naturally occurring mouse hepatitis virus infection in the nude mouse.a group of athymic nude mice developed an unusual chronic wasting disease within 1-3 months after their arrival into the laboratory. affected nude mice had severe, acute-to-chronic, active hepatitis with multinucleated giant hepatocytes and fibrosis. vascular and central nervous system lesions were frequently present, giant cell peritonitis, ascites, and multinucleated giant cells in the intestinal epithelial villi were less frequently observed. mouse hepatitis virus was isolated from the livers ...1977195136
invagination of the caecum into the colon in a welsh pony.a chronic wasting disease in a 16 month old welsh pony filly is described. the animal died 26 days after the onset of illness which commenced with a sub-acute colic and was characterised by progressive loss of appetite and weight. post-mortem examination revealed a total invagination of the caecum into the colon and it seemed logical to assume this invagination occurred at the start of the illness. a review of the literature showed that total caecal invagination produces 2 distinct clincal syndr ...1977862608
from slow virus to prion: a review of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.spongiform encephalopathies include seven neurodegenerative diseases: three in man (creutzfeldt-jakob disease, gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker disease and kuru) and four in animals (scrapie, mink encephalopathy, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and chronic wasting disease in deer and elks). they are all transmissible to a variety of species, and man-to-man propagation of the diseases in the form of iatrogenic transmission has been well-documented. the infectious agent is highly unusual and the pa ...19921531331
[spongiform encephalopathies with special reference to bovine spongiform encephalopathy].in switzerland bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) was detected for the first time in november 1990. it is a transmissible disease of the central nervous system similar to creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd), gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker syndrome (gss) and kuru in man, and, in animals, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (cwd) in captive mule deer and elk of north america and transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) of farm reared mink. the infectious agent of the spongiform ence ...19921615298
spongiform encephalopathies in cervidae.the known host range of naturally-occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has expanded in recent years to include wild ruminants. chronic wasting disease (cwd) occurs in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado and wyoming, united states of america. these species belong to the family cervidae. cases have occurred primarily in captive animals but a few affected free-ranging animals have been identified. clinical disease in bo ...19921617203
human and experimental spongiform encephalopathies: recent progress in pathogenesis.the spongiform encephalopathies belong to the group of "slow virus infections" of the nervous system, characterized by a long incubation period, a protracted course and involvement of the nervous system with a lethal outcome. in contrast to the conventional virus infections, such as visna in sheep and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) in humans, the etiological agent for the spongiform encephalopathies has not been clearly defined. the known forms in animals are scrapie in sheep a ...19911676992
immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in chronic wasting disease of rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer.scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques are present in brain tissues of captive mule deer with chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report here the immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in plaques observed in brain tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and hybri ...19911681473
topographic distribution of scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques in chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus).chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder of captive mule deer, black-tailed deer, hybrids of mule deer and white-tailed deer and rocky mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report the topographic distribution of amyloid plaques reactive to antibodies prepared against scrapie amyloid in cwd-affected captive mule d ...19911713390
the nature of the unconventional slow infection agents remains a puzzle.unconventional slow infections are progressive transmissible degenerative disorders of the central nervous system. the human diseases belonging to this group are creutzfeld-jakob disease, kuru, and gerstmann-straussler syndrome. scrapie, transmissible mink encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk, and the recently discovered bovine spongiform encephalopathy are similar diseases found in animals. unusual characteristics of the unconventional slow infections clearly distinguish ...19892568119
[relation between slow virus infection of animals and man, their pathogenicity and resistance to therapy].besides conventional slow viruses, a category of pathogens exist, called "unconventional slow viruses". the latter evoke laughing death syndrome, creutzfeldt-jakob disease (resp. its special form of gerstmann-sträussler's syndrome) in man, in animal scrapie, infectious encephalopathy of the mink, and chronic wasting disease. they all are relatives, and their characteristics are longtime incubation, lacking immune reactions, high chemical and physical resistance, no proof of nucleic acids till no ...19883136063
pulmonary infections in aids.based on our experience, we would like to offer a few pragmatic suggestions for the practicing clinician. these recommendations are summarized in tables 1 and 2. the first encounter with most patients gives the impression of either a dramatic acute infection, usually in the lungs, central nervous system, or gastrointestinal tract (in this order of frequency), or that of a chronic wasting disease. the former is frequently superimposed on the latter. the exploration of aids risk factors and a few ...19873545659
amyloid plaques in spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer.amyloid plaques were demonstrable in central nervous system tissues of adult captive mule deer affected with chronic wasting disease, a transmissible primary spongiform encephalopathy. plaques were detected in tissues of 13 of 21 (62 per cent) spontaneously affected animals from 2 to 4 years of age or older, but were not found in 16 unaffected deer of from a few months to 12 years of age.19853973104
thoracic complications of amebic abscess of the liver: report of 501 cases.during an 18-year period, 501 cases of thoracic complications of amebic abscess of the liver were studied; 175 had inflammatory reactions of thoracic structures (165 with pleural effusions and pneumonitis, ten with pericarditis) and 326 ruptured through the diaphragm (175 into the airways, 106 into the pleural cavity, 5 into the pericardium, 39 into the airways and pleura, and 1 into the pleura and pericardium). the thoracic complication was preceded by a picture suggesting an acute inflammatory ...19817226956
chronic wasting disease of captive mule deer: a spongiform the past 12 years (1967-79) a syndrome we identify as chronic wasting disease has been observed in 53 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) held in captivity in several wildlife facilities in colorado and more recently in wyoming. clinical signs were seen in adult deer and included behavioral alterations, progressive weight loss and death in 2 weeks to 8 months. gross necropsy findings included emaciation and excess rumen fluid ad ...19807373730
[scrapie in sheep and transmissible encephalopathy of the mink].scrapie in sheep and goat is the prototype of the group of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies which affect man and some animal species, notably other ruminants with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and chronic wasting disease of wild ruminants. transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) is a rare disease of ranch-raised mink caused by exposure to a contaminated food ingredient in the ration scrapie, unrecognised bse-like disease...). there is clinical and pathological similarities ...19957777384
electron microscopic findings in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease.we report here the electron microscopic findings in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease (cdw), a progressive and fatal neurological disorder of wild ruminants characterized neuropathologically by intraneuronal vacuolation, spongiform change of the neuropil and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. ultrastructural findings included membrane-bound vacuoles in neuronal elements, increased number of glial filaments, dystrophic neurites, numerous neuritic plaques, hirano bodies ...19947982031
lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus induces a chronic wasting disease in mice lacking class i major histocompatibility complex glycoproteins.lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (lcmv) induces a chronic, wasting syndrome when injected intracerebrally into h-2b mice homozygous for a beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m (-/-)) gene disruption. these mice have very few cd8+ t cells and express little class i mhc glycoprotein, though minimal levels of the h-2db molecule have been detected on in vitro cultured beta 2-m (-/-) cells. the underlying immunopathological process in these beta 2-m (-/-) mice is mediated by virus immune cd4+ effectors. h ...19938103060
the biology and molecular biology of scrapie-like diseases.the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse's) are degenerative diseases of the central nervous system which naturally affect man (creutzfeldt-jakob disease [cjd], gerstmann-sträussler syndrome [gss], kuru), sheep and goats (scrapie), cattle (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [bse]), mink (transmissible mink encephalopathy), mule deer, elk and antelope (chronic wasting disease). spongiform encephalopathies have also been diagnosed in captive species of zoo antelope and in domestic cats. mu ...19938219804
fibrils in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease contain scrapie amyloid.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive, fatal neurological disorder of captive mule deer and rocky mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by spongiform change in the neuropil, intraneuronal vacuolation and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. recently, scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques have been demonstrated in brain tissues of cwd-affected captive mule deer, rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer. we now report on the presence of abno ...19938372644
neuropathology of chronic wasting disease of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).the pathology of the central nervous system of nine mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and six elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, a spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer and elk, was studied by light microscopy. lesions were similar in both species and were characterized by spongiform transformation of gray matter, intracytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, neuronal degeneration and loss, astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, occurrence of amyloid plaques, and absence of si ...19938442326
ultrastructural neuropathology of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive and uniformly fatal neurological disorder, is characterized neuropathologically by intraneuronal vacuolation, spongiform change of the neuropil and astrocytic hyperplasia and hypertrophy. ultrastructural neuropathological findings consist of (1) extensive vacuolation in neuronal processes, within myelin sheaths, formed by splitting at the major dense lines or within axons; (2) dystrophic neurites (dendrites, axonal preterminals and myelinated axons co ...19938480515
[human spongiform encephalopathies. diseases caused by prions].spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases are common denominators for a group of diseases, all fatal, which show characteristic neuropathological changes. in man the group includes four diseases: kuru, creutzfeldt-jakob's disease (cjd), gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker's disease (gss) and fatal familial insomnia (ffi). in animals it comprises the following six: scrapie (sheep and goats), transmissible mink encephalopathy (mink), chronic wasting disease (mule/elk), exotic ungulate encephalopath ...19968701521
[serum sodium imbalance in the bedridden elderly. part one: realities and problem of management].symptoms and other abnormalities associated with serum sodium imbalance were studied in bedridden elderly and healthy elderly subjects. 1. a significantly higher number of the bedridden elderly suffered from chronic wasting disease. 2. the average serum sodium concentration in bedridden elderly subjects was significantly lower than in healthy subjects, as was the sodium intake and the sodium content in urine, which indicate that the bedridden elderly subjects suffered from chronic sodium deficie ...19968797357
fas-dependent cd4+ cytotoxic t-cell-mediated pathogenesis during virus infection.beta 2-microglobulin-deficient (beta 2m-) mice generate a cd4+ major histocompatibility complex class ii-restricted cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (ctl) response following infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis (lcm) virus (lcmv). we have determined the cytotoxic mechanism used by these cd4+ ctls and have examined the role of this cytotoxic activity in pathogenesis of lcm disease in beta 2m- mice. lysis of lcmv-infected target cells by ctls from beta 2m- mice is inhibited by addition of soluble fas ...19968962123
spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral colorado.between march 1981 and june 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral colorado (usa). mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were also affected. clinical signs included emaciation, excessive salivation, behavioral changes, ...19979027685
the 139h scrapie agent produces hypothalamic neurotoxicity and pancreatic islet histopathology: electron microscopic studies.neuronal degeneration, along with astrocytosis, spongiform vacuolation, and amyloid (prpsc) formation, have long been regarded as neuropathological hallmarks of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses). in animals, these diseases include; scrapie, transmissible mink encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease, bovine and feline spongiform encephalopathies, and in humans; kuru, creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd), and gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker syndrome (gss). the abnormal amyloid protein, (p ...19979291501
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in food animals. human food safety and animal feed safety concerns for veterinarians.this article presents a brief overview of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) using examples of diseases that provide evidence supporting oral transmission of the agent. agent theories are described briefly in general terms. scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse), chronic wasting disease, and transmissible mink encephalopathy are discussed to improve disease recognition by the food animal practitioner. control programs for scrapie and bse are described and the role of the v ...19989532667
[transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in animals].transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in animals are known for centuries. in particular scrapie in sheep and goats occurs worldwide; it spreads as a natural disease and is genetically controlled. chronic wasting disease (cwd) in the united states (wyoming and colorado) also spreads as natural disease among free ranging and captive elk and mule deer. in contrast, transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) of mink in fur producing farms is caused by contaminated feed; the source of this food cont ...19989611347
deer health and disease.this paper describes the most significant diseases of farmed deer which have emerged over the last 30 or so years. it describes their characteristic signs, how control measures have evolved, their current status and gives an indication of future diagnostic and control measures. overall, it shows that wild deer brought into a farming environment have developed some of the production limiting diseases which affect sheep and cattle, such as parasitism and trace element deficiencies. in addition, fa ...19989704536
epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in captive rocky mountain elk.between june 1986 and may 1997, chronic wasting disease (cwd) was the only natural cause of adult mortality among captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) held at a wildlife research facility near fort collins, colorado (usa). of 23 elk that remained in this herd > 15 mo, four (17%) developed cwd. all affected elk were unrelated females from the founding cohort, captured as neonates and raised in 1986. the index case was diagnosed in 1989; time intervals between subsequent cases range ...19989706562
[biology of non-conventional transmissible agents or prions].transmissible subacute spongiform encephalopathies (tse) are a group of human and animal diseases which includes creutzfeldt-jakob disease, gerstmann-straüssler-scheinker syndrome (gss), kuru, fatal familial insomnia (ffi), scrapie in sheep and goat, mink and feline transmissible encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease, and bovine spongiforme encephalopathy (bse). tse are transmissible among individuals of the same species and some of different species. these diseases stem from a specific catego ...19989773035
cecocolic and cecocecal intussusception in horses: 30 cases (1976-1996).to determine the prognosis in horses with cecocolic or cecocecal intussusception.19999887945
bovine spongiform encephalopathy and new variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease.bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) belong to a group of degenerative neurological disorders collectively known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses). the group also includes scrapie of sheep and goats, kuru of humans, chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk and transmissible encephalopathy of mink. these fatal diseases cause behavioural changes, alterations of sensation, changes in mental state and ataxia. the typical pathology is no ...199810326298
use of capillary electrophoresis and fluorescent labeled peptides to detect the abnormal prion protein in the blood of animals that are infected with a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans and in animals are fatal neuro-degenerative diseases with long incubation times. the putative cause of these diseases is a normal host protein, the prion protein, that becomes altered. this abnormal prion protein is found mostly in the brains of infected individuals in later stages of the disease, but also can be found in lymphoid and other tissues in lower amounts. in order to eradicate this disease in animals, it is important to develop a sys ...199910486728
prp genotypes of captive and free-ranging rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.the prp gene encodes the putative causative agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), a heterogeneous group of fatal, neurodegenerative disorders including human creutzfeldt-jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, ovine scrapie and chronic wasting disease (cwd) of north american deer and elk. polymorphisms in the prp gene are associated with variations in relative susceptibility, pathological lesion patterns, incubation times and clinical course of tses of humans, m ...199910573173
evidence of a molecular barrier limiting susceptibility of humans, cattle and sheep to chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of deer and elk, and little is known about its transmissibility to other species. an important factor controlling interspecies tse susceptibility is prion protein (prp) homology between the source and recipient species/genotypes. furthermore, the efficiency with which the protease-resistant prp (prp-res) of one species induces the in vitro conversion of the normal prp (prp-sen) of another species to the protease-res ...200010970836
epizootiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids in colorado and wyoming.surveillance and epidemic modeling were used to study chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that occurs naturally among sympatric, free-ranging deer (odocoileus spp.) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in contiguous portions of northeastern colorado and southeastern wyoming (usa). we used clinical case submissions to identify endemic areas, then used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 5,513 deer and elk sample ...200011085429
detection of bias in harvest-based estimates of chronic wasting disease prevalence in mule deer.diseased animals may exhibit behavioral shifts that increase or decrease their probability of being randomly sampled. in harvest-based sampling approaches, animal movements, changes in habitat utilization, changes in breeding behaviors during harvest periods, or differential susceptibility to harvest via behaviors like hiding or decreased sensitivity to stimuli may result in a non-random sample that biases prevalence estimates. we present a method that can be used to determine whether bias exist ...200011085430
immunohistochemical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in preclinically affected elk from a captive immunohistochemical (ihc) method was used to test brain tissues from 17 elk in a captive herd in which chronic wasting disease (cwd) had previously occurred. the ihc technique detects the protease-resistant prion protein (prp-res), which is considered a disease-specific marker for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse), regardless of the species affected. of the 17 elk tested, 10 were positive by ihc. only 2 of these 10 animals had shown clinical signs and histologic lesions of cwd, ...200011108464
a novel erythroid-specific marker of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse) are a group of invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases and include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) in cattle, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, and kuru disease, creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) and variant cjd in humans. the pathological effects of disease occur predominantly in the cns (central nervous system), where common hallmarks include vacuolation, gliosis, accumulation of a protease-resistant, abnormally ...200111231637
preliminary findings on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease agent of mule deer to determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (cwd) to cattle and to provide information about clinical course, lesions, and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of cwd in cattle, 13 calves were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from mule deer naturally affected with cwd. between 24 and 27 months postinoculation, 3 animals became recumbent and were euthanized. gross necropsies revealed emaciation in 2 animals and a large pulmonary absces ...200111243374
[clinical findings of cows who originated from dairy herds with chronic wasting disease].since spring 1999, a number of dairy farms have reported problems with wasting in cattle. after calving, the physical condition of the cows deteriorated for reasons unknown. chronic wasting is also associated with disorders such as lameness, abortion, endometritis, mastitis, and respiratory problems. between april 1999 and march 2000, 19 cows were sent to the faculty of veterinary medicine for further investigation of the chronic wasting. clinical and pathological investigations resulted in a br ...200111285637
[management and herd performance of dairy herds with and without chronic wasting disease].'chronic wasting' in cattle acquired a special meaning in the netherlands in 1999. it was used to define animal health problems that were thought to be associated with the use of bovine herpesvirus 1 marker vaccine. criteria have not been set by which an objectively independent inventory of the problems could be made. the objective of this study was to determine management factors associated with the problem of 'chronic wasting' prior to the use of the bhv1 marker vaccine. knowledge about these ...200111285640
[chronic wasting disease. what do we know for sure at this point?]. 200111285651
health protocol for translocation of free-ranging elk.when considering an elk (cervus elaphus) restoration program, wildlife managers must evaluate the positive and negative elements of translocation. we prepared this protocol to give an overview of health considerations associated with translocation of elk, with an emphasis on movement of free-ranging elk from western north america to the southeastern usa. we evaluated infectious agents and ectoparasites reported in elk from two perspectives. first, we made a qualitative estimate of the ability of ...200111504216
participatory diagnosis of a chronic wasting disease in cattle in southern southern sudan, livestock keepers identified a chronic wasting disease in adult cattle as one of their most-serious animal-health problems. participatory-appraisal (pa) methods and conventional veterinary-investigation methods were used to characterise the chronic wasting disease and identify linkages between indigenous knowledge and modern veterinary knowledge. the local characterisation of chronic wasting encompassed trypanosomosis, fasciolosis, parasitic gastroenteritis and schistosomosis ...200111535278
prp(cwd) in the myenteric plexus, vagosympathetic trunk and endocrine glands of deer with chronic wasting disease.accumulated evidence in experimental and natural prion disease systems supports a neural route of infectious prion spread from peripheral sites of entry to the central nervous system. however, little is known about prion trafficking routes in cervids with a naturally occurring prion disease known as chronic wasting disease (cwd). in the brain, the pathogenic isoform of the prion protein (prp(cwd)) accumulates initially in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. to assess whether alimentary- ...200111562526
creutzfeldt-jakob disease in unusually young patients who consumed venison.creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) in humans and chronic wasting disease (cwd) in deer and elk occur in the united states. recent reports of 3 unusually young patients with cjd who regularly consumed deer or elk meat created concern about the possible zoonotic transmission of cwd.200111594928
viral, parasitic and prion diseases of farmed deer and bison.the most important viral disease of farmed deer and bison is malignant catarrhal fever. the other herpesviruses which have been isolated from these species are briefly described. other viral agents that are recognised in these animals, including adenovirus, parapox, foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bovine virus diarrhoea, rotavirus and coronavirus, are also discussed. ectoparasites of importance in this group in various parts of the world include a variety of t ...200211974612
chronic wasting disease in deer and elk in north america.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has emerged as an important disease of wildlife in north america. the disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) or prion diseases, which naturally affect only a few species. of the tses, cwd is the only one found in free-ranging species. however, interest in cwd has recently grown, by association with the better-known tses such as variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease of humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. knowledge of t ...200211974617
wisconsin mobilizes to battle chronic wasting disease. 200212092943
prion diseases: pathogenesis and public health concerns.transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) agents or prions induce neurodegenerative fatal diseases in humans and in some mammalian species. human tses include creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd), gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker syndrome, kuru and fatal familial insomnia. in animals, scrapie in sheep and goats, feline spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible mink encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease in wild ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse), which appeared in the uk in the m ...200212354606
bovine spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease, scrapie, and the threat to humans from prion disease epizootics.ongoing endemics and epidemics of prion disease afflict several species of ruminants regularly consumed by humans. bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) is epidemic in british cattle, and is now found in the cattle of more than 20 countries. a large, and apparently growing, epidemic of chronic wasting disease plagues deer and elk in north america. finally, scrapie has been endemic in the sheep of most countries for many decades. it was once assumed that humans were not susceptible to these rumi ...200212359101
elk restoration in ontario, canada: infectious disease management strategy, 1998-2001.ontario has embarked upon a program to restore elk (cervus elaphus) that were once native to that province. a comprehensive disease-management strategy has ensured that elk are free of infectious diseases such as brucellosis and tuberculosis prior to shipment to ontario. postmortem analysis occurs on elk mortalities in ontario to ensure that elk are not infected with diseases such as chronic wasting disease and tuberculosis. between 1998 and 2001, a total of 443 elk were transported from elk isl ...200212381618
measuring prions causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy or chronic wasting disease by immunoassays and transgenic mice.there is increasing concern over the extent to which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) prions have been transmitted to humans, as a result of the rising number of variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease (vcjd) cases. toward preventing new transmissions, diagnostic tests for prions in livestock have been developed using the conformation-dependent immunoassay (cdi), which simultaneously measures specific antibody binding to denatured and native forms of the prion protein (prp). we employed high-aff ...200212389035
a case of chronic wasting disease in an elk imported to korea from canada.a seven-year-old male elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) was euthanized and necropsied after having a 3-week history of body weight loss, emaciation, excessive salivation, teeth grinding, fever, anorexia, and respiratory distress. the elk was imported into korea from canada on march 9, 1997. gross pathologic findings were restricted to a diffuse fibrinous pneumonia. microscopic lesions included mild neuronal vacuolation and spongiform change in the neuropil of selected brain stem nuclei and generalize ...200212399615
comparison of abnormal prion protein glycoform patterns from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agent-infected deer, elk, sheep, and cattle.analysis of abnormal prion protein glycoform patterns from chronic wasting disease (cwd)-affected deer and elk, scrapie-affected sheep and cattle, and cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy failed to identify patterns capable of reliably distinguishing these transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases. however, prp-res patterns sometimes differed among individual animals, suggesting infection by different or multiple cwd strains in some species.200212414979
detection of prp(cwd) in mule deer by immunohistochemistry of lymphoid tissues. 200212463538
chronic wasting disease in a rocky mountain elk.a 24-month-old rocky mountain elk was presented because of suspected chronic wasting disease (cwd). the animal was emaciated, had retained its winter hair, and had abnormal behavior patterns suggestive of cwd, including bruxism, ptyalism, and diminished flight zone size. immunohistochemical analysis of the brain confirmed the diagnosis of cwd.200212497966
screening for chronic wasting disease in caribou in northern quebec. 200212497968
a genetic approach to the problem of chronic wasting disease in wisconsin. 200212557609
fatal degenerative neurologic illnesses in men who participated in wild game feasts--wisconsin, 2002.creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) is a fatal neurologic disorder in humans. cjd is one of a group of conditions known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), or prion diseases, that are believed to be caused by abnormally configured, host-encoded prion proteins that accumulate in the central nervous tissue. cjd has an annual incidence of approximately 1 case per million population in the united states and occurs in three forms: sporadic, genetically determined, and acquired by infecti ...200312617536
preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of scrapie to elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) by intracerebral determine the transmissibility of scrapie to rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), six elk calves were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from sheep naturally affected with scrapie. one elk developed a brain abscess and was euthanatized at 7 weeks postinoculation (pi), and two others died at 6 and 15 months pi because of physical injuries. at 25 and 35 months pi, two other elk died after brief terminal neurologic episodes. necropsy of these revealed moderate weight loss b ...200312627716
from the centers for disease control and prevention. fatal degenerative neurologic illnesses in men who participated in wild game feasts--wisconsin, 2002. 200312636441
validation of monoclonal antibody f99/97.6.1 for immunohistochemical staining of brain and tonsil in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) with chronic wasting disease.a new monoclonal antibody (mab), f99/97.6.1, that has been used to demonstrate scrapie-associated prion protein prp(sc) in brain and lymphoid tissues of domestic sheep with scrapie was used in an immunohistochemistry assay for diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus). the mab f99/97.6.1 immunohistochemistry assay was evaluated in brain and tonsil tissue from 100 mule deer that had spongiform encephalopathy compatible with cwd and from 1,050 mule deer outside ...200212680636
prevalence of chronic wasting disease and bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging deer and elk in south dakota.heads of hunter-harvested deer and elk were collected throughout south dakota (usa) and within established chronic wasting disease (cwd) surveillance areas from 1997-2002 to determine infection with cwd and bovine tuberculosis (tb). we used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 1,672 deer and elk sampled via geographically targeted surveillance. a total of 537 elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), 813 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 322 mule deer (o. hemionus) was ...200312685066
scrapie and chronic wasting disease.scrapie and cwd share many features. there are marked similarities in the clinical presentations, the lesions, and the pathogenesis of these diseases, and some similarities in the epidemiology. extrapolation from the scrapie model of tse disease to cwd--which occurs in three different species, and should not be considered to be uniform in their response--may be erroneous, however. such differences may influence diagnostics (e.g., the amount and distribution of prpc in these different species), p ...200312733429
chronic wasting disease in free-ranging wisconsin white-tailed deer.three white-tailed deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). this discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern united states.200312737746
widespread prpsc accumulation in muscles of hamsters orally infected with scrapie.scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and chronic wasting disease are orally communicable, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses). as zoonotic transmissions of tse agents may pose a risk to human health, the identification of reservoirs for infectivity in animal tissues and their exclusion from human consumption has become a matter of great importance for consumer protection. in this study, a variety of muscles from hamsters that were orally challenged with scrapie was screened for ...200312776740
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in non-domestic animals: origin, transmission and risk factors.the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse), are serious diseases of domestic animals. although not as significant in terms of numbers of animals affected or geographical distribution, tses also affect non-domestic animals. transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) was the first tse to be identified in non-domestic animals. this disease of captive mink (mustela vison) is very rare and is associated with exposure through feed contaminated ...200312793777
risk management of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in north north american free trade agreement partners, canada, the united states of america (usa) and mexico apply independent but harmonised transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) risk management strategies in observance of office international des epizooties guidelines. the divergence between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) risk management approaches in north american and europe reflects comparatively reduced external and internal bse risks in north america. the external quarantine and ...200312793780
field validation and assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting chronic wasting disease in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).tissue samples (n = 25,050 total) from 23,256 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) collected statewide in colorado were examined for chronic wasting disease (cwd) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed by bio-rad laboratories, inc. (brelisa), in a 2-phase study. in the validation phase of this study, a total of 4,175 retropharyngeal lymph nodes (rln) or obex (ob) tissue samples were examined ind ...200312918810
abundant prp(cwd) in tonsil from mule deer with preclinical chronic wasting disease.a monoclonal antibody dot-blot assay was used to evaluate detergent lysates of tonsil tissue from mule deer to detect prp(cwd), the marker for the cervid transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (cwd). samples of formalin-fixed brain and tonsil tissues from mule deer were examined for prp(cwd) using immunohistochemistry (ihc) with mab f99/97.6.1, the gold standard for diagnosis of preclinical cwd. the contralateral tonsil from each of the 143 deer was prepared for confirma ...200312918811
experimental inoculation of scrapie and chronic wasting disease agents in raccoons (procyon lotor). 200312918830
chronic wasting disease in deer and elk: scientific facts and findings.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a prion disease of cervids such as deer and elk in north america. unlike other transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) such as scrapie, cwd occurs in both captive and wild ranging animals, but not in domestic ruminants such as sheep and cattle. in this paper, the history of the disease, pathogenesis of cwd, susceptibility of animals, its transmission mechanisms, potential origins of the disease, diagnostic methods in the field and laboratory tests, surveill ...200312939501
introduction to the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases.sheep scrapie has been known for at least 200 years and was described as a transmissible disease over 100 years ago. since then, three groups of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or tse diseases have been identified in humans including familial, infectious and sporadic types. the discovery of the prion protein (prp) in the 1980s greatly accelerated knowledge of the biology and pathogenesis of tse diseases as this protein was found to play a critical role in disease susceptibility and the ...200314522845
other animal prion addition to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) of cattle and scrapie of sheep and goats, a few other animal prion diseases have been reported. these include feline spongiform encephalopathy of zoological and domestic cats (fse) and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of zoological ruminants and non-human primates, as well as chronic wasting disease of deer and elk (cwd) and transmissible mink encephalopathy of farmed mink (tme). the origins of tse in cats, zoo bovids, and non-hu ...200314522860
prion gene sequence variation within diverse groups of u.s. sheep, beef cattle, and deer.prions are proteins that play a central role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in a variety of mammals. among the most notable prion disorders in ungulates are scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, and chronic wasting disease in deer. single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sheep prion gene ( prnp) have been correlated with susceptibility to natural scrapie in some populations. similar correlations have not been reported in cattle or deer; however, characterizat ...200314722726
a processed pseudogene contributes to apparent mule deer prion gene heterogeneity.pathogenesis and transmission of the prion disorders (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, tses) are mediated by a modified isoform of the prion protein (prp). prion protein gene (prnp) alleles associated with relative susceptibility to tse have been identified in sheep, humans and possibly elk. comparable data have not been derived for mule deer, a species susceptible to the tse chronic wasting disease (cwd). initial analysis of the open reading frame (orf) in exon 3 of the mule deer prnp ...200414729275
monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of creutzfeldt-jakob disease in the united states. 200312557850
transmission of transmissible mink encephalopathy to raccoons (procyon lotor) by intracerebral determine the transmissibility of transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) agent to raccoons and to provide information about clinical course, lesions, and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) in raccoons, 4 raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with a brain suspension from mink experimentally infected with tme. one uninoculated raccoon kit served as a control. all 4 animals in the tme-inoculated group show ...200414974848
differential responses of bovine macrophages to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium are antigenically and genetically similar organisms; however, they differ in their virulence for cattle. m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes a chronic intestinal infection leading to a chronic wasting disease termed paratuberculosis or johne's disease, whereas m. avium subsp. avium causes only a transient infection. we compared the response of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages to ingestion of m. avium subsp. p ...200212228282
comparison of histological lesions and immunohistochemical staining of proteinase-resistant prion protein in a naturally occurring spongiform encephalopathy of free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) with those of chronic wasting disease of captive mule this investigation, the nature and distribution of histologic lesions and immunohistochemical staining (ihc) of a proteinase-resistant prion protein were compared in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) dying of a naturally occurring spongiform encephalopathy (se) and captive mule deer dying of chronic wasting disease (cwd). sixteen free-ranging deer with se, 12 free-ranging deer without se, and 10 captive deer with cwd were examined at necropsy. tissue sections were stained with hema ...200212102202
participatory analysis of seasonal incidences of diseases of cattle, disease vectors and rainfall in southern sudan.during an investigation into a chronic wasting disease in southern sudanese cattle, a participatory appraisal method called a 'seasonal calendar' was used to understand local perceptions of seasonal variations in cattle diseases, disease vectors, intermediate hosts and rainfall. repetition of a standardized seasonal calendar with dinka informants demonstrated good reproducibility of the method. comparison of rainfall data produced by seasonal calendars and objective measures of rainfall demonstr ...200211937234
prion protein and the molecular features of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents.transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) diseases, or prion diseases, are neurodegenerative diseases found in a number of mammals, including man. although they are generally rare, tses are always fatal, and as of yet there are no practical therapeutic avenues to slow the course of disease. the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) in the uk greatly increased the awareness of tse diseases. although it appears that bse has not spread to north america, chronic wasting disease (cwd ...200415148986
chronic wasting disease of cervids.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has recently emerged in north america as an important prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervids (species in the deer family). cwd is the only recognized transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting free-ranging species. three cervid species, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), are the only known natural hosts of cwd. endemic cwd is well established in southern wyomin ...200415148993
president walther encourages federal funding to battle cwd. 200415154714
molecular aspects of disease pathogenesis in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) diseases are a group of rare, fatal, and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases that include kuru and creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) in humans, scrapie in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme), and chronic wasting disease (cwd) in mule deer and elk. over the last 20 yr, they have gone from a fascinating but relatively obscure group of diseases to one that is a major agricultural and economic problem as well as a threat to human health ...200415156065
the host range of chronic wasting disease is altered on passage in ferrets.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), was first identified in captive mule and black-tail deer in 1967. due to the failure to transmit cwd to rodents, we investigated the use of ferrets (mustela putorius furo) as a small animal model of cwd. the inoculation of cwd into ferrets resulted in an incubation period of 17-21 months on primary passage that shortened to 5 months by the third ferret passage. the brain tissue of animals inoculated ...19989837794
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in ruminants.transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) have been observed in north american sheep, cervidae, and cattle. the causative agent of tses seems to be proteins that induce a conformational change in normal host proteins. common clinical signs oftses include chronic weight loss and deteriorating neurologic function. mechanisms of tse transmission vary among host species. the diagnostic approach for tses of ruminants is presented,and the history and justification of regulatory programs to cont ...200415203228
chronic wasting disease in canada: part 1.the purpose of part 1 is to provide an overview of published literature (1980-2002) on chronic wasting disease (cwd) to inform canadian readers about the disease and to explain canadian regulatory approaches to the surveillance and control of cwd. much of the scientific information is drawn from american publications obtained from internet searches in pubmed and medline databases. the following keywords were used: chronic wasting disease, prion, diagnosis, transmissible spongiform encephalopathi ...200415206588
chronic wasting disease and potential transmission to humans.chronic wasting disease (cwd) of deer and elk is endemic in a tri-corner area of colorado, wyoming, and nebraska, and new foci of cwd have been detected in other parts of the united states. although detection in some areas may be related to increased surveillance, introduction of cwd due to translocation or natural migration of animals may account for some new foci of infection. increasing spread of cwd has raised concerns about the potential for increasing human exposure to the cwd agent. the f ...200415207045
bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the united states--an epidemiologist's view. 200414762179
linking chronic wasting disease to scrapie by comparison of spiroplasma mirum ribosomal dna sequences.transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of man and animals and are transmitted by a filterable pathogen whose identity is currently unresolved. our data indicates that spiroplasma, a wall-less bacterium, is involved in the pathogenesis of tse. we searched for spiroplasma ribosomal gene sequences in 10 scrapie-infected sheep brains and 10 normal sheep brains, 7 cervid samples infected with chronic wasting disease (cwd), and 7 normal cervid brains. dna ...200415215050
unicorn tapestries, horned animals, and prion disease. 200415224680
elucidation of endemic neurodegenerative diseases--a commentary.recent investigations of scrapie, creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd), and chronic wasting disease (cwd) clusters in iceland, slovakia and colorado, respectively, have indicated that the soil in these regions is low in copper and higher in manganese, and it has been well-known that patients of als or parkinson's disease were collectively found in the new guinea and papua islands, where the subterranean water (drinking water) contains much al3+ and mn2+ ions. above facts suggest that these neurodegen ...200314577644
progress and problems in the biology, diagnostics, and therapeutics of prion diseases.the term "prion" was introduced by stanley prusiner in 1982 to describe the atypical infectious agent that causes transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, a group of infectious neurodegenerative diseases that include scrapie in sheep, creutzfeldt-jakob disease in humans, chronic wasting disease in cervids, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. over the past twenty years, the word "prion" has been taken to signify various subtly different concepts. in this article, we refer to the pri ...200415254579
transmission of sheep scrapie to elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) by intracerebral inoculation: final outcome of the experiment.this is a final report of an experimental transmission of sheep scrapie agent by intracerebral inoculation to rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). it documents results obtained in experimental (n = 6) and control (n = 2) elk. during the first 2 years postinoculation (pi), 3 animals died or were euthanized because of infection or injuries other than spongiform encephalopathy (se). in years 3 and 4 pi, 3 other inoculated elk died after brief terminal neurological episodes. necropsy of thes ...200415305743
prion protein gene heterogeneity in free-ranging white-tailed deer within the chronic wasting disease affected region of wisconsin.chronic wasting disease (cwd) was first identified in wisconsin (usa) in whitetailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in february 2002. to determine if prion protein gene (prnp) allelic variability was associated with cwd in white-tailed deer from wisconsin, we sequenced prnp from 26 cwd-positive and 100 cwd-negative deer. sequence analysis of prnp suggests that at least 86-96% of the white-tailed deer in this region have prnp allelic combinations that will support cwd infection. four prnp alleles ...200314567218
variable patterns of distribution of prp(cwd) in the obex and cranial lymphoid tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with subclinical chronic wasting disease.sections of medulla oblongata, taken at the level of the obex, palatine tonsil and medial retropharyngeal lymph node from 10,269 captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), were examined by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody for the prion protein associated with the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, chronic wasting disease (prp(cwd)). the protein was detected in 226 of them. on the basis of the anatomical location of the deposits in the brainstem of ...200415478500
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