concordant hiv infection and visceral leishmaniasis in ethiopia: the influence of antiretroviral treatment and other factors on outcome.coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and leishmania donovani visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in africa is an emerging, poorly understood disease.200818419422
essential-oil composition, antileishmanial, and toxicity study of artemisia abyssinica and satureja punctata ssp. punctata from ethiopia.essential oils of artemisia abyssinica and satureja punctata ssp. punctata from ethiopia were analyzed by gc and gc/ms, and screened for leishmanicidal activity against promastigote and axenic amastigotes of leishmania donovani and l. aethiopica, including toxicity studies on human monocytic leukemia cells (thp-1) and erythrocytes in vitro. gc/ms of a. abyssinica oil revealed 67 compounds (99.94%) with the major constituents yomogi alcohol (38.47%), artemisyl acetate (24.88%), and artemisia alco ...201020397218
inference of population structure of leishmania donovani strains isolated from different ethiopian visceral leishmaniasis endemic areas.parasites' evolution in response to parasite-targeted control strategies, such as vaccines and drugs, is known to be influenced by their population genetic structure. the aim of this study was to describe the population structure of ethiopian strains of leishmania donovani derived from different areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (vl) as a prerequisite for the design of effective control strategies against the disease.201021103373
natural leishmania donovani/leishmania aethiopica hybrids identified from ethiopia.natural hybridization events have been demonstrated between closely and distantly related leishmania groups despite a predominantly clonal and endogamically sexual mode of reproduction. here we report the first natural hybrid between leishmania aethiopica and leishmania donovani, as evidenced from the analysis of several clones from strain mhom/et/94/abauy. targeted species-identification pcrs revealed the presence of both genotypes, and amplified fragment length polymorphisms indicated that the ...201121558020
disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by leishmania donovani in three patients co-infected with visceral leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in ethiopia.abstract. we report paired strains of leishmania parasites, one from the viscera and the other from skin lesions that were isolated from three patients with visceral leishmaniasis and disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis that were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus. the causative parasites were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism of the ribosomal dna internal transcribed spacer 1 and by a panel of multilocus microsatellite markers. we demonstrate ...201121633027
atypical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with hiv in north ethiopia: a gap in guidelines for the management of opportunistic infections in resource poor regions where it is endemic, visceral leishmaniasis is an important opportunistic infectious disease in people living with hiv. typically, clinical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis includes chronic fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and weight loss. in leishmania infantum endemic regions in europe, atypical visceral leishmaniasis presentations have been well documented, with almost every possible organ involved. however, such reports are rare in leishmania donovani endemic regions such as east ...201525300862
specific antibody responses as indicators of treatment efficacy for visceral leishmaniasis.acute visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is caused by infection with parasites of the leishmania donovani complex and may be fatal if not treated. early diagnosis and efficacious treatment are the keys to effective vl management and control. novel regimens are being developed to overcome limitations in vl treatment options, which are currently restricted by high costs, severe systemic side effects, and unresponsiveness. although simple and accurate serological tests are available to help confirm vl, no ...201525407374
detection of leishmania donovani and l. tropica in ethiopian wild rodents.human visceral (vl, also known as kala-azar) and cutaneous (cl) leishmaniasis are important infectious diseases affecting countries in east africa that remain endemic in several regions of ethiopia. the transmission and epidemiology of the disease is complicated due to the complex life cycle of the parasites and the involvement of various leishmania spp., sand fly vectors, and reservoir animals besides human hosts. particularly in east africa, the role of animals as reservoirs for human vl remai ...201525700710
development and comparative evaluation of two antigen detection tests for visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) can be fatal without timely diagnosis and treatment. treatment efficacies vary due to drug resistance, drug toxicity and co-morbidities. it is important to monitor treatment responsiveness to confirm cure and curtail relapse. currently, microscopy of spleen, bone marrow or lymph node biopsies is the only definitive method to evaluate cure. a less invasive test for treatment success is a high priority for vl management.201526395447
in vitro permissiveness of bovine neutrophils and monocyte derived macrophages to leishmania donovani of ethiopian isolate.epidemiological studies in ethiopia have documented that the risk of visceral leishmaniasis (vl, kala-azar) is higher among people living with domestic animals. the recent report on isolation of leishmania donovani complex dna and the detected high prevalence of anti-leishmanial antibodies in the blood of domestic animals further strengthen the potential role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of vl in ethiopia. in mammalian hosts polymorphonuclear cells (pmn) and macrophages are the key im ...201627090082
evaluation of pcr procedures for detecting and quantifying leishmania donovani dna in large numbers of dried human blood samples from a visceral leishmaniasis focus in northern ethiopia.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a disseminated protozoan infection caused by leishmania donovani parasites which affects almost half a million persons annually. most of these are from the indian sub-continent, east africa and brazil. our study was designed to elucidate the role of symptomatic and asymptomatic leishmania donovani infected persons in the epidemiology of vl in northern ethiopia.201323530965
multilocus sequence and microsatellite identification of intra-specific hybrids and ancestor-like donors among natural ethiopian isolates of leishmania donovani.protozoan parasites of the genus leishmania (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) cause widespread and devastating human diseases. visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in ethiopia where it has also been responsible for fatal epidemics. it is postulated that genetic exchange in leishmania has implications for heterosis (hybrid vigour), spread of virulent strains, resistance to chemotherapeutics, and exploitation of different hosts and vectors. here we analyse 11 natural ethiopian leishmania donovani is ...201424995620
nocturnal activities and host preferences of phlebotomus orientalis in extra-domestic habitats of kafta-humera lowlands, kala-azar endemic, northwest ethiopia.phlebotomus orientalis feeds on a variety of wild and domestic animals and transmits leishmania donovani from hitherto unknown reservoir hosts to humans in extra-domestic habitats in the metema-humera lowlands. the aim of this study was to determine the nocturnal activities of p. orientalis and its preferred blood meal hosts.201425515239
comparative analysis of salivary gland transcriptomes of phlebotomus orientalis sand flies from endemic and non-endemic foci of visceral east africa, phlebotomus orientalis serves as the main vector of leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (vl). phlebotomus orientalis is present at two distant localities in ethiopia; addis zemen where vl is endemic and melka werer where transmission of vl does not occur. to find out whether the difference in epidemiology of vl is due to distant compositions of p. orientalis saliva we established colonies from addis zemen and melka werer, analyzed and compared the t ...201424587463
phlebotomus orientalis sand flies from two geographically distant ethiopian localities: biology, genetic analyses and susceptibility to leishmania donovani.phlebotomus orientalis parrot (diptera: psychodidae) is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) caused by leishmania donovani in east africa. here we report on life cycle parameters and susceptibility to l. donovani of two p. orientalis colonies originating from different sites in ethiopia: a non-endemic site in the lowlands - melka werer (mw), and an endemic focus of human vl in the highlands - addis zemen (az).201323638207
quantifying the contribution of hosts with different parasite concentrations to the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in important factor influencing the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases is the contribution of hosts with different parasitemia (no. of parasites per ml of blood) to the infected vector population. today, estimation of this contribution is often impractical since it relies exclusively on limited-scale xenodiagnostic or artificial feeding experiments (i.e., measuring the proportion of vectors that become infected after feeding on infected blood/host).201425356795
multilocus microsatellite typing revealed high genetic variability of leishmania donovani strains isolated during and after a kala-azar epidemic in libo kemkem district, northwest 2004, an outbreak of kala-azar (ka) occurred for the first time in libo kemkem district, in the highland area of northwest ethiopia. in order to track the possible origins of the outbreak parasites, we have investigated 19 strains of leishmania donovani that were collected during (n = 6) and after (n = 13) the outbreak by using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. unique microsatellite profiles were obtained for all strains from libo kemkem. when compared to those of l. donovani stra ...201121382503
serological evidence of leishmania donovani infection in apparently healthy dogs using direct agglutination test (dat) and rk39 dipstick tests in kafta humera, north-west ethiopia.leishmania (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) are protozoan parasites of significant medical and veterinary importance. over the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis (vl) has emerged as a major opportunistic infection associated with hiv/aids in north western ethiopia. this paper reports on serological evidence of possible leishmania donovani (l. donovani) infection in dogs using two serological tests: direct agglutination test (dat) and kalazar detect rapid test (kdrt). two hundred and seventeen ...201121371289
leishmania donovani complex (kinetoplastida, trypanosomatidae): comparison of deoxyribonucleic acid based techniques for typing of isolates from ethiopia, visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is an increasing public health concern. recently, a new outbreak of vl claimed the lives of hundreds of ethiopians. mapping its distribution and the identification of the causative leishmania species is important for proper use of resources and for control planning. the choice of appropriate typing technique is the key for determining the infecting species. here we compared three deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) based markers. we used, for the first time, cpbe ...201020438727
a diagnostic assay based on variable intergenic region distinguishes between leishmania donovani and leishmania infantum.we have developed a pcr assay that in a single reaction distinguishes between leishmania infantum and leishmania donovani strains on the basis of different size of the amplicon. the targeted intergenic region between putative biopterin transporter and nucleotide binding protein on chromosome 35 is highly variable, species-specific and can be amplified from clinical samples. based on the assay, five tested leishmania archibaldi and l. infantun strains from the sudan and ethiopia clearly belong to ...200818578169
elevated plasma levels of interferon (ifn)-gamma, ifn-gamma inducing cytokines, and ifn-gamma inducible cxc chemokines in visceral leishmaniasis.interferon (ifn)- gamma plays an important role during immune responses against leishmaniasis. production of ifn-gamma is regulated by interleukin (il)-12, il-18, and il-15. interferon-gamma-inducible protein (ip)-10 and monokine induced by ifn-gamma (mig) are cxc chemokines, the production of which, at least in part, is ifn-gamma dependent. a follow-up study of individuals infected with leishmania donovani was undertaken in an area of ethiopia endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (vl). plasma lev ...200415569785
arbitrary-primed pcr for genomic fingerprinting and identification of differentially regulated genes in indian isolates of leishmania donovani.the arbitrary-primed pcr (ap-pcr) technique was employed with the twin goals of identifying genetic polymorphisms within the indian isolates and to identify differentially expressed gene sequences. the parasite isolates from indian kala-azar patients could be differentiated from leishmania donovani isolates from distinct geographic regions. moreover, differences within the indian isolates could also be identified. a majority (17/19) of the indian isolates gave identical ap-pcr pattern, while two ...200415172218
leishmania donovani infections in phlebotomine sandflies from the kala-azar focus at aba roba in ethiopia: dna probe compared with conventional detection methods. 19938369567
heat shock and the relative hexokinase activity of leishmania aethiopica and leishmania donovani. 19883215177
trend analysis of visceral leishmaniasis at addis zemen health center, northwest ethiopia.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a systemic disease caused by the leishmania donovani complex. it is one of the fatal diseases if left untreated. in ethiopia, there are many vl endemic foci. the aim of this study was to determine the trends of vl in the study area.201424783211
polymorphism in the haspb repeat region of east african leishmania donovani strains.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) caused by leishmania donovani is a major health problem in ethiopia. parasites in disparate regions are transmitted by different vectors, and cluster in distinctive genotypes. recently isolated strains from vl and hiv-vl co-infected patients in north and south ethiopia were characterized as part of a longitudinal study on vl transmission.201323358849
sero-prevalence of leishmania donovani infection in labour migrants and entomological risk factors in extra-domestic habitats of kafta-humera lowlands - kala-azar endemic areas in the northwest ethiopia.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) or kala-azar cases in seasonal labour migrants from highland areas are addressed to travel history to the metema-humera lowlands, northwestern ethiopia. factors that affect the incidence of vl in extra-domestic habitats were not evaluated. the aim of this study was to evaluate sero-prevalence of leishmania donovani infection in randomly selected labour migrant workers and entomological risk factors which might affect the incidence of kala-azar.201525884167
host-feeding preference of phlebotomus orientalis (diptera: psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in northern ethiopia.blood-feeding behavior studies are important for estimating the efficiency of pathogen transmission and assessing the relative human disease risk. however, in ethiopia and other parts of east africa there are large remaining gaps in identifying the feeding habits of phlebotomus orientalis, the vector of leishmania donovani. the aim of the study was to determine the blood feeding patterns of p. orientalis in tahtay adiyabo district, northern ethiopia.201525963759
nocturnal periodicity of phlebotomus (larroussius) orientalis (diptera: psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in northern ethiopia.phlebotomus orientalis is the major vector of the intramacrophage protozoa, leishmania donovani, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in northern ethiopia and sudan. the objective of this study was to determine the nocturnal periodicity of p. orientalis in the vl endemic focus of tahtay adiyabo district, northern ethiopia.201525889314
exposure to leishmania spp. and sand flies in domestic animals in northwestern ethiopia.human visceral leishmaniasis caused by leishmania donovani is considered an anthroponosis; however, leishmania-infected animals have been increasingly reported in l. donovani foci, and the role of these animals as reservoirs for human l. donovani infection remains unclear.201526152578
evaluation of the direct agglutination test (dat) using freeze-dried antigen for the detection of anti-leishmania antibodies in stored sera from various patient groups in ethiopia.tests on a panel of 421 serum samples from ethiopia and 11 from europe with the direct agglutination test (dat) and freeze-dried antigen (leishmania donovani 1s) showed that a cut-off titre of 1:200 or 1:400 could be employed. using a cut-off titre of 1:400, 181 (88.3%) of 205 serum samples from visceral leishmaniasis (vl) patients tested positive, as did 5 (13.9%) of 36 sera from patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, 5 (71.4%) sera from 7 patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis ...199910492758
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