comparison of two geographic strains of leishmania donovani by resistance of mice to superinfection.groups of mice were injected with leishmania donovani strains et (burma) or is (sudan) and the courses of infection were followed. between days 20 and 30 after infection by treatment with pentostam. et- and 1s-recovered mice were challenged by intravenous injection of amastigotes of each strain. although resistance to superinfection was apparent the l. donovani strains could not be differentiated by this method.1975125553
leishmaniasis in the sudan republic. 29. comparison and epidemiological implications of experimental canine infections with sudanese, mediterranean, and kenyan strains of leishmania donovani. 19705421087
surface antigens of leishmania donovani promastigotes.surface antigen profiles of leishmania donovani promastigote isolates have been studied. surface patterns of brazilian and african isolates display remarkable similarities and are extremely simple, consisting of three major peptides of 65,000, 25,000, and 23,000 mol wt. surface iodination and biosynthetic labeling coupled to immunoprecipitation techniques revealed that a single major determinant of 65,000 mol wt is recognized in all strains by sera from kala-azar patients from both brazil and af ...19836854205
infection rates of leishmania donovani in phlebotomus orientalis from a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern sudan. 19989625920
rk39 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of leishmania donovani infection.the rk39 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was compared with the direct agglutination test (dat) for leishmania donovani infection in the sudan. rk39 elisa proved more sensitive than dat in diagnosis of kala-azar (93 and 80%, respectively); both tests may remain positive up to 24 months after treatment. for patients with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and individuals with subclinical infection, rk39 elisa performed as well as dat but could detect infection 6 months earlier in approx ...19989729541
protective efficacy of lambdacyhalothrin-impregnated bednets against phlebotomus orientalis, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in sudan.field investigations on the sandfly phlebotomus orientalis (diptera: psychodidae), the vector of leishmania donovani causing visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in sudan, were undertaken in two villages (bellow and elgamel) and dinder national park, to determine the protective value of bednets (polyester, 100 denier) impregnated with lambda-cyhalothrin 10 mg a.i./m2 pyrethroid insecticide. after exposure to treated netting for 30 s, p. orientalis females all died within 1 h. when field-tested in acacia ...199910514058
bronchopulmonary and mediastinal leishmaniasis: an unusual clinical presentation of leishmania donovani infection.we describe a case of unusual leishmaniasis in a sudanese man with a history of progressively enlarging granulomatous mediastinal lymphadenopathy, worsening hemoptysis, and an intense mucosal granulomatous inflammatory response in the large bronchi. leishmania donovani dna was detected in bronchial biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. this is a novel description of human leishmanial infection in an immunocompetent patient involving this anatomical site. the patient's condition improved clinica ...200010816146
the interplay between environmental and host factors during an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern sudan.parasitic diseases, including human visceral leishmaniasis, are multifactorial. factors that are expected to play an important role in the parasite-human interaction are exposure, parasite "virulence" and host resistance factors. in populations exposed to leishmania donovani most subjects do not allow the parasites to establish themselves or remain asymptomatic. some individuals, however, fail to control parasite expansion and dissemination and develop a visceral disease. we report here the resu ...200212475635
slc11a1 (formerly nramp1) and susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in the sudan.genetic susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is indicated by differences in incidence and clinical phenotypes between ethnic groups in sudan. in mice, innate susceptibility to leishmania donovani, the etiological agent of vl, is controlled by slc11a1 (formerly nramp1). we therefore examined polymorphisms at slc11a1 in 59 multicase families of vl from the high-incidence masalit tribe in sudan. multipoint nonparametric analysis in allegro shows a significant linkage across slc11a1 (zlr sc ...200414523377
visceral leishmaniasis in eastern sudan: parasite identification in humans and dogs; host-parasite 1996, an epidemic outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) started in barbar el fugara, a village in gedarif state (eastern sudan). from 1997 to 2000, regular epidemiological studies were carried out in the human population, as well as in mammals and sand flies. in symptomatic patients, 46/69 lymph node, 6/20 post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) and 1/4 cutaneous cultures in nnn medium were positive. in 69 dogs, 23/79 lymph node cultures were positive. in other mammals (47 rodents, five ...200314554251
genetic susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in the sudan: linkage and association with il4 and ifngr1.longitudinal studies in sudan show ethnic differences in incidence and clinical phenotypes associated with leishmania donovani. immunologically, bias in type 1 vs type 2 cytokine responses is important. to determine whether polymorphisms at il4/il9 or ifngr1 contribute to susceptibility, we examined 59 multicase families of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) with/without post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl). multipoint nonparametric analysis (allegro) linked il4/il9 to vl per se (p=0.002). transm ...200312847550
sudanese mucosal leishmaniasis: isolation of a parasite within the leishmania donovani complex that differs genotypically from l. donovani causing classical visceral leishmaniasis.mucosal leishmaniasis, which is a sporadic disease in the sudan, was shown by isoenzyme characterization and pcr to be caused by leishmania donovani. however, it was not clear if the parasite was exactly the same strain as that causing visceral leishmaniasis (vl), or of a different strain. we utilized a new generation of molecular dna markers, minisatellites and kinetoplast dna, for rapid characterization of the parasite. the results show that the genotypes of some of the parasites causing vl ar ...200515567136
infection rates with leishmania donovani and mycobacterium tuberculosis in a village in eastern sudan.leishmania-tuberculosis co-infection is not uncommon in clinical practice in east africa, but little is known about the epidemiology of this problem at population level. a cross-sectional household survey was carried out in an active visceral leishmaniasis (vl) focus in eastern sudan in february 2002.200415598262
the origin and evolution of the leishmania donovani complex as inferred from a mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase ii gene sequence.members of the leishmania donovani complex are parasites of the reticulo-endothelial system that are often associated with serious epidemics of a life threatening disease known as visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar. twenty-two leishmania isolates representative of the geographical range of the parasite were analysed for sequence variations in their cytochrome oxidase ii gene. in performing phylogenetic analysis, the maximum parsimonious, neighbour joining and maximum likelihood trees were congr ...200112798051
genetic control of visceral leishmaniasis in a sudanese population: candidate gene testing indicates a linkage to the nramp1 region.there is some evidence showing that genetic factors are involved in human susceptibility to parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis and malaria. studies have shown that the nramp1 and h-2 genes are implicated in the control of leishmania donovani infection in mice. we sought genetic loci involved in the control of susceptibility to visceral disease caused by l. donovani in humans. we studied 37 families with at least two affected sibs living in a village in eastern sudan, where an outbreak of ...200312618857
humoral and cellular immune responses to glucose regulated protein 78 -- a novel leishmania donovani antigen.the recently cloned glucose regulated protein 78 (grp78) of leishmania donovani has been suggested as a new and promising leishmania vaccine candidate. we assessed antibody and t-cell reactivity to grp78 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and in lymphoproliferative assays. serological evaluation of plasma samples obtained in sudan revealed that 89% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl), 78% with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl), and 85% with cutaneous leishmaniasis ...200212000658
epidemiology and clinical manifestations of leishmania donovani infection in two villages in an endemic area in eastern sudan.we conducted a longitudinal study in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in eastern sudan to compare the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of leishmania donovani infection in two populations differing in ethnic background and duration of residence in the area. the study took place in two villages from april 1994 to april 1996. in um-salala village, which is inhabited by members of the masaleet tribe, half of the villagers had previous exposure to cutaneous leishmaniasis (leishmaria ...200211851953
post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: does it play a role in the transmission of leishmania donovani in the sudan?in 1997 a sudden outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) occurred in eastern sudan, coinciding with an increase of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) cases which may in part be because of sylvatic and anthroponotic transmission. paradoxically, the more vl patients are treated, the higher the frequency of pkdl. if pkdl plays a role in transmission, its treatment would be expected to reduce infection in the area. treatment of pkdl, however, requires four times the amount of pentostam used ...200111555443
the egyptian mongoose, herpestes ichneumon, is a possible reservoir host of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern sudan.investigations were made on possible reservoir hosts of leishmania donovani in 2 zoonotic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in dinder national park (dnp) and the peri-domestic habitats of adjacent villages of eastern sudan. animals were captured, in november 1997-1998 and april-may 1999 and examined for l. donovani infection using light microscopy and 2 sensitive polymerase chain reaction (pcr) systems. microscopy and pcr investigations were also used to determine the infection rates of l. don ...200111393826
immunogenicity and safety of autoclaved leishmania major plus bcg vaccine in healthy sudanese a longitudinal study in the epidemiology of leishmania donovani infection in an endemic focus in eastern sudan, we observed that previous exposure or infection with leishmania major appeared to protect against visceral leishmaniasis caused by l. donovani. we therefore conducted a study to test the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine consisting of autoclaved l. major (alm) plus bcg in inducing protection in vaccinated individuals. leishmanin-negative healthy sudanese volunteers were enrolle ...200111228382
latex agglutination test for the detection of urinary antigens in visceral leishmaniasis.this paper describes a new latex agglutination test ('katex') for the detection of leishmanial antigen in the urine of patients with visceral leishmaniasis. in preliminary laboratory trials, using urine collected from well-defined cases and controls from brazil, yemen and nepal, the test had 100% specificity and a sensitivity between 68 and 100%. when used in a time-course experiment in cotton rats infected with leishmania donovani, the test became positive 1 week after inoculation and antigen l ...200111164745
isolation and identification of leishmania donovani from phlebotomus orientalis, in an area of eastern sudan with endemic visceral leishmaniasis. 200818782494
mucosal leishmaniasis in a sudanese patient.mucosal leishmaniasis (ml) is an oral disease caused by the parasite leishmania donovani. the disease has been proven to be pandemic in many areas of the world. it affects young men living in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. ml might be accompanied or proceeded by visceral leishmaniasis (vl), although in most of the cases seen in sudan, ml occurs as a primary lesion. ml can mimic oral cancer or fungal infections, with ulceration as the most common finding in ml lesions. in this report, the patient c ...200919478252
qualitative and semi-quantitative comparison of an rk39 strip test and direct agglutination test for detection of anti-leishmania donovani antibodies in the sudan.until now, the comparison of the rk39 strip test (rkt) and direct agglutination test (dat) for detection of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is exclusively based on either positive or negative qualification of the reaction outcome.200920054109
the behaviour of a sudan strain of leishmania donovani in phlebotomus papatasii; a comparison of strains of leishmania. 194720243885
characterization of the glucosyltransferases that assemble the side chains of the indian leishmania donovani lipophosphoglycan.the life cycle of leishmania parasites within its sand fly vector involves the development of extracellular promastigotes from a noninfective, "procyclic" stage into an infective, "metacyclic" stage that is adapted for transmission in the fly and survival in the mammalian host. lipophosphoglycan (lpg), the predominant surface glycoconjugate in both procyclic and metacyclic stages, is a critical virulence determinant. lpg is a multidomain molecule; the structural polymorphisms among species lie i ...199910600177
Multifaceted Population Structure and Reproductive Strategy in Leishmania donovani Complex in One Sudanese Village.Leishmania species of the subgenus Leishmania and especially L. donovani are responsible for a large proportion of visceral leishmaniasis cases. The debate on the mode of reproduction and population structure of Leishmania parasites remains opened. It has been suggested that Leishmania parasites could alternate different modes of reproduction, more particularly clonality and frequent recombinations either between related individuals (endogamy) or between unrelated individuals (outcrossing) withi ...201122206035
biochemical and molecular characterization of leishmania parasites isolated from an endemic focus in eastern sudan.twelve leishmania isolates from visceral leishmaniasis patients in eastern sudan were characterized using isoenzyme analysis, southern blotting and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) 'fingerprinting'. isoenzyme analysis revealed the presence of 3 zymodemes: mon-18, mon-30 and mon-82, corresponding to leishmania donovani sensu stricto, l. infantum and l. archibaldi (still of uncertain taxonomic status), respectively. southern blotting and pcr 'fingerprinting' revealed identical patterns for all 3 zy ...19989692173
diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by the polymerase chain reaction using blood, bone marrow and lymph node samples from patients from the sudan.we have evaluated the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) as a diagnostic tool for leishmania donovani using blood, bone marrow and lymph node samples from sudanese patients with a confirmed infection. forty patients were diagnosed by microscopic examination of bone marrow or lymph node samples. the pcr was able to detect parasite dna in 37 out of 40 blood samples. in bone marrow and lymph node samples, the pcr was able to detect parasite dna in all 7 and 6 samples, respectively. ...19979217699
oronasal leishmaniasis caused by a parasite with an unusual isoenzyme profile.a 45-year-old sudanese man from western sudan presented with oronasal leishmaniasis of three years duration. he had no history of previous kala-azar or cutaneous leishmaniasis. the parasite isolated from the oral mucosa was characterized by isoenzymes using 12 enzymes and by polymerase chain reaction amplification of kinetoplast dna using species-specific primers. the specific primers gave products indistinguishable from those of the leishmania donovani complex. however, the isoenzyme profile sh ...19979063369
random amplified polymorphic dna for the differentiation of leishmania donovani isolates from sudan. 19968761592
sudanese mucosal leishmaniasis: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, immune responses and treatment.the epidemiology, clinical features, pathology, immune responses, diagnosis and treatment of 14 patients with mucosal leishmaniasis in the sudan are described. the condition occurred mainly in adult males, particularly in certain closely related tribes from the western sudan. it affected the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and/or the oral mucosa and sometimes followed treated kala azar. the parasites were sometimes confined to the mucosa, sometimes spread to the lymph nodes, and rarely inf ...19958594683
identification of leishmania donovani using a polymerase chain reaction in patient and animal material obtained from an area of endemic kala-azar in the sudan. 19937903141
diagnostic accuracy of rk28-based immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis: a prospective clinical cohort study in sudan.rapid diagnostic tests (rdts) for visceral leishmaniasis (vl) based on rk39 antigen showed suboptimal sensitivity in east africa. a prospective clinical cohort study in sudan was designed to validate a novel rk28-based rdt for leishmania donovani vl.201526246251
a killing disease epidemic among displaced sudanese population identified as visceral leishmaniasis.a fatal disease epidemic affected the bentiu area in southern sudan and led to a mass migration of the nuer tribe searching for treatment. the initially available information revealed a high mortality rate due to a possible occurrence of tuberculosis, malaria, enteric fever or visceral leishmaniasis (vl). serological screening of 53 of the most severely affected patients in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) or an improved direct agglutination test (dat) revealed positivity for vl. in ...19911852133
epidemic visceral leishmaniasis in southern sudan: identity and systematic position of the parasites from patients and vectors.twenty-five strains of leishmania donovani isolated from humans and phlebotomus orientalis in an epidemic area of southern sudan were shown to belong to 3 very similar zymodemes: mon 18 (11 strains), mon 30 (1 strain) and mon 82 (13 strains). the 3 zymodemes are very closely related and seem to behave as a single population.19921440811
identification of leishmania from mucosal leishmaniasis by recombinant dna probes.three cases of mucosal leishmaniasis are described. parasites isolated from mucosal lesions were identified by southern blot analysis of their genomic deoxyribonucleic acids (dnas) using recombinant dna probe pdk20. parasites from 2 patients were identified as leishmania donovani s.l. one of the patients had pure mucosal lesions, while in the second patient there was dissemination of the parasite to other organs. the spectrum of the disease caused by l. donovani is discussed. the parasite from t ...19921440775
detection of high rates of in-village transmission of leishmania donovani in eastern sudan. 200415301978
leishmania donovani: an in vitro study of antimony-resistant amphotericin b-sensitive isolates.drug sensitivity of clinically antimony-unresponsive leishmania donovani isolates from eastern sudan was evaluated in an in vitro culture system against sodium stibogluconate (pentostam) and amphotericin b. eight isolates, six from antimony-resistant and two from clinically responsive patients were included in the study. parasites were tested as promastigotes and four of them were selected to be tested as amastigotes using a murine macrophage-like cell line. the results indicated that the conven ...200616716301
post-kala-azar dermal dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) is a complication of visceral leishmaniasis (vl); it is characterised by a macular, maculopapular, and nodular rash in a patient who has recovered from vl and who is otherwise well. the rash usually starts around the mouth from where it spreads to other parts of the body depending on severity. it is mainly seen in sudan and india where it follows treated vl in 50% and 5-10% of cases, respectively. thus, it is largely restricted to areas where leishmania ...200312560194
leishmaniasis in sudan. post kala-azar dermal kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) is increasingly recognized in sudan as a complication of visceral leishmaniasis (vl), occurring in c. 55% of patients after, or during treatment of, vl. the development of pkdl seems to be restricted to parasites of the leishmania donovani sensu stricto cluster; no particular zymodeme has been found to be associated with it. in contrast to pkdl in india, pkdl in sudan occurs within 0-6 months after treatment for vl. the rash may be macular, maculo-papul ...200111370251
leishmaniasis in sudan. mucosal leishmaniasis.sudanese mucosal leishmaniasis is a chronic infection of the upper respiratory tract and/or oral mucosa caused mainly by leishmania donovani. the disease occurs in areas of the country endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, particularly among masalit and other closely related tribes in western sudan. the condition may develop during or after an attack of visceral leishmaniasis, but in most cases it is a primary mucosal disease. unlike south american mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, mucosal leishmaniasi ...200111370249
leishmania donovani: intraspecific polymorphisms of sudanese isolates revealed by pcr-based analyses and dna sequencing.four polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based approaches were used to analyze diversity within 23 sudanese isolates of leishmania donovani. methods compared were fingerprinting with single nonspecific primers, restriction analysis of the amplified ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (its) locus, single-stranded conformation polymorphism (sscp), and sequencing of the its region. when pcr fingerprinting and restriction analysis of its were applied, highly similar fragment patterns were observed for ...200111207112
studies on the leishmaniases in the sudan. 3. clinical and parasitological studies on visceral and mucosal leishmaniasis.the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of 27 patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and six with mucosal leishmaniasis (ml) in sudan are described. the diagnosis was confirmed by the demonstration of amastigotes in bone-marrow in 20 cases with vl (80%) and impression smears in 2 cases with ml. the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and direct agglutination test were positive in all the sera tested. the leishmanin test was positive in all patients with ml, the diameter of the rea ...19911755050
antimony-induced cerebellar ataxia.visceral leishmaniasis vl, caused by leishmania donovani is endemic over several parts of sudan. the disease is fatal if not treated. although sodium stibogluconate pentostam, a pentavalent antimonial is not free from toxicity, it has been in use for treatment of vl for the last 50 years. like other infectious diseases, neurological manifestations of vl and sodium stibogluconate have been documented. in this report, we present 2 cases of cerebellar ataxia most likely induced by pentostam, and ex ...200616432602
genes and environment in susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis.kala azar (ka) is a lethal disease caused by leishmania parasites (leishmania donovani s.l.) that multiply in large numbers in deep organs such as spleen and liver. the host immunological response to these organisms is complex and experimental studies in animals have detected a large number of genetic loci involved in the control of infection and disease. we report here on a study in a human population of sudan carried out during an outbreak of ka. the following conclusions are presented: (1) en ...200617067929
Recent advances in post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a challenge for clinicians and researchers, because its burden is poorly investigated and pathogenesis is disputable. However, recent studies contributed to understanding of the pathogenesis of PKDL especially its association with host immunological factors, and also how to improve its diagnosis and treatment. This review focuses on recent advances in diagnosis, new insights into pathogenesis and case management.201121885919
leishmania donovani: genetic diversity of isolates from sudan characterized by pcr-based rapd.drug unresponsiveness in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a problem in many endemic areas. this study aimed to determine genetic diversity of leishmania donovani isolates from a vl endemic area in sudan as a possible explanation for drug unresponsiveness in some patients. thirty clinically stibogluconate (ssg)-sensitive isolates were made ssg-unresponsive in vitro by gradually increasing ssg concentrations. the sensitive isolates and their ssg-unresponsive counterparts were typed usi ...201020346944
rklo8, a novel leishmania donovani - derived recombinant immunodominant protein for sensitive detection of visceral leishmaniasis in sudan.for effective control of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in east africa, new rapid diagnostic tests are required to replace current tests with low sensitivity. the aim of this study is to improve diagnosis of vl in east africa by testing a new antigen from an autochthonous l. donovani strain in sudan.201323875052
the pathogenesis of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis from the field to the molecule: does ultraviolet light (uvb) radiation play a role?post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) is a dermatosis caused by persistence of leishmania donovani parasites in the skin following apparently successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. the distribution of pkdl lesions in sudanese patients often mirrors the clothing habits of those affected. it is most severe in or confined to the sun-exposed parts of the skin. it is well established that elimination of leishmania parasites requires activation of parasitised macrophages by a th1 immune ...200616386855
expression of concern: ahlin e et al.,"anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor in sudanese patients with leishmania donovani infection", rev bras reumatol 2011; 51(6):572-86. 201223090367
bioinformatic identification of tandem repeat antigens of the leishmania donovani complex.with large amounts of parasite gene sequence available, additional bioinformatic tools to screen these sequences for identifying genes encoding antigens are needed. proteins containing tandem repeat (tr) domains are often b-cell antigens, and antibody responses toward tr domains of the proteins are dominant in human infected with certain parasites. we hypothesized that antigens of serological significance could be identified with a search for tr domains. here we show the result of bioinformatic ...200717088350
y chromosome lineage- and village-specific genes on chromosomes 1p22 and 6q27 control visceral leishmaniasis in sudan.familial clustering and ethnic differences suggest that visceral leishmaniasis caused by leishmania donovani is under genetic control. a recent genome scan provided evidence for a major susceptibility gene on chromosome 22q12 in the aringa ethnic group in sudan. we now report a genome-wide scan using 69 families with 173 affected relatives from two villages occupied by the related masalit ethnic group. a primary ten-centimorgan scan followed by refined mapping provided evidence for major loci at ...200717500593
use of a newly developed beta-mercaptoethanol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis in patients in eastern sudan.corroboration of serology results is essential for restricting the risk of inappropriate antileishmanial prescription. a direct agglutination test (dat) and a recently developed beta-mercaptoethanol-modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (beta-me elisa) based on the use of antigen prepared as described for the dat were applied to 416 sera from two sudanese populations with and without clinical evidence of visceral leishmaniasis (vl). of 285 sera with the lowest antileishmanial dat titers (</ ...200717942614
a diagnostic assay based on variable intergenic region distinguishes between leishmania donovani and leishmania infantum.we have developed a pcr assay that in a single reaction distinguishes between leishmania infantum and leishmania donovani strains on the basis of different size of the amplicon. the targeted intergenic region between putative biopterin transporter and nucleotide binding protein on chromosome 35 is highly variable, species-specific and can be amplified from clinical samples. based on the assay, five tested leishmania archibaldi and l. infantun strains from the sudan and ethiopia clearly belong to ...200818578169
validation of a β-me elisa for detection of anti leishmania donovani antibodies in eastern sudan.a β-mercaptoethnol (β-me)-treated promastigote antigen of l. donovani was successfully employed in direct agglutination test (dat) for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (vl).201121931201
first report on ambisome-associated allergic reaction in two sudanese leishmaniasis kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ml) are serious clinical forms of leishmaniasis caused by leishmania donovani parasites in sudan. although pentavalent antimonys are used as the first line of treatment of all clinical forms of leishmaniasis, persistent pkdl and ml patients are treated with liposomal amphotericin b (ambisome) as a second-line drug. in this work, we report the development of allergic reactions by a pkdl and a ml sudanese patient to ambisome. th ...201121976565
anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor in sudanese patients with leishmania donovani infection.the present study evaluated the presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides antibodies (anti-ccp), rheumatoid factor (rf), and circulating immune complexes (cic) in sudanese patients infected with the leishmania donovani parasite.201122124592
significantly lower anti-leishmania igg responses in sudanese versus indian visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis (vl), a widely distributed systemic disease caused by infection with the leishmania donovani complex (l. donovani and l. infantum), is almost always fatal if symptomatic and untreated. a rapid point-of-care diagnostic test for anti-leishmania antibodies, the rk39-immunochromatographic test (rk39-ict), has high sensitivity and specificity in south asia but is less sensitive in east africa. one of the underlying reasons may be continent-specific molecular diversity in the rk ...201424587456
development and comparative evaluation of two antigen detection tests for visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) can be fatal without timely diagnosis and treatment. treatment efficacies vary due to drug resistance, drug toxicity and co-morbidities. it is important to monitor treatment responsiveness to confirm cure and curtail relapse. currently, microscopy of spleen, bone marrow or lymph node biopsies is the only definitive method to evaluate cure. a less invasive test for treatment success is a high priority for vl management.201526395447
leishmania donovani influenced cytokines and toll-like receptors expression among sudanese visceral leishmaniasis patients.leishmaniasis remains a serious health problem. the outcome of leishmania infection depends on the early innate response. in this study, whole blood samples of 40 patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl), 10 leishmanin skin test-negative (lst-ve) controls and 10 leishmanin skin test-positive (lst+ve) controls were stimulated by live l. donovani promastigotes. also, thp1 human cell line was infected with l. donovani. the production of interleukin 10 (il-10), tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnf) an ...201525982946
cytokine profiles amongst sudanese patients with visceral leishmaniasis and malaria co-infections.the immune system plays a critical role in the development of co-infections, promoting or preventing establishment of multiple infections and shaping the outcome of pathogen-host interactions. its ability to mediate the interplay between visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and malaria has been suggested, but poorly documented. the present study investigated whether concomitant infection with leishmania donovani complex and plasmodium falciparum in naturally co-infected patients altered the immunological ...201424886212
successful substitution of fetal calf serum by human plasma for bulk cultivation of leishmania donovani promastigotes.the potential of human plasma (hp) or serum (hs) as a replacement for fetal calf serum (fcs) was evaluated in a liver infusion tryptose (lit) medium for bulk cultivation of leishmania donovani promastigotes. the promastigote yield with the lit-fcs standard medium was 0.4-1.8×10(7) ml(-1), and yields of 0.5-3.4×10(7) (p = 0.527) and 0.4-2.4×10(7) (p = 0.062) were recorded for two lit medium variants containing hp or hs as supplement instead of fcs. significantly, higher promastigote yields of 1.3 ...201323657530
anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies in sudanese patients with leishmania donovani infection exhibit reactivity not dependent on citrullination.african patients with leishmania donovani infections have signs of strong systemic inflammation and high levels of circulating immune complexes (ic) and rheumatoid factor (rf), all serologic markers of rheumatic disease. as inflammation in general is associated with citrullination, we sought to investigate acpa responses in sudanese leishmania patients. serum samples were collected from sudanese patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) as well as f ...201525565324
leishmania donovani populations in eastern sudan: temporal structuring and a link between human and canine transmission.visceral leishmaniasis (vl), caused by the members of the leishmania donovani complex, has been responsible for devastating vl epidemics in the sudan. multilocus microsatellite and sequence typing studies can provide valuable insights into the molecular epidemiology of leishmaniasis, when applied at local scales. here we present population genetic data for a large panel of strains and clones collected in endemic sudan between 1993 and 2001.201425410888
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