Associated with Antimony Resistance.Emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials has become a severe obstacle in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) on the Indian subcontinent. The mechanisms operating in laboratory-generated strains are somewhat known, but the determinants of clinical antimony resistance are not well understood. By utilizing a DNA microarray expression profiling approach, we identified a gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) for the kinetoplast protozoan Leishmania donovani (LdMA ...201222064540
identification and characterization of a novel, 37-kilodalton leishmania donovani antigen for diagnosis of indian visceral leishmaniasis.the biggest challenge in the serological diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is to find a biomarker with a high specificity. this study was undertaken to identify novel leishmania donovani antigens to solve the existing problem. the soluble l. donovani promastigote antigen was separated by sds-page, and a western blot was probed with pooled sera of five subjects with confirmed vl before (n = 9 pools) and after (n = 9 pools) treatment and at the 6-month follow-up visit (n = 9 pools), healthy ...201121411602
significantly lower anti-leishmania igg responses in sudanese versus indian visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis (vl), a widely distributed systemic disease caused by infection with the leishmania donovani complex (l. donovani and l. infantum), is almost always fatal if symptomatic and untreated. a rapid point-of-care diagnostic test for anti-leishmania antibodies, the rk39-immunochromatographic test (rk39-ict), has high sensitivity and specificity in south asia but is less sensitive in east africa. one of the underlying reasons may be continent-specific molecular diversity in the rk ...201424587456
antimonial resistance in leishmania donovani is associated with increased in vivo parasite burden.leishmania donovani is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (vl). antimonials (ssg) have long been the first-line treatment against vl, but have now been replaced by miltefosine (mil) in the indian subcontinent due to the emergence of ssg-resistance. our previous study hypothesised that ssg-resistant l. donovani might have increased in vivo survival skills which could affect the efficacy of other treatments such as mil. the present study attempts to validate the ...201121829701
solid™ sequencing of genomes of clinical isolates of leishmania donovani from india confirm leptomonas co-infection and raise some key questions.known as 'neglected disease' because relatively little effort has been applied to finding cures, leishmaniasis kills more than 150,000 people every year and debilitates millions more. visceral leishmaniasis (vl), also called kala azar (ka) or black fever in india, claims around 20,000 lives every year. whole genome analysis presents an excellent means to identify new targets for drugs, vaccine and diagnostics development, and also provide an avenue into the biological basis of parasite virulence ...201323418454
atypical mucocutaneous involvement with leishmania donovani.mucocutaneous leishmaniasis has rarely been reported from india. the usual causative organisms of this infection are leishmania braziliensis and l. tropica. another species, l. donovani, which usually causes visceral leishmaniasis, has recently been reported to cause mucocutaneous disease in a few patients from sri lanka. we report two patients who had undiagnosed chronic skin lesions for several years. skin biopsies revealed leishmania and the species was characterized as l. donovani in both pa ...201322963292
short-course treatment regimen of indian visceral leishmaniasis with an indian liposomal amphotericin b preparation (fungisome™).india bears the burden of about half of global visceral leishmaniasis (vl) cases with emerging problems of stibanate resistance. liposomal preparations have improved treatment outcome through shorter duration of therapy and lower toxicity compared with conventional amphotericin b. we report the efficacy of two short-course regimens of an indian preparation of liposomal amphotericin b (fungisome™) for vl caused by leishmania donovani in india. an open-label, randomized, single-center comparative ...201626526926
implications of co-infection of leptomonas in visceral leishmaniasis in india.protozoan parasites leishmania donovani (family: trypanosomatidae) cause fatal visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and the infection relapses in apparently cured population as post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) in the indian subcontinent. in recent years co-infection of another trypanosomatid parasite leptomonas with l. donovani during vl/pkdl in this region has become prominent. the observation of clinically lesser-known insect parasite, leptomonas in leishmaniasis is intriguing to researchers. ...201526492813
clinico-epidemiological analysis of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) cases in india over last two decades: a hospital based retrospective study.patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) are considered a reservoir of leishmania donovani. it is imperative to identify and treat them early for control of visceral leishmaniasis (vl), a current priority in the indian subcontinent. we explored trends in clinico-epidemiological features of pkdl cases over last two decades, for improving management of the disease.201526503551
evolutionary genomics of epidemic visceral leishmaniasis in the indian subcontinent.leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (vl), the second most deadly vector-borne parasitic disease. a recent epidemic in the indian subcontinent (isc) caused up to 80% of global vl and over 30,000 deaths per year. resistance against antimonial drugs has probably been a contributing factor in the persistence of this epidemic. here we use whole genome sequences from 204 clinical isolates to track the evolution and epidemiology of l. donovani from the isc. we identify independent radiati ...201627003289
diverse viscerotropic isolates of leishmania all express a highly conserved secretory nuclease during human infections.previously, we characterized a gene encoding the unique nuclease (ldnuc(s)) from a sudanese isolate of the human pathogen leishmania donovani. this parasite secretory enzyme is involved in the salvage of host-derived purines and is constitutively expressed by both developmental forms of the parasite. currently, we assessed whether an ldnuc(s)-like nuclease was conserved among other geographically disparate isolates of l. donovani and whether this enzyme was produced by intracellular amastigotes ...201222020747
overexpression of histone h2a modulates drug susceptibility in leishmania parasites.resistance to antimonials has emerged as a major hurdle to the treatment and control of visceral leishmaniasis (vl), also know as kala-azar (ka), the disease caused by leishmania donovani, in india where >60% of ka patients are unresponsive to sodium antimony gluconate (sag) treatment. determinants of resistance in laboratory strains are partly known, however the mechanism operating in field isolates is not well understood. in microarray-based expression profiling with rna isolated from field is ...201020427152
persistence of leishmania donovani antibodies in past visceral leishmaniasis cases in india.the persistence of anti-leishmania donovani antibodies in past visceral leishmaniasis (vl) cases was retrospectively assessed by means of the direct agglutination test (dat) and the rk39 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). antibody titers remained high for an extended period of time in past cases of vl. these results highlight the need to carefully elicit the history of patients with vl symptoms.201021159922
quantitative pcr in epidemiology for early detection of visceral leishmaniasis cases in india.studies employing serological, dth or conventional pcr techniques suggest a vast proportion of leishmania infected individuals living in regions endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (vl) remain asymptomatic. this study was designed to assess whether quantitative pcr (qpcr) can be used for detection of asymptomatic or early leishmania donovani infection and as a predictor of progression to symptomatic disease.201425503103
analysis of genetic variants in the il4 promoter and vntr loci in indian patients with visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is the most severest form of leishmaniasis and resistance to infection is mediated by cellular immune responses. interleukin 4 (il-4) orchestrates of th2 and th1 immune responses during infections. in this study, we aimed to investigate possible association between three functional il-4 polymorphisms -590c/t (rs2243250), -34c/t (rs2070874) and 70bp vntr (rs79071878 in intron3) with vl in an indian cohort comprising of 197 vl patients and 193 healthy controls. the thre ...201425454624
mucocutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania donovani infection in an indian man.leishmaniasis is a protozoal disease caused by species of leishmania. mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (mcl) involves the skin and mucosa. india is endemic for species such as leishmania donovani and leishmania major, which are responsible for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. although mcl has been reported from india previously, the implicated pathogen was identified as l. donovani in only one case.201525557311
in vitro susceptibility of leishmania donovani to miltefosine in indian visceral leishmaniasis.promastigote miltefosine (mil) susceptibility was performed on leishmania donovani isolates from indian patients with visceral leishmaniasis treated with mil. isolates that were obtained before the onset of mil treatment, after completion of treatment (29th day), or at the time of treatment failure, were screened using in vitro promastigote assay. the mil susceptibility of the pre-treatment isolates (n = 24, mean ic50 ± sem = 3.74 ± 0.38 μm) was significantly higher than that of the post-treatme ...201323980130
parasite load estimation by qpcr differentiates between asymptomatic and symptomatic infection in indian visceral leishmaniasis.using quantitative pcr (qpcr), we differentiated asymptomatic and symptomatic indian leishmania donovani infection. qpcr on blood of 40 visceral leishmaniasis, 130 endemic, and 40 non-endemic healthy controls showed 500 times less (p < .0001) parasitemia in asymptomatic compared to the symptomatic ones and threshold of 5 parasite genome/ml for the clinical disease.201425023070
visceral and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis isolates show significant difference in their in vitro drug susceptibility pattern.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) remains a major health problem in old world, and india accounts for half of the world burden. the widespread emergence of resistance to standard drug in india poses a major obstacle in the control of leishmaniasis. post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) is considered as main source of drug resistance. experimental data indicate that resistance against newer drugs is also imminent. therefore, in vitro studies were carried out to test minimum parasiticidal concentra ...201323242321
validation of a simple resazurin-based promastigote assay for the routine monitoring of miltefosine susceptibility in clinical isolates of leishmania donovani.simple, cost-effective approach for routine surveillance of parasite susceptibility to antileishmanial drug miltefosine (mil) is highly desirable for controlling emergence of drug resistance in visceral leishmaniasis (vl). we validated a simple resazurin-based fluorimetric assay using promastigotes to track natural mil tolerance in leishmania donovani parasites from vl cases (n = 17) against standard amastigote assay, in two different labs in india. the inter-stage mil susceptibility correlated ...201323239091
testing urine samples with rk39 strip as the simplest non-invasive field diagnosis for visceral leishmaniasis: an early report from eastern india.diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a major obstacle in the control of this disease. the rk39 strip-test using patient's blood is a breakthrough; however, it still requires a blood sample, which is a concern for safety in the field. we tried to simplify the test using the patient's urine instead of blood.201523023349
rflps of its, its1 and hsp70 amplicons and sequencing of its1 of recent clinical isolates of kala-azar from india and bangladesh confirms the association of l. tropica with the disease.visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar (ka) is a serious health concern in india. in the present study, restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of three genetic markers viz., internal transcribed spacer (its), its1 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) have been employed for typing the clinical isolates [n=15] of ka and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniosis (pkdl) collected from india and bangladesh in the period of 2006-2010. experimentally, its, its1 and hsp70 regions of genomes of all the clin ...201222960646
drug susceptibility in leishmania isolates following miltefosine treatment in cases of visceral leishmaniasis and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.with widespread resistance to antimonials in visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in the indian subcontinent, miltefosine (mil) has been introduced as the first line therapy. surveillance of mil susceptibility in natural populations of leishmania donovani is vital to preserve it and support the vl elimination program.201222629478
coinfection of leptomonas seymouri and leishmania donovani in indian leishmaniasis.leishmania donovani is considered the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl). testing of 4/29 dna samples from vl and pkdl patients as well as 2/7 field isolates showed an aberrant internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) pattern, which upon sequencing strongly matched leptomonas seymouri, thus confirming its presence in indian leishmaniasis.201222622439
strong association between serological status and probability of progression to clinical visceral leishmaniasis in prospective cohort studies in india and nepal.asymptomatic persons infected with the parasites causing visceral leishmaniasis (vl) usually outnumber clinically apparent cases by a ratio of 4-10 to 1. we assessed the risk of progression from infection to disease as a function of dat and rk39 serological titers.201424466361
selective inhibition of leishmania donovani by active extracts of wild mushrooms used by the tribal population of india: an in vitro exploration for new leads against parasitic protozoans.the study was intended at evaluating the anti-proliferating effect of mushrooms used in traditional folklore of santal tribal population in india against leishmania donovani (mhom/in/83/ag83). a total of eighteen extracts, three estracts from each mushroom [(80% ethanol extracted; fa), (water-soluble polysaccharide fraction; fb), (polyphenolic fraction; fc)], from six wild mushrooms were obtained. these extracts were tested against the promastigotes and amastigotes for their antileishmanial capa ...201424440295
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