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hosts on which nymphal ixodes ricinus most abundantly feed.to identify hosts that may serve as european reservoirs for the agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, we determined whether nymphal ixodes ricinus feed mainly on particular mice (apodemus flavicollis or a. agrarius), voles (clethrionomys glareolus) or on sand lizards (lacerta agilis) and whether the abundance of these hosts corresponds to the seasonal activity of the subadult stages of the vector tick. in all sites, the mice appeared most heavily infested by larvae; at least seven parasit ...19911996733
subadult ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) on rodents in berlin, west germany.to identify hosts that may serve as reservoirs for the agent of lyme disease in central europe, we determined whether ixodes ricinus l. feed most frequently on certain rodents and whether the abundance of these hosts corresponds to the season of feeding activity of the tick in four sites in berlin, federal republic of germany. in addition, we correlated abundance of i. ricinus with that of particular rodent hosts. two small rodents were more abundant than any others; a mouse, apodemus flavicolli ...19902332880
first isolations of borrelia burgdorferi from rodents collected in northern europe.spirochetes were found in 13% of ixodes ricinus collected from an island, near stockholm where human borreliosis is endemic. borrelia burgdorferi was cultivated from the kidney and/or spleen of wild rodents (clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus flavicollis) from the same island. spirochetes were identified as borrelia burgdorferi by indirect immunofluorescence assays using species and genus specific monoclonal antibodies. in these tests the spirochetes could not be differentiated from strains pr ...19883190915
prevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in danish rodents.six rodent species from six danish localities were examined for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi by immunofluorescence assay (ifa). a total of 1097 specimens were tested using a serum titre of 1:8. the wild mice apodemus sylvaticus and a. flavicollis had high prevalences of b. burgdorferi antibodies of 42.1% and 27.9% respectively, but the vole microtus agrestis also showed an exceptionally high prevalence of 32.7%. clethrionomys glareolus had a low average prevalence of 17.4%. the lowest and ...19957612254
clethrionomys glareolus, but not apodemus flavicollis, acquires resistance to ixodes ricinus l., the main european vector of borrelia burgdorferi.the european rodents clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) and apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked-mouse) are important hosts of the tick species ixodes ricinus, the main european vector of borrelia burgdorferi. we have addressed the question whether or not these tick hosts develop resistance to i. ricinus larvae. c. glareolus and a. flavicollis were exposed to 40 i. ricinus larvae for five consecutive times at two week intervals. resistance was tested by the following parameters: percentage of ti ...19957624158
strain variation of lyme disease spirochetes isolated from ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents collected in two endemic areas in switzerland.the relationship among lyme borreliosis, borrelia genospecies, rodent reservoirs, and ixodes ricinus l. ticks was studied in two endemic areas in switzerland. ear punch biopsies and sampling of internal organs were used to isolate borrelia burgdorferi (johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt and brenner) from small mammals, apodemus sylvaticus l., a. flavicollis melchoir, clethrionomys glareolus schreber. spirochetes were isolated from ear tissue and spleen of the rodents. isolates were homogeneous a ...19957650703
transmission of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. from mammal reservoirs to the primary vector of lyme borreliosis, ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae), in sweden.factors regulating prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner in ixodes ricinus (l.) were examined during 1991-1992 at bogesund, near stockholm in south-central sweden. nine species of small and medium-sized mammals (sorex araneus l., s. minutus l., neomys fodiens pennant, clethrionomys glareolus [schreber], microtus agrestis [l.], apodemus sylvaticus [l.], a. flavicollis [melchior], lepus europaeus pallas, l. timidus l.) were found to infect feeding tic ...19947815401
borrelia burgdorferi in rodents (apodemus flavicollis and a. sylvaticus): duration and enhancement of infectivity for ixodes ricinus ticks.ixodes ricinus is an important vector of borrelia burgdorferi in europe, and small rodents (apodemus flavicollis, a. sylvaticus and clethrionomys glareolus) are important sources for infecting ticks. in this study, we examined their reservoir role by studying the duration of their infectivity for ticks. a. flavicollis and a. sylvaticus mice captured in nature were exposed to uninfected i. ricinus larvae at different times after their capture: 10 days, and 2, 7, 11, 14 and 40 months. ticks were e ...19947957795
differential immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi in european wild rodent species influence spirochete transmission to ixodes ricinus l. (acari: ixodidae).immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi and their influence on spirochete transmission to ixodes ricinus were analyzed in the natural european reservoir hosts; i.e., the mouse species apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked mouse) and apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse) and the vole species clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole), and, in addition, in the laboratory mouse strain nmri. naive and preimmunized rodents were infected either by artificially infected i. ricinus larvae or by intradermal injection ...19947960113
borrelia burgdorferi in a focus of lyme borreliosis: epizootiologic contribution of small mammals.the contribution of woodmice (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mice (apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) was compared in a focus of lyme borreliosis in switzerland during a 7 months' study. all three species of mice and one species of shrews (sorex araneus) were shown parasitized by infected ixodes ricinus immatures. about 14% of larvae and 50% of nymphs collected on small mammals were infected with b. burgdorferi. spirochetes were isolated from blood of 3 woodmice ...19938325567
seasonal variation in the capacity of the bank vole to infect larval ticks (acari: ixodidae) with the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.seasonal variation in the capacity of bank voles, clethrionomys glareolus (schreber), to infect larval ixodes ricinus (l.) ticks with borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner was examined from may through october 1991 at bogesund, near stockholm in south-central sweden. although larval infestations of bank voles were greatest in june and july, nearly 70% of all larval ticks infected with spirochetes by bank voles at this site became infected during august and september. ...19938360909
maintenance by hares of european borrelia burgdorferi in ecosystems without rodents.during may-october 1991 shrews (sorex spp.), small rodents (apodemus spp., clethrionomys glareolus [schreber]), and hares (lepus spp.) were sampled near stockholm, sweden. nymphal ixodes ricinus (l.) derived from blood-engorged larvae collected from these mammals were investigated by phase-contrast microscopy and immunofluorescence assay (ifa) using the monoclonal antibody h6831 directed against the ospb protein of borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner. three rodent s ...19938433337
infestation of rodents with larval ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) is an important factor in the transmission cycle of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in german woodlands.the ecology of borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. s.l. was investigated from 1987 to 1993 in a preserved woodland in western germany near bonn. in selected biotopes, host-seeking ixodes ricinus l. were regularly collected by blanket dragging in 1987, 1988, and 1989 and screened for infection with b. burgdorferi. rodents were trapped monthly between april and october in 1988, 1990, 1991, and in the winter of 1992-1993, examined for antibodies to b. burgdorferi s.l., and inspected for feeding tic ...19958551503
is the small mammal (clethrionomys glareolus) or the tick vector (ixodes ricinus) the primary overwintering reservoir for the lyme borreliosis spirochete in sweden?we determined the capacity of bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) to infect feeding ixodes ricinus ticks with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (infectivity), during june to october 1991 and june to september 1992 in south-central sweden. in both years, the infectivity of older voles to ticks was higher in august to september (48% to 59%) than in june to july (20% to 32%). we propose that the infectivity of bank vole populations in sweden decreases during winter and spring due to death of highly ...19958592387
[features of the parasitic system of ixodid ticks--borrelia--small mammals in the russian northwest].mammals and ticks was collected in 1995-1997 years in novgorod region from may to september. traps were exposed during 5 consecutive days every month in 4 different biotopes. 928 hosts were captured during three years. 357 larvae and 59 nymphs of ixodes persulcatus, 356 larvae and 71 nymphs of i. trianguliceps were collected. the clethrionomys glareolus and sorex araneus are main hosts of larvae of i. persulcatus and i. trianguliceps. c. glareolus feed 76.2% of i. persulcatus larvae and 25% of i ...19989859127
pcr detection of granulocytic ehrlichiae in ixodes ricinus ticks and wild small mammals in western switzerland.the presence of granulocytic ehrlichiae was demonstrated by pcr in ixodes ricinus ticks and wild small mammals in switzerland in two areas of endemicity for bovine ehrlichiosis. six ticks (three females and three nymphs) (1.4%) of 417 i. ricinus ticks collected by flagging vegetation contained ehrlichial dna. a total of 201 small mammals from five species, wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis), earth vole (pitymys subterraneus), bank vole (clethrionomys gla ...200010698987
prevalence of igg antibodies response to borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in populations of wild rodents from mazury lakes district region of poland.three rodent species: clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus flavicollis and microtus arvalis from mazury lakes district of poland were examined for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme-labelled protein g assay (elga). c. glareolus had an exceptionally high prevalence of b. burgdorferi antibodies - 58%, but a. flavicollis and m. arvalis also showed significant prevalence of 16.6% and 10.5%, respectively. the elga method is highly specific with good reproducibility. nevertheless, some differen ...200011153035
prevalence of coinfection with francisella tularensis in reservoir animals of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.studies on lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne zoonoses in the austrian and slovakian borderland, a region endemic for tularemia, revealed a relatively high prevalence of infection with borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and francisella tularensis in small terrestrial mammals, as well as in the ticks, during a one-year survey. the occurrence of coinfection with the agents of lyme borreliosis and tularemia was assessed in different species of rodents.200212422587
association of borrelia afzelii with rodents in europe.borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) is maintained in nature by complex zoonotic transmission cycles, involving a large variety of vertebrates as hosts and hard ticks of the genus ixodes as vectors. recent studies suggest that the genospecies of b. burgdorferi s.l. and sometimes their subtypes are propagated by different spectra of hosts, mainly birds and rodents. in order to test the concept of host-association, we analysed the relationships between borrelia genospecies, rodent hosts and i. r ...200312613759
two-year study of examination of blood from wild rodents for the presence of antiborrelian antibodies.the aim of our work was to find the positivity rate of antibodrrelian antibodies (igg) in wild-living rodents in a locality situated in north moravia, czech republic. results of a survey for heart rinses (172) and sera (2) antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) from 6 species of 174 wild rodents from the northern part of the czech republic are presented. samples were obtained in 2001-2002 at one locality (studenka, 49 degrees 44', 18 degrees 05'). host samples included yellow-necke ...200314677912
immunoglobulin g antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in game animals and small mammals in eastern slovakia.in a survey of game animals and small mammals, the sera of 185 animals were examined for the presence of immunoglobulin g antibodies to the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which causes lyme borreliosis. these animals comprised 59 fallow deer (dama dama), 56 mouflons (ovis musimon) and 70 small mammals of six different species. the sera of the fallow deer and the mouflons were examined by indirect haemagglutination assay. the sera of the small mammals were examined by modified enzyme- ...200315005560
the zoonotic reservoir of borrelia burgdorferisensu lato in the mazury lakes district of north-eastern poland.the roles of two species of rodents: the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) and the yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis) in maintaining the vector ixodes ricinus and borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were studied. more particularly, seasonal patterns of rodent abundance and infestation rate with i. ricinus ticks as well as the prevalence of b. burgdorferi s.l. and the two species b. garinii and b. afzelii were determined. the studies were carried out in woodlands at urwitałt near mikołajki on the ...200415147002
anti-borrelia antibodies in rodents: important hosts in ecology of lyme disease.data presented in this study focuses on the presence of anti-borrelia antibodies in small mammals from eastern slovakia during 2000-2003. the total seropositivity observed was 18.78% in rodents. amongst all species, the total seroprevalence in apodemus flavicolis was the highest (20.87%), followed by apodemus agrarius (19.58%) and clethrionomys glareolus (11.11%). however, the prevalence in apodemus flavicolis during the year 2000-2001 was higher (26.72%), which reduced to 10.60% in 2002-2003. t ...200415627326
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated in moscow province--a sympatric region for ixodes ricinus and ixodes persulcatus.the relationships between borrelia species and the vector ticks, ixodes persulcatus and ixodes ricinus were examined in a molecular epidemiological study. we conducted a survey in the moscow region which is a sympatric region for both species of tick. we examined 630 unfed i. ricinus and i. persulcatus, ticks collected from four different regions around moscow within an area of 250 km2. eighty-four ticks were culture positive (13.3%) and the prevalence rate varied in each region from 5.7% to 42. ...200515715174
identification of a new borrelia species among small mammals in areas of northern spain where lyme disease is endemic.the role of small mammals as reservoir hosts for borrelia burgdorferi was investigated in several areas where lyme disease is endemic in northern spain. a low rate of infestation by ixodes ricinus nymphs was found in the small mammal populations studied that correlated with the near-absence of b. burgdorferi sensu lato in 184 animals tested and with the lack of transmission of b. burgdorferi sensu lato to i. ricinus larvae that fed on them. in contrast, questing ticks collected at the same time ...200515746336
borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in yellow-necked mice and feeding ixodes ricinus ticks in a forest habitat of west central poland.wild rodents and the subadult ixodes ricinus (l.) ticks infesting them were examined for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner s.l. in a sylvatic habitat in west central poland during may-september 2002. in total, 818 feeding ticks were recovered from 73 infested yellow-necked mice, apodemus flavicollis melchior; in addition, bank voles, clethrionomys glareolus schreber, were rarely captured and proved to be weakly parasitized. only 2.7% of a. flavicol ...200516363171
[prevalence of ixodes ricinus infection with borrelia burgdorferi s.l.: seasonal and annual variations].the present study deals with the ecology of lyme borreliosis in northern poland. the complexity of environmental conditions are: (1) the presence of certain rodent hosts for the borrelia, (2) the seasonal patterns of abundance and infection rate of i. ricinus in the population of rodents and on vegetation, (3) the prevalence of b. burgdorferi s.l., b. garinii and b. afzelii. the long-term studies were carried out on a monthly basis from april to october (1998-2001) in woodlands at urwitałt near ...200416859032
[co-infection of borrelia garinii and b. afzelii in a population of wild rodents from woodland].the maintenance of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the environment is dependent on the zoonotic cycle involving tick vectors and certain reservoir hosts. it is well known, that the same species of wild rodents, as well as the vector ixodes ricinus, are often co-infected with at least two genomospecies of b. burgdorferi s.l.: b. afzelii and b. garinii. the ticks collected from two rodent species: clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus flavicollis were examined for the presence of b. burgdorferi s.l., ...200116886420
seasonal variations in detecting borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from north eastern austria.austria is well known as an endemic area of lyme borreliosis. to assess the annual variation of rodent populations that may host agents of lyme borreliosis we collected rodents in northeastern austria. life traps were set out every six weeks during a year consecutively in one each of the three different zones (hohenau, ernstbrunn, vienna woods) that cover the main habitat characteristics of small mammals in northeastern austria. rodents were collected and identified. samples of heart, urine blad ...200617186171
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in siberian chipmunks (tamias sibiricus) introduced in suburban forests in france.numerous vertebrate reservoirs have been described for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes the etiological agents of lyme borreliosis (lb). the siberian chipmunk (tamias sibiricus) is a rodent originating from asia, where it is suspected to be a b. burgdorferi reservoir. it has been intentionally released into the wild in europe since the 1970s, but has not yet been subject to any study regarding its association with the lb agent. in this paper we studied siberian chipmunk infes ...200718021026
molecular and serological evidence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in wild rodents in the czech republic.the aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and spatial distribution of the borrelia species in wild rodents in the czech republic. in total, 293 muscle tissue samples and 106 sera from 293 wild rodents captured in north bohemia and north-east and south moravia were examined for the presence of borrelia spp. and antibodies. muscle samples were investigated with real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with a reca primer set, with dna quantification and melting curve analysis, an ...200818454596
seasonality of ixodes ricinus ticks on vegetation and on rodents and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies diversity in two lyme borreliosis-endemic areas in switzerland.we compared ixodes ricinus questing density, the infestation of rodents by immature stages, and the diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in questing ticks and ticks collected from rodents in two lyme borreliosis (lb)-endemic areas in switzerland (portes-rouges [pr] and staatswald [sw]) from 2003 to 2005. there were variations in the seasonal pattern of questing tick densities among years. questing nymphs were globally more abundant at pr than at sw, but the proportion of rodents inf ...201222607074
genetic characterization of the human relapsing fever spirochete borrelia miyamotoi in vectors and animal reservoirs of lyme disease spirochetes in france.in france as elsewhere in europe the most prevalent tbd in humans is lyme borreliosis, caused by different bacterial species belonging to borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and transmitted by the most important tick species in france, ixodes ricinus. however, the diagnosis of lyme disease is not always confirmed and unexplained syndromes occurring after tick bites have become an important issue. recently, b. miyamotoi belonging to the relapsing fever group and transmitted by the same ixodes ...201424886071
detection of lyme disease and q fever agents in wild rodents in central italy.the maintenance of tick-borne disease agents in the environment strictly depends on the relationship between tick vectors and their hosts, which act as reservoirs for these pathogens. a pilot study aimed to investigate wild rodents as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), coxiella burnetii, francisella tularensis, and anaplasma phagocytophilum) was carried out in an area of gran sasso e monti della laga national park (abruzzi region, central italy) ...201526134933
eco-epidemiology of borrelia miyamotoi and lyme borreliosis spirochetes in a popular hunting and recreational forest area in hungary.borrelia miyamotoi, the newly discovered human pathogenic relapsing fever spirochete, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are maintained in natural rodent populations. the aim of this study was to investigate the natural cycle of b. miyamotoi and b. burgdorferi s.l. in a forest habitat with intensive hunting, forestry work and recreational activity in southern hungary.201526048373
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection pressure shapes innate immune gene evolution in natural rodent populations across europe.although parasite-mediated selection is assumed to be the main driver of immune gene evolution, empirical evidence that parasites induce allele frequency changes at host immune genes in time and/or space remains scarce. here, i show that the frequency of a protective gene variant of the innate immune receptor toll-like receptor 2 in natural bank vole (myodes glareolus) populations is positively associated with the strength of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection risk across the european con ...201526018834
borrelia miyamotoi and co-infection with borrelia afzelii in ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from slovakia.borrelia miyamotoi causes relapsing fever in humans. the occurrence of this spirochete has been reported in ixodes ricinus and wildlife, but there are still gaps in the knowledge of its eco-epidemiology and public health impact. in the current study, questing i. ricinus (nymphs and adults) and skin biopsies from rodents captured in slovakia were screened for the presence of b. miyamotoi and borrelia burgdorferi s.l. dna. the prevalence of b. miyamotoi and b. burgdorferi s.l. in questing ticks wa ...201727995301
the propensity of voles and mice to transmit borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection to feeding ticks.lyme borreliosis (lb) caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the most common tick-borne zoonosis in the northern hemisphere. b. burgdorferi s.l. can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. ixodes ricinus is the main vector, and small rodents are the most important mammalian reservoirs hosts of b. burgdorferi s.l. in europe. the prevalence of b. burgdorferi s.l. in i. ricinus ticks from captured rodents, calculated specific infectivities, and transmission coefficients we ...201323849517
the enzootic life-cycle of borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and tick-borne rickettsiae: an epidemiological study on wild-living small mammals and their ticks from saxony, germany.borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. while small mammals are confirmed reservoirs for certain borrelia spp., little is known about the reservoirs for tick-borne rickettsiae. between 2012 and 2014, ticks were collected from the vegetation and small mammals which were trapped in saxony, germany. dna extracted from ticks and the small mammals' skin was analyzed for the presence of rickettsia spp. and b. burgdorferi (s.l.) by ...201728285593
the occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in certain ectoparasites (mesostigmata, siphonaptera) of apodemus flavicollis and myodes glareolus in chosen localities in the czech republic.ticks represent the primary vectors of several serious diseases, including the lyme disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bbsl). in this study two dominant ectoparasitic groups of arthropods (mesostigmata, siphonaptera) were investigated for the presence of borrelian dna in order to determine their potential role of vectors (or carriers) of this bacterium. all individuals (235) were collected from wild-living rodents obtained in three localities in the czech republic (bažantula, bab ...201323990432
ecological factors influencing small mammal infection by anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in agricultural and forest landscapes.small mammals are key components of numerous tick-borne disease systems, as hosts for immature ticks and pathogen reservoirs. to study the factors influencing tick-borne infection in small mammals, we trapped small mammals and collected questing ticks in spring and autumn in 2012 and 2013 at 24 sites in a 10x15 km rural landscapes (brittany, france). tissue samples were screened by real-time pcr for anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. of the two dominant small mammal s ...201728799685
rodent species as natural reservoirs of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in different habitats of ixodes ricinus in the netherlands.rodents are natural reservoirs for human pathogenic spirochaetes of the borrelia burgdorferi complex [b. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)], and the pathogens are transmitted by ixodes ricinus ticks to humans in the netherlands. b. burgdorferi s.l. infection prevalence in questing ticks, rodents, and ticks feeding on these rodents, all sampled within the same short time span of five days in three different areas in the netherlands, were compared in order to establish the relationship between ticks, ...201323891104
a borrelia afzelii infection increases larval tick burden on myodes glareolus (rodentia: cricetidae) and nymphal body weight of ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae).several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. here we examined whether an infection with borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (myodes glareolus, schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. captive-bred bank voles were inoculated with b. afzelii or control medium, after which host preference of ixodes ricinus l. nymphs was determined in a y-tube olfactometer. thereafter, infected and uninfected bank voles were pla ...201627694145
are apodemus spp. mice and myodes glareolus reservoirs for borrelia miyamotoi, candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis, rickettsia helvetica, r. monacensis and anaplasma phagocytophilum?in europe, in addition to borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus, other zoonotic pathogens, like b. miyamotoi, a species related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis (n. mikurensis), rickettsia helvetica, rickettsia monacensis, and anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported in the ixodid tick ixodes ricinus. no study was conducted to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. here, we investigated the role played by wild ro ...201424582511
polymorphisms at the innate immune receptor tlr2 are associated with borrelia infection in a wild rodent population.the discovery of the key role of toll-like receptors (tlrs) in initiating innate immune responses and modulating adaptive immunity has revolutionized our understanding of vertebrate defence against pathogens. yet, despite their central role in pathogen recognition and defence initiation, there is little information on how variation in tlrs influences disease susceptibility in natural populations. here, we assessed the extent of naturally occurring polymorphisms at tlr2 in wild bank voles (myodes ...201323554395
introduced siberian chipmunks (tamias sibiricus barberi) contribute more to lyme borreliosis risk than native reservoir rodents.the variation of the composition in species of host communities can modify the risk of disease transmission. in particular, the introduction of a new host species can increase health threats by adding a new reservoir and/or by amplifying the circulation of either exotic or native pathogens. lyme borreliosis is a multi-host vector-borne disease caused by bacteria belonging to the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. it is transmitted by the bite of hard ticks, especially ixodes ricinus in eur ...201323383170
multiple independent transmission cycles of a tick-borne pathogen within a local host community.many pathogens are maintained by multiple host species and involve multiple strains with potentially different phenotypic characteristics. disentangling transmission patterns in such systems is often challenging, yet investigating how different host species contribute to transmission is crucial to properly assess and manage disease risk. we aim to reveal transmission cycles of bacteria within the borrelia burgdorferi species complex, which include lyme disease agents. we characterized borrelia g ...201627498685
introduced siberian chipmunks (tamias sibiricus barberi) harbor more-diverse borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies than native bank voles (myodes glareolus).little attention has been given in scientific literature to how introduced species may act as a new host for native infectious agents and modify the epidemiology of a disease. in this study, we investigated whether an introduced species, the siberian chipmunk (tamias sibiricus barberi), was a potentially new reservoir host for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of lyme disease. first, we ascertained whether chipmunks were infected by all of the b. burgdorferi sensu lato genospe ...201121705536
borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) ticks collected from vegetation and small rodents in recreational areas of the city of poznań.during 1998-1999, ixodes ricinus (l.) populations were investigated in three different biotopes (deciduous, mixed, coniferous forest) situated in popular recreational areas in poznań, poland. in total, 1,123 questing ticks (1,002 nymphs, 69 males, 52 females) were collected by flagging vegetation. additionally, in 1998 between may and september small rodents were trapped and inspected for feeding ticks. altogether, 213 rodents of three species: apodemus agrarius pall., a. flavicollis melchior, c ...200314596285
testosterone depresses innate and acquired resistance to ticks in natural rodent hosts: a force for aggregated distributions of parasites.the effects of testosterone on acquired resistance to ticks, ixodes ricinus, in their natural rodent hosts (voles, clethrionomys glareolus, and wood-mice, apodemus sylvaticus) were investigated by manipulating testosterone levels and exposing the hosts to repeated tick infestations. testosterone reduced both innate and acquired resistance to tick feeding. during primary infestations, attachment rates were higher on rodents with high testosterone levels than on oil-implanted controls. successive ...200111227902
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents in a recreational park in south-western ireland.ixodes ricinus ticks infected with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were numerous on the edges of paths and roads in a recreational park in south-western ireland. the abundance of ticks at different sites was related to the presence of deer, but a negative relationship was shown between tick abundance and tick infection rates. this is thought to be due to the deposition of large numbers of uninfected ticks by deer, which are apparently not good reservoir hosts of b. burgdorferi s.l. blood meal an ...199910581711
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