relative abundance and blood feeding behavior of nocturnally active culicine mosquitoes in western 2 sites in western kenya targeted for future malaria vaccine trials, adult culicine mosquitoes were sampled over one year by 5 collection techniques to assess human exposure to potential vectors of pathogens other than malaria. collections included 20,910 females representing 19 species in kisian and 4,312 females of 11 species in saradidi. common species in kisian included culex quinquefasciatus (71.4%), mansonia uniformis (15.8%), ma. africana (6.2%), aedes mcintoshi (2.0%), coquillettidia ...19901973446
ingestion of immune bloodmeals and infection of aedes fowleri, aedes mcintoshi, and culex pipiens with rift valley fever virus.rift valley fever (rvf) virus infection, dissemination, and transmission rates were determined for aedes fowleri, aedes mcintoshi and culex pipiens 7 or 10 days after sequentially feeding to repletion on rvf virus immune hamsters and rvf viremic hamsters, or after feeding on a mixture of rvf virus immune sheep serum and rvf viremic hamster blood through a pledget. no significant differences in infection or dissemination rates were detected among ae. fowleri and cx. pipiens feeding to repletion o ...19892729509
studies on an outbreak of wesselsbron virus in the free state province, south early march 1996, wesselsbron (wsl) virus caused mortality among lambs on a farm near bultfontein in the northern free state province, south africa. mosquito collections were therefore undertaken from 27 march to 1 april to collect floodwater aedes mosquitoes for attempts at virus isolation. in all, 4,732 floodwater aedes were tested; 5 wsl, 1 middelburg (mid), and 5 unidentified viruses were isolated from 3,052 aedes (neomelaniconion) mcintoshi/luridus (minimum infection rate [mir] for wsl = ...19989599322
vector competence of selected african mosquito (diptera: culicidae) species for rift valley fever virus.outbreaks of rift valley fever (rvf) in egypt, yemen, and saudi arabia have indicated the potential for this disease to spread from its enzootic areas in sub-saharan africa. because little is known about the potential for most african mosquito species to transmit rvf virus (family bunyaviridae, genus phlebovirus, rvfv), we conducted studies to determine the vector competence of selected african species of mosquitoes for this virus. all eight species tested [aedes palpalis (newstead), aedes mcint ...200818283949
mosquito-borne arbovirus surveillance at selected sites in diverse ecological zones of kenya; 2007 - 2012.increased frequency of arbovirus outbreaks in east africa necessitated the determination of distribution of risk by entomologic arbovirus surveillance. a systematic vector surveillance programme spanning 5 years and covering 11 sites representing seven of the eight provinces in kenya and located in diverse ecological zones was carried out.201323663381
plant resting site preferences and parity rates among the vectors of rift valley fever in northeastern kenya.mosquito lifespan can influence the circulation of disease causing pathogens because it affects the time available for infection and transmission. the life-cycle of mosquitoes is determined by intrinsic and environmental factors, which can include the availability of hosts and suitable resting environments that shelter mosquitoes from extreme temperature and desiccating conditions. this study determined the parity rates (an indirect measure of survival) and plant resting preference of vectors of ...201627245579
linalool oxide: generalist plant based lure for mosquito disease vectors.lack of effective vaccines and therapeutics for important arboviral diseases such as rift valley fever (rvf) and dengue, necessitates continuous monitoring of vector populations for infections in them. plant-based lures as surveillance tools has the potential of targeting mosquitoes of both sexes and females of varied physiological states; yet such lures are lacking for vectors of these diseases. here, we present evidence of the effectiveness of linalool oxide (lo), a single plant-based lure pre ...201526552398
population genetics of two key mosquito vectors of rift valley fever virus reveals new insights into the changing disease outbreak patterns in kenya.rift valley fever (rvf) outbreaks in kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (aedes mcintoshi) and newly-associated (ae. ochraceus) vectors. the factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. by conducting mitochondrial and nuclear dna analyses on >220 kenya ...201425474018
effects of irrigation and rainfall on the population dynamics of rift valley fever and other arbovirus mosquito vectors in the epidemic-prone tana river county, kenya.rift valley fever (rvf) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that is found in most regions of sub-saharan africa, and it affects humans, livestock, and some wild ungulates. outbreaks are precipitated by an abundance of mosquito vectors associated with heavy persistent rainfall with flooding. we determined the impact of flood-irrigation farming and the effect of environmental parameters on the ecology and densities of primary and secondary vectors of the rvf virus (rvfv) in an rvf-epidemic hotspot ...201628011732
effects of flood irrigation on the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens in an arid and semi-arid area in the eastern investigate the effects of irrigation on land cover changes and the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens, we carried out a study in irrigated, pastoral and riverine areas in the eastern kenya. activities implemented included secondary data analyses to determine land use and land cover (lulc) changes as well as human, livestock and wildlife population trends; entomological surveys to characterize mosquitoes population densities and species distribution by habitat and season; and serological sur ...201728562600
landscape genetics of aedes mcintoshi (diptera: culicidae), an important vector of rift valley fever virus in northeastern kenya.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is a vector-borne, zoonotic disease that affects humans, wild ungulates, and domesticated livestock in africa and the arabian peninsula. rift valley fever virus exhibits interepizootic and epizootic phases, the latter defined by widespread virus occurrence in domesticated livestock. kenya appears to be particularly vulnerable to epizootics, with 11 outbreaks occurring between 1951 and 2007. the mosquito species aedes mcintoshi (subgenus neomelaniconion) is an impor ...201728431166
gynandromorph of aedes mcintoshi from central kenya. 19892614411
detection and identification of rift valley fever virus in mosquito vectors by quantitative real-time pcr.diagnostic methods allowing for rapid identification of pathogens are crucial for controlling and preventing dissemination after disease outbreaks as well as for use in surveillance programs. for arboviruses, detection of the presence of virus in their arthropod hosts is important for monitoring of viral activity and quantitative information is useful for modeling of transmission dynamics. in this study, molecular detection of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) in mosquito samples from the 2006 to 2 ...201222841800
rift valley fever virus epidemic in kenya, 2006/2007: the entomologic december 2006, rift valley fever (rvf) was diagnosed in humans in garissa hospital, kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of rvf virus (rvfv). approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for rvfv by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested po ...201020682903
predicting rift valley fever inter-epidemic activities and outbreak patterns: insights from a stochastic host-vector model.rift valley fever (rvf) outbreaks are recurrent, occurring at irregular intervals of up to 15 years at least in east africa. between outbreaks disease inter-epidemic activities exist and occur at low levels and are maintained by female aedes mcintoshi mosquitoes which transmit the virus to their eggs leading to disease persistence during unfavourable seasons. here we formulate and analyse a full stochastic host-vector model with two routes of transmission: vertical and horizontal. by applying br ...201628002417
pretreatment of floodwater aedes habitats (dambos) in kenya with a sustained-release formulation of methoprene.effectiveness of sustained-release altosid pellets (4% ai methoprene) against floodwater mosquitoes in dambos treated at 5, 3, and 1 wk before and 1 day after flooding was determined. only 2% of aedes pupae (primarily aedes mcintoshi) survived to adults in an area treated 5 wk preflood, and no adult mosquitoes emerged from an area treated 1 day after flooding. in contrast, 12 and 16% of aedes pupae successfully survived to the adult stage in areas pretreated 3 and 1 wk, respectively, preflood. t ...19902098486
distribution and abundance of key vectors of rift valley fever and other arboviruses in two ecologically distinct counties in kenya.rift valley fever (rvf) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in africa and the arabian peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. the virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission ...201728212379
survival of aedes (neomelaniconion) eggs in the aedes mcintoshi and ae. circumluteolus were produced from eggs stored up to 9 months in the laboratory. under standard hatching conditions, eggs stored at 24 degrees and 26 degrees c consistently produced adults for up to 9 months after collection. in contrast, eggs stored at 15 degrees c were significantly different, producing less than 1% adults from 6-12 months after collection. aedes (neomelaniconion) eggs can be stored and serve as a reliable source of specimens to be used in vector c ...19921583498
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