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spirochetes: vaccines, animal models and diagnostics.the detailed characterization of various proteins from spirochetes using molecular biology techniques has made possible new approaches to vaccine and diagnostic development that are described in this session. the importance of animal models was emphasized and illustrated.19921475524
new lyme disease vaccine for dogs. 19921524271
serological survey for lyme disease in domestic dogs and white-tailed deer from oklahoma.sera from 223 randomly selected dogs and 489 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were tested for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi using an indirect kinetic elisa. dog samples were obtained in 1989 whereas deer samples were obtained between 1975 and 1990. ten known negatives and two known positives from each group were run on each plate as controls. samples showing mean mod values above the mean of negatives + 3 sd were considered positive. twenty-six dog (11.7%) and 22 deer (4.5%) sampl ...19921626867
ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in kansas: a new distribution record.the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, previously known to occur only in the extreme southeastern corner of kansas, has been collected in douglas and jefferson counties in the northeast. the new collections extend the northern range of this species in kansas by approximately 240 km. the role of i. scapularis as a vector of the lyme borreliosis spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, makes this a noteworthy extension of its known range. the proximity of these new collection sites to large centers ...19911770524
[incidence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in small animal practice in north bavaria].with help of indirect immunofluorescent assay antibodies were detected to borrelia burgdorferi, agent of lyme borreliosis in 46 (35.5%) serum samples of 130 randomly selected dogs of a small animal practice in northern bavaria. a positive reaction of the indirect immunofluorescent assay was demonstrated in 15 cases in a serum dilution of 1:64, in 9 cases in a serum dilution of 1:128, in 5 cases in a serum dilution of 1:256, in 2 cases in a serum dilution of 1:512, in 3 cases in a serum dilution ...19911772393
dogs as sentinels for lyme disease in massachusetts.an investigation of the relationship between incident human cases of lyme disease and seroprevalence of antibodies to b. burgdorferi in dogs was undertaken in order to determine whether dogs might serve as sentinels for lyme disease.19911951802
[tick spirochetosis by borrelia burgdorferi in wild carnivores in france. results of serologic tests in 372 foxes].the authors made serological examination, by passive hemagglutination, of 378 wild carnivores killed in 17 departments of western, central and eastern parts of france: 372 of foxes, of which more than 90 per cent less than one year aged, 4 raccoon dogs and 2 lynx. in foxes, they found significative seropositivity (greater than or equal to 1/200) with mean frequencies of 12.77 per cent in young animals and 42.86 % in those of 1 year and more. according the parts of france, frequency is greatly va ...19912065402
uveitis as a manifestation of borrelia burgdorferi infection in dogs. 19902228757
clinical and epizootiologic characteristics of dogs seropositive for borrelia burgdorferi in texas: 110 cases (1988).of 2,409 canine serum samples submitted to the texas veterinary medical diagnostic laboratory between jan 1, 1988 and dec 31, 1988 and tested by immunofluorescent antibody technique for antibody to borrelia borgdorferi, 132 (5.5%) had positive results. clinical and epizootiologic characteristics of seropositive dogs from texas (n = 110) were examined. male dogs were more likely than female dogs to be seropositive for b burgdorferi. the most frequent clinical sign of disease described in seroposi ...19902228777
persistence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in dogs of new york and connecticut.multiple blood samples were obtained from privately owned dogs living in tick-infested areas of new york (westchester county) and connecticut, where lyme disease in human beings has been reported. of the 175 dogs examined, 127 (72.6%) had limb/joint disorder, whereas the remaining 48 dogs were considered healthy. results of analysis of 419 serum samples revealed igm antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in healthy and lame dogs during all seasons. prevalence of seropositivity was significantly (p les ...19902329074
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna in museum specimens of ixodes dammini ticks.in order to investigate the potential for borrelia burgdorferi infection before the recognition of lyme disease as a clinical entity, the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to examine museum specimens of ixodes dammini (deer ticks) for the presence of spirochete-specific dna sequences. one hundred and thirty-six archival tick specimens were obtained representing various continental u.s. locations; dna sequences characteristic of modern day isolates of b. burgdorferi were detected in 13 194 ...19902402635
serosurvey for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in danish dogs.to estimate the regional presence of b. burgdorferi we performed a serosurvey for antibodies to b. burgdorferi in 205 healthy dogs from representative areas of denmark. blood samples were collected from november 1986 to march 1987. twenty dogs bred for research purposes served as negative controls. igg-antibodies to the b. burgdorferi strain dk-ecm 1 were measured by indirect immunofluorescens assay. antibody titers ranged from nonreactive to 640. in 33 dogs (16.1%) titres were greater than or e ...19892713138
taking a second hard look at borrelia burgdorferi. 19892777700
host responses to borrelia burgdorferi in dogs and horses.by using paired sera the igm and igg host responses were analyzed in dogs with elisa and western blot techniques. antibodies in clinical seropositive dogs bound to 4-25 igm and up to 40 or more igg antigenic determinants. early igm response to the 41-kda flagellin persisted for at least 9 months and involved as many as seven other peptides. igg response expanded later in the disease and involved more immunogens than are currently recognized in late human disease. a percentage of asymptomatic dog ...19883190094
heterogeneity in immunoblot patterns obtained by using four strains of borrelia burgdorferi and sera from naturally exposed dogs.this study evaluated the differences in immunoblot patterns when serum specimens from seropositive dogs were reacted against four strains of borrelia burgdorferi. intense bands were consistently detected for the 83-, 66-, 61- to 60-, 41-, and 31-kilodalton regions for all four strains. most variations were observed in the regions of 45 to 34 and 26 to 15 kilodaltons. adsorption studies suggested that one reason for the observed variability was a difference in proteins among the organisms, rather ...19883235655
borrelia burgdorferi borreliosis. 19883284861
natural exposure of wisconsin dogs to the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi).lyme disease, a tick-borne disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi, has been described recently in dogs. in a serologic survey of specimens obtained from march to september 1984, 53% of 380 dogs from two usda licensed vendors in wisconsin were positive for indirect immunofluorescent antibodies to b. burgdorferi at a serum dilution of 1:64 or greater. b. burgdorferi was cultured from the blood of 8/111 dogs. these findings suggest that exposure to this spirochete is common in endemic areas and tha ...19863523038
arthritis caused by borrelia burgdorferi in dogs.from october 1982 to may 1984, we studied 34 dogs from the lyme, conn area that had a history of tick exposure and lameness associated with pain, warmth, and/or swelling in one or more joints. large numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes were seen in giemsa-stained smears of synovial fluid from 9 dogs, and spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi) were found in 1 sample by darkfield microscopy and immunoperoxidase techniques. the geometric mean antibody titer to b burgdorferi in the 34 dogs was 1:2,70 ...19853997648
seroepidemiological survey for borrelia burgdorferi (lyme disease) in dogs from northwestern of spain.a random epidemiological study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of canine borreliosis (lyme disease) in castilla y león, the largest region in spain. the presence of antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa), using the borrelia burgdorferi b31 strain as antigen. sera from 308 dogs from 7 provinces in the region were tested. of all the animals sampled, 37 (21%) were seropositive (titres of 1/64 or above). almost all the provinces had seroprevalence of 20% or be ...19957493665
serologic responses of dogs naturally exposed to or vaccinated against borrelia burgdorferi infection.to characterize the serologic responses of dogs naturally exposed to or vaccinated against borrelia burgdorferi and to assess responses at intervals after antibiotic treatment.19957493871
canine lyme disease. 19957645190
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna in human skin biopsies and dog synovial fluid by the polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify dna sequences of the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, and was applied to the detection of the spirochete in humans and dogs. oligonucleotide primers used in the reaction flank a 244-base-pair representing part of the variable region v4 of the b. burgdorferi 16s rrna from biopsies of patients with acrodermatitis, and in synovial fluid from a dog with arthritis. these data suggest the presence of the disease in our state.19957784735
cross-reactivity between b. burgdorferi and other spirochetes affects specificity of serotests for detection of antibodies to the lyme disease agent in dogs.western immunoblots, the kinetics-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (kela), and the microagglutination test were used to evaluate cross-reactivity among antibodies to serovars of leptospira interrogans (leptospiral serovars), and b. burgdorferi from naturally infected dogs, and to serpulina (treponema) hyodysenteriae from vaccinated rabbits. whole-cell lysates from borrelia spp., leptospiral serovars, and serpulina spp. were used for sds-page, western blots, and kela. crossreactivity occur ...19938236777
pilot survey for lyme disease antibodies in brisbane dogs. 19938240178
intrauterine transmission of borrelia burgdorferi in dogs.to determine whether intrauterine transmission of borrelia burgdorferi could exist in dogs, 10 female beagles were inoculated intradermally with approximately 1,000 b burgdorferi on day 1 of proestrus; inoculation was repeated every 2 weeks during the gestation period. ten female control beagles were similarly inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline solution. prior to the start of the study, all females and 3 males used for breeding were seronegative for b burgdorferi on the basis of results o ...19938323057
research on borrelia burgdorferi. 19938407523
evaluation of dogs as sero-indicators of the geographic distribution of lyme borreliosis in british columbia. 19968681288
[igg antibodies to borrelia in dogs in the area of kosice].an elisa investigation showed that 26.9% of dogs in kosice region were positive for anti-borrelia igg antibodies. a significantly higher seroprevalence was detected only in hunting dogs (40.0%) compared with service dogs (11.8%; p < 0.05). an analysis of seroprevalence by age showed a significant difference only between dogs in the categories 1-3 years (37.8%) and under 1 year of age (8.3%; p < 0.05). in other age groups no significant differences in seroprevalence were observed. no significant ...19968686135
lyme disease and ehrlichiosis.this article provides the podiatric practitioner with current information about lyme disease and ehrlichlosis. the material presented assists podiatrists, particularly those practicing in rural areas, in recognizing these tick-bone diseases and in making informed decisions about treatment. the steady increase of these "new and emerging infectious diseases" places additional importance on health care providers, such as podiatrists, to inform the public and help prevent the incidences of tick born ...19968902334
persistence of borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected dogs after antibiotic treatment.in specific-pathogen-free dogs experimentally infected with borrelia burgdorferi by tick exposure, treatment with high doses of amoxicillin or doxycycline for 30 days diminished but failed to eliminate persistent infection. although joint disease was prevented or cured in five of five amoxicillin- and five of six doxycycline-treated dogs, skin punch biopsies and multiple tissues from necropsy samples remained pcr positive and b. burgdorferi was isolated from one amoxicillin- and two doxycycline- ...19978968890
serologic diagnosis of canine and equine borreliosis: use of recombinant antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.serum samples from dogs and equids suspected of having canine or equine borreliosis, respectively, were analyzed in polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) with whole-cell or recombinant antigens of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. purified preparations of recombinant antigens included outer surface protein a (ospa), ospb, ospc, ospe, ospf, and p41-g (a fragment of flagellin). of the 36 dog sera that reacted positively to whole-cell antigen, 32 (88.9%) contained antibodies to o ...19978968901
[lyme disease in chile. prevalence study in selected groups].the prevalence of lyme disease in chile is unknown.19969035504
adherence of borrelia burgdorferi to granulocytes of different animal species.adherence of 4 borrelia (b.) burgdorferi strains (z7/22, z7/27, z7/41, pbi) to polymorphonuclear granulocytes from different domestic animals (horses, cattle, sheep, dogs) was investigated. all 4 strains adhered to the granulocytes. binding assays indicated that the adherence occurred between structures on the surface of the borreliae ("binding-sites") and on the membranes of the granulocytes ("receptors"). the "receptors" consisted of 4 fractions (a, b, c, and d) with components differing in mo ...19979144911
serologic survey for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in sheep, goats and dogs in cordillera province, bolivia.a serosurvey for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was conducted on sheep, goat and dog serum samples collected in cordillera province, bolivia, in 1992 sera from 98 sheep, 218 goats and 43 dogs were tested. the observed seroprevalence in sheep and dogs was 0.0%, whereas the seropositivity rate for goat serum samples was 5.0%. upon analysing 10 positive sera by western immunoblotting, five reacted against the specific protein antigens and all o ...19979197208
antibodies to ehrlichia equi in dogs from the northeastern united states.to determine whether dogs living in tickinfested areas of the northeastern united states had been exposed to ehrlichia equi, an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis.19979364226
distribution of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. spirochaete dna in british ticks (argasidae and ixodidae) since the 19th century, assessed by pcr.the distribution of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the lyme borreliosis agent, was surveyed in british ticks in the collection of the natural history museum, london. alcohol-preserved specimens of eight species of ticks known to attack humans were studied: ixodes ricinus, i. hexagonus, i. uriae, i. trianguliceps, dermacentor reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, rhipicephalus sanguineus and argas vespertilionis. the sample comprised all life stages and originated from a wide range of host speci ...19989513944
[seroprevalence of the infections caused by borrelia burgdorferi and rickettsia conorii in humans and dogs in primary health care of san andreas del rabanedo (leon, spain)].positive results in infections of borrelia burgdorferi and rickettsia conorii in human and canine population is studied in order to understand the situation of both in humans, and at the same time discover the importance of the dog as an indicator of these agents among those in the health area of san andrés del rabanedo, león.19979546860
clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and effect of antibiotic treatment on lyme borreliosis in dogs.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, infects humans and animals. in humans, the disease primarily affects the skin, large joints, and the nervous system days to months after infection. data generated with appropriate animal model help to understand the fundamental mechanisms of the disease.199810048169
identification of two transcripts of canine, feline, and porcine interleukin-1 alpha.reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) with interleukin-1alpha (il-1alpha)-specific primers using total rna from lipopolysaccharide (lps)-stimulated lung macrophages resulted in the amplification of two distinct cdna fragments. cloning and sequencing of the canine and feline fragments revealed that, except for the absence of a specific 174 nucleotide sequence, the short and the long transcripts were identical. the in-frame 174 nucleotide deletion corresponds to exon 5 of the hu ...199910452947
evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of borrelia burgdorferi exposure in dogs.to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available elisa kit for detecting antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in dogs.200010800512
pcr-based quantification of borrelia burgdorferi organisms in canine tissues over a 500-day postinfection period.borrelia burgdorferi infection in beagle dogs was studied quantitatively with skin punch biopsy samples and blood samples collected at 4- and 2-week intervals, respectively, over a 500-day period. thereafter, 25 tissue samples of each dog were collected for further analysis. starting at day 120 after tick challenge, 12 dogs were treated with antibiotics (azithromycin, ceftriaxone, or doxycycline) for 30 consecutive days. four dogs received no antibiotic therapy. quantification of b. burgdorferi ...200010834975
epidemiological characteristics of dogs with lyme borreliosis in the province of soria (spain).from the point of view of the human disease, dogs are the most important animal reservoir of lyme borreliosis; therefore, they are used as 'sentinel animals'. in order to know the epidemiological characteristics of dogs with antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi, 146 canine sera samples collected during 1993-94 have been studied. the antibody detection was made by an indirect immunofluorescence method and confirmed by a haemagglutination test. seventeen dogs (11.6%) were seropositive, of which ...200010845256
modulation of lymphocyte proliferative responses by a canine lyme disease vaccine of recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa).the modulation of human lymphocyte proliferative responses was demonstrated with a recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa) vaccine preparation for the prevention of borrelia burgdorferi infection. after exposure to either the unaltered vaccine preparation or ospa prepared in saline, normal lymphocyte responses to the mitogens concanavalin a, phytohemagglutinin-m or pokeweed mitogen, or the antigen bcg were consistently reduced. whole cell extracts of b. burgdorferi also modulated immune respo ...200010865170
quantitative approach for the serodiagnosis of canine lyme disease by the immunoblot procedure.serum samples obtained from healthy, asymptomatic dogs in areas of wisconsin and northern illinois where lyme disease is endemic or nonendemic were assayed for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and positive results were confirmed by immunoblot assay. we found that 56.9% (562 of 1,077) of the samples were positive by elisa and 82.0% (461 of 562) were positive by immunoblotting. a logistic regression model was developed to distinguish between nonvacci ...200010878054
identification of ixodes scapularis in newfoundland, canada. 200010992615
dogs as sentinels for human lyme borreliosis in the netherlands.serum samples from hunters (n = 440), their hunting dogs (n = 448), and hunters without dog ownership (n = 53) were collected in the netherlands at hunting dog trials and were tested for antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi by a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. additionally, 75 healthy pet dogs were tested. the results of this study indicate that the seroprevalence among hunting dogs (18%) was of the same order as the seroprevalence among pet dogs (17%) and hunters (15%). the ser ...200111230393
experimental induction of chronic borreliosis in adult dogs exposed to borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks and treated with dexamethasone.to develop a method to experimentally induce borrelia burgdorferi infection in young adult dogs.200111453487
aortic valve endocarditis in a dog due to bartonella clarridgeiae.we report the first documented case of endocarditis associated with bartonella clarridgeiae in any species. b. clarridgeiae was identified as a possible etiological agent of human cat scratch disease. infective vegetative valvular aortic endocarditis was diagnosed in a 2.5-year-old male neutered boxer. historically, the dog had been diagnosed with a systolic murmur at 16 months of age and underwent balloon valvuloplasty for severe valvular aortic stenosis. six months later, the dog was brought t ...200111574571
the use of chosen serological diagnostic methods in lyme disease in horses. part i. indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).the investigations aimed to establish the reliability of the chosen serological tests designed for the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis in horses. the investigations were carried out in five horse breeding centres (ohk). statistical analysis methods were used to determine sample size for particular centres: krasne (kr)--49, łack (ł)--21, walewice (w)--111, bogusławice (b)--17, kozienice (k)--61. the experimental material comprised the chosen horses from which blood samples were collected in order t ...200212189952
evaluation of different media and a bgm cell culture assay for isolation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from ticks and dogs.a co-culture assay for isolation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl.) from naturally infected ticks and dogs suspected of lyme borreliosis (lb) was evaluated using buffalo-green-monkey (bgm) cells as the mammalian component. four different media were tested for their ability to provide sufficient growth conditions for spirochetes and bgm cells. a total of 176 ixodes ricinus ticks and 268 specimens from 98 dogs were used to compare cell-free culture with the bgm co-culture. a 1:1 mixture of b ...200212383638
treatment of neuroborreliosis. 200312867845
an arthropod defensin expressed by the hemocytes of the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae).both soluble and cell-mediated components are involved in the innate immune response of arthropods. injection of borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease agent, results in the secretion of defensin into the hemolymph of the ixodid tick, dermacentor variabilis. the presence of the peptide is observed as early as 15 min post-challenge and remains present through 18 h post-challenge. as observed in insects and soft ticks, the transcript for defensin is detected as early as 1 h post-challenge in d. va ...200314563361
acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia--four cases and a literature review.acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenla was diagnosed in four dogs. initial platelet counts in all four dogs were less than 50,000 x 10(9)/litre and initial bone marrow examinations revealed megakaryocytic hypoplasia with minimal changes in the erythroid and myeloid cell lines. two dogs had evidence of idiopathic immune-mediated disease and two dogs had evidence of associated infectious disease. one dog had a positive antibody titre to borrella burgdorferi, and one dog had positive titres to b ...200415515801
[ixodes ticks of the town of cherkessk and its environs].the paper presents the results of the studies made in 2002-2004 to examine the species-specific composition of ixodes ticks. the ticks were gathered for a flag (155km routes being covered and 405 ticks being gathered); 48 dogs were examined, 320 ticks being gathered; 212 ticks were collected from human beings. the town dwellers' visit rates were grouped by ages and months. in the republic, borreliae, the causative agents of lyme borreliosis, were first isolated from ixodes ricinus by darkground ...200515984609
host blood proteins and peptides in the midgut of the tick dermacentor variabilis contribute to bacterial control.antimicrobial midgut proteins and peptides that result from blood digestion in feeding american dog ticks dermacentor variabilis (say) were identified. midgut extracts from these ticks showed antimicrobial activity against micrococcus luteus, regardless of whether they were challenged with peptidoglycan, blood meal components, rabbit blood, bacillus subtilis, escherischia coli or borrelia burgdorferi. however, no peptide band co-migrating with defensin was found in midgut extracts from the chall ...200516132735
suppurative, nonseptic polyarthropathy in dogs.the goals of this study were to determine the historical, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings in dogs with suppurative, nonseptic polyarthropathy and to identify concurrent disorders associated with this syndrome. medical records of 52 dogs with cytologic evidence of suppurative inflammation in two or more joints were examined retrospectively. age of dogs was 4.8 years (median, range: 0.5-12 years). there was no clear breed or sex predilection, but most were large-breed dogs (bo ...200516231709
molecular evidence of tick-transmitted infections in dogs and cats in the united kingdom.pcr analysis was used to determine the prevalence of tick-transmitted infections in 120 systemically ill dogs and 60 cats recruited over a period of three months from 52 veterinary practices in the uk. the animals had not travelled outside the uk and had one or more of the following clinical criteria: acute or recurrent pyrexia, anaemia and/or thrombocytopenia, polyarthritis/muscle pain, splenomegaly/lymphadenopathy, and intraocular inflammation with systemic signs. blood samples from the animal ...200516299364
tickborne pathogen detection, western siberia, russia.ixodes persulcatus (n = 125) and dermacentor reticulatus (n = 84) ticks from western siberia, russia, were tested for infection with borrelia, anaplasma/ehrlichia, bartonella, and babesia spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays with subsequent sequencing. i. persulcatus ticks were infected with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (37.6% +/- 4.3% [standard deviation]), anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4% +/- 1.4%), ehrlichia muris (8.8% +/- 2.5%), and bartonella spp. (37.6% +/- 4.3%). d. re ...200516318722
[anaplasma phagocytophila and protozoans of babesia genus in dogs from endemic areas of lyme disease in north-western poland].infections caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato may be accompanied by other microorganisms, such as anaplasma, ehrlichia and babesia. these pathogens are transmitted by the ticks and are a risk to humans and animals. ixodes ricinus ticks collected from recreational areas of szczecin and northwestern poland contained dna of the pathogens mentioned above and cases of double and triple coinfection have been documented. the aim of this paper was to determine if dogs suspect to ti ...200416865968
serological studies on the infection of dogs in ontario with borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease.a serological study was undertaken to determine whether dogs in ontario are being exposed to borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease. this study consisted of a survey of randomly selected dogs and testing of diagnostic submissions from candidate lyme disease cases. the survey of 1,095 dogs, bled between january 1988 and august 1989, revealed a total of 65 (5.9%) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) reactors, of which 22 had immuno-fluorescent antibody assay (ifa) titers ...199317424284
seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs with neurological signs.a retrospective cohort study was carried out to evaluate whether seropositivity for the tick-transmitted bacterial species borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and/or anaplasma phagocytophilum was associated with one or more specific categories of nervous system disorders in dogs. a total of 248 dogs with nervous system disorders were serotested for these agents and categorised into six main diagnostic categories: degenerative diseases of the spine, epilepsy, inflammatory diseases, neoplasia, periphe ...200717575245
counterpoint: long-term antibiotic therapy improves persistent symptoms associated with lyme disease.controversy exists regarding the diagnosis and treatment of lyme disease. patients with persistent symptoms after standard (2-4-week) antibiotic therapy for this tickborne illness have been denied further antibiotic treatment as a result of the perception that long-term infection with the lyme spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, and associated tickborne pathogens is rare or nonexistent.200717578772
screening dogs in ontario for borrelia burgdorferi and ehrlichia canis should be selective rather than routine. 200717824154
evaluation of the presence of selected viral and bacterial nucleic acids in pericardial samples from dogs with or without idiopathic pericardial effusion.many viruses have been identified in pericardial fluid and in tissue samples from humans with pericarditis by means of molecular diagnostics. in canine idiopathic pericardial effusion there is as yet no conclusive evidence to support the involvement of an infectious agent. this study was designed to investigate a possible relationship between idiopathic pericardial effusion in dogs and viruses most commonly encountered in humans affected with viral pericarditis. coxsackievirus b3 rna, influenza ...200917959400
spatial analysis of the exposure of dogs in rural north-coastal california to vectorborne pathogens.between 0 and 50 per cent of the dogs in eight rural villages in far northern california with a high risk of tickborne diseases were seropositive for anaplasma phagocytophilum and bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii, and between 0 and 10 per cent were seropositive for borrelia burgdorferi. the odds ratio for the co-exposure of individual dogs to b vinsonii berkhoffii and a phagocytophilum was 18.2. none of the diseases was associated with the sex of the dogs, whether they slept out of door ...200717993656
retrospective clinical and molecular analysis of conditioned laboratory dogs (canis familiaris) with serologic reactions to ehrlichia canis, borrelia burgdorferi, and rickettsia rickettsii.dogs are susceptible to different tickborne infections, including members of the anaplasmataceae (ehrlichia canis, e. ewingii, e. chaffeensis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, a. platys), borrelia burgdorferi, and rickettsia rickettsii. these diseases can manifest with clinical signs including fever, anorexia, malaise, lameness, rash, and bleeding episodes; however, these signs are nonpathognomonic, and infections can occur in the absence of clinical signs. hematologic abnormalities can include leukop ...200818947166
follow-up of bernese mountain dogs and other dogs with serologically diagnosed borrelia burgdorferi infection: what happens to seropositive animals?data on the long-term outcome of b. burgdorferi infections in adult dogs are sparse. the aim of the present study was to investigate whether bernese mountain dogs with serological evidence of natural b. burgdorferi infection more often develop signs such as lameness, azotemia or proteinuria during a follow-up period of 2.5 to 3.0 years. seropositive bernese mountain dogs were compared to seronegative bernese mountain dogs and to seropositive and seronegative control dogs of other breeds. dogs in ...200919426490
occurrence of dirofilaria immitis and tick-borne infections caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and ehrlichia canis in domestic dogs in france: results of a countrywide serologic survey.the occurrence of dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against tick-borne pathogens in french dogs has been analysed based on 1,050 blood samples. serum samples of 919 dogs (group a) were sent for a variety of diagnostic investigations, further 131 dogs (group b) were tested for a tentative diagnosis of heartworm disease. all samples were tested for d. immitis antigen. samples in group a were also tested for specific antibodies against three tick-borne pathogens (anaplasma phagocytophilum, ...200919575231
canine granulocytic anaplasmosis: a review.anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of humans, horses, and dogs worldwide that is transmitted by ixodid ticks and maintained in a variety of small wild mammal species. recent studies suggest that multiple strains of a. phagocytophilum may be circulating in wild and domestic animal populations, and these strains may have differential host tropisms and pathogenicity. the organism infects and survives within neutrophils by disabling key neutrophil functions, including neutrophil motil ...200919761477
babesia canis and other tick-borne infections in dogs in central poland.vector-borne infections constitute increasing health problem in dogs worldwide, including sled dogs, dramatically decreasing the fitness of working dogs and even leading to death. in the period 2006-2008 eighty-two blood samples were collected from eight sled dog kennels in central poland. the prevalence of four vector-borne infections (babesia canis, bartonella sp., anaplasma/ehrlichia and borrelia burgdorferi) was estimated in 82 sled dogs using pcr and nested pcr for diagnosis and the same me ...200919837515
comparison of a rapid immunoassay for antibodies to the c6 antigen with conventional tests for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in europe.a commercial immunoassay for antibodies to the c6 antigen of borrelia burgdorferi was evaluated against an igg in-house elisa in combination with a western blot assay to examine 104 samples of serum from 53 healthy bernese mountain dogs, which were suspected to have a breed predisposition to lyme borreliosis, and 55 samples from 30 healthy large-breed longhair dogs. the two test methods correlated in 125 (79 per cent) of the samples with an agreement of kappa=0.571 (p<0.001). in comparison with ...200919915191
canine and feline vector-borne diseases in italy: current situation and perspectives.in italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, dipylidium caninum, leishmania infantum, dirofilaria immitis, and dirofilaria repens) are of zoonotic concern. recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors ...201020145730
lyme borreliosis in dogs and humans in the usa.borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is the only established etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis in dogs and in humans in north america. lyme borreliosis differs in dogs and humans in terms of clinical outcome following infection, diagnostic approaches, prevention strategies and treatment recommendations. nonetheless, serologic evidence of exposure of dogs to b. burgdorferi agrees with the geographical distribution of autochthonous transmission of the agent of lyme borreliosis, and continued monit ...201020207198
comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in korea.abstract: a serological survey for dirofilaria immitis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, ehrlichia canis, and borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the republic of korea (south korea) was conducted. from a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%). the highest prevalence observed was d. immitis (22.3%), followed by a. phagocytophilum (18.8% ...201020377869
imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in germany.abstract:201020377872
serological study of selected vector-borne diseases in shelter dogs in central spain using point-of-care assays.we evaluated the prevalence of selected vector-borne diseases in 131 dogs in an animal shelter in central spain using point-of-care assays (snap 4dx and snap leishmania; idexx laboratories, westbrook, me). the snap 4dx detects dirofilaria immitis (di) antigen and antibodies against ehrlichia canis (ec), borrelia burgdorferi (bb), and anaplasma phagocytophylum (aph); the snap leishmania kit detects antibodies against leishmania infantum (li). dogs were classified as healthy or sick based on physi ...201020420531
lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats: background, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infections with borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.lyme borreliosis (lb), synonymous with the often-used term lyme disease, is an infectious disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium borrelia burgdorferi. lb is the most frequent vector-borne disease in humans in the northern hemisphere. in animals, clinically apparent disease is found primarily in dogs. severe polyarthritis, fever and lameness in dogs are reported from the main endemic areas of north america: the new england states, and eastern parts of the united states; several cases of lb a ...201020933139
clinical presentation of 26 anaplasma phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs residing in an endemic area.anaplasma (a.) phagocytophilum, the etiological agent of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, is capable of inciting moderate to severe clinical disease in a variety of mammals and is endemic in the upper midwest. the purpose of this study was fourfold: to describe the range of clinical signs in dogs seropositive to a. phagocytophilum; to examine the prevalence of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (imha) in this population; to evaluate whether specific clinical signs were associated with coexposure ...201021041333
treatment of infection caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bbsl) infections, which are transmitted by ixodes ticks, cause a wide variety of clinical manifestations and are of public health importance in parts of north america, europe and asia. a literature review of pertinent articles published up untill july 6th 2010 was performed on the use of antimicrobials in the treatment and prevention of bbsl infections. the clinical outcome with 10-28 days of antibiotic treatment is generally excellent, but in view of the experie ...201121342072
seroprevalence of various infectious agents in dogs with suspected acute canine polyradiculoneuritis.acute canine polyradiculoneuritis (acp) is considered to be an animal model of the acute axonal form of guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) in humans. various antecedent events have been associated with gbs, including bacterial or viral infection. the relationship between acp and previous infection requires additional attention.201121352374
exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal british columbia: possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans.ranked among the top threats to conservation worldwide, infectious disease is of particular concern for wild canids because domestic dogs (canis familiaris) may serve as sources and reservoirs of infection. on british columbia's largely undeveloped but rapidly changing central and north coasts, little is known about diseases in wolves (canis lupus) or other wildlife. however, several threats exist for transfer of diseases among unvaccinated dogs and wolves. to gain baseline data on infectious ag ...201121461190
multitarget test for emerging lyme disease and anaplasmosis in a serosurvey of dogs, maine, usa.to determine if the range of deer ticks in maine had expanded, we conducted a multitarget serosurvey of domestic dogs (canis lupus familiaris) in 2007. an extension of exposure to borrelia burgdorferi to the northern border and local transmission of anaplasma phagocytophilum throughout southern areas was found.201121529407
babesia canis rossi infection in a texas dog.a 5-month-old intact male boerboel dog, imported from south africa 1 week previously, was presented to a texas veterinarian for lethargy, anorexia, and labored breathing. the dog was febrile, anemic, leukopenic, thrombocytopenic, and slightly azotemic. results of the idexx snap-4dx enzyme immunoassay were negative for dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against ehrlichia canis, borrelia burgdorferi, and anaplasma phagocytophilum. an edta blood sample analyzed at oklahoma state university ...201121790699
the ability of a topical novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene to protect dogs from borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum infections transmitted by ixodes scapularis.healthy, purpose-bred laboratory beagle dogs that had not been exposed to ticks and were seronegative for borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum were randomly assigned to four groups of eight dogs each. control group 1 was not treated. groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated with a single topical application of a new formulation of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene (certifect™, merial limited, ga, usa) at 28, 21 or 14 days prior to tick infestation, respectively. each dog was infested with ...201121777736
spatial distribution of seroprevalence for anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, ehrlichia canis, and dirofilaria immitis in dogs in washington, oregon, and california.background: in the us little spatially defined information regarding exposure to most vector-borne pathogens in dogs is available for the states of california (ca), oregon (or), and washington (wa). objectives: the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of seroprevalence for 4 vector-borne pathogens, anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, ehrlichia canis, and dirofilaria immitis, across the 3 western coastal states of the contiguous united states that ext ...201121827514
asymptomatic macrothrombocytopenia in a young pure-bred beagle dog: a case report.during baseline evaluation prior to a preclinical safety study, a 10-month-old male pure-bred beagle dog was found to have marked thrombocytopenia (6 × 10(3) platelets [plt]/µl) associated with a mean platelet volume (mpv) of 17.9 fl. tests for rickettsia rickettsii, ehrlichia canis, and borrelia burgdorferi were negative. buccal bleeding time was normal. over 3 months, plt were 4 to 141 × 10(3) plt/µl, and mpv was 11.4 to 25.1 fl; however, plt were <50 × 10(3) plt/µl and mpv was >16 fl during m ...201121859886
canine serology as adjunct to human lyme disease surveillance.to better define areas of human lyme disease risk, we compared us surveillance data with published data on the seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi antibodies among domestic dogs. canine seroprevalence >5% was a sensitive but nonspecific marker of human risk, whereas seroprevalence <1% was associated with minimal risk for human infection.201121888800
prevalence of selected zoonotic and vector-borne agents in dogs and cats in costa rica.to estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites and selected vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in san isidro de el general, costa rica, fecal and serum samples were collected from animals voluntarily undergoing sterilization. each fecal sample was examined for parasites by microscopic examination after fecal flotation and for giardia and cryptosporidium using an immunofluorescence assay (ifa). giardia and cryptosporidium ifa positive samples were genotyped after pcr amplification of specific ...201121846585
Typical and atypical manifestations of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in dogs.Eighteen clinically ill dogs, naturally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, were examined at a veterinary practice in Baxter, Minnesota. A clinical examination, complete blood cell count, enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for A phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and a polymerase chain reaction test for A phagocytophilum DNA were obtained for all dogs. Physical examination findings included fever, arthropathy, lymph ...201122058372
diversity of antibody responses to borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected beagle dogs.lyme borreliosis (lb) is a common infection of domestic dogs in areas where there is enzootic transmission of the agent borrelia burgdorferi. while immunoassays based on individual subunits have mostly supplanted the use of whole-cell preparations for canine serology, only a limited number of informative antigens have been identified. to more broadly characterize the antibody responses to b. burgdorferi infection and to assess the diversity of those responses in individual dogs, we examined sera ...201424695775
babesia spp. and other pathogens in ticks recovered from domestic dogs in denmark.newly recognized endemic foci for human babesiosis include europe, where ixodes ricinus, a vector for several species of babesia, is the most commonly identified tick. vector-based surveillance provides an early warning system for the emergence of human babesiosis, which is likely to be under-reported at emerging sites. in the present study, we set out to screen i. ricinus collected from danish domestic dogs for babesia, in order to identify whether humans in denmark are exposed to the parasite.201525951937
gray wolf exposure to emerging vector-borne diseases in wisconsin with comparison to domestic dogs and humans.world-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. in the united sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. of these diseases, lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. gray wolves (canis lupus) recolonized wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of ...201627898670
demographic characteristics and infectious diseases of a population of american black bears in humboldt county, california.american black bears (ursus americanus) are common, widely distributed, and broad-ranging omnivorous mammals in northern california forests. bears may be susceptible to pathogens infecting both domestic animals and humans. monitoring bear populations, particularly in changing ecosystems, is important to understanding ecological features that could affect bear population health and influence the likelihood that bears may cause adverse impacts on humans. in all, 321 bears were captured between may ...201525700042
seasonal variation in detection of bacterial dna in arthritic stifle joints of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture using pcr amplification of the 16s rrna gene.an underappreciated cause and effect relationship between environmental bacteria and arthritis may exist. previously, we found that stifle arthritis in dogs was associated with the presence of environmental bacteria within synovium. cranial cruciate ligament rupture (cclr) is often associated with stifle arthritis in dogs. we now wished to determine whether seasonal variation in detection of bacterial material may exist in affected dogs, and to also conduct analyses of both synovium and synovial ...201019758772
gonarthritis in the course of lyme disease in a one-and-a-half-year-old child.a case of a one-and-a-half-year-old girl is reported in whom gonarthritis in the course of lyme disease was diagnosed. the girl was brought up in an urban environment. she never was in a forest and had no contact with animals (except for a healthy pet-dog, which was under veterinary supervision). she did not attend a nursery, and went for walks only within urban area under the careful guidance of her parents. in spite of the negative family history the level of antibodies against borrelia burgdo ...200212182012
characterization of a borrelia burgdorferi vlse invariable region useful in canine lyme disease serodiagnosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.sera collected from dogs experimentally infected with borrelia burgdorferi by tick inoculation were analyzed for an antibody response to each of the six invariable regions (irs; i.e., ir(1) to ir(6)) of vlse, the variable surface antigen of b. burgdorferi. six synthetic peptides (c(1) to c(6)), which reproduced the six ir sequences were used as peptide-based, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) antigens. two irs, ir(2) and ir(6), were found to be immunodominant. studies with serially colle ...200011060084
status of borrelia burgdorferi infection after antibiotic treatment and the effects of corticosteroids: an experimental study.sixteen specific-pathogen-free beagles were infected with borrelia burgdorferi. three groups of 4 dogs were treated with antibiotics for 30 consecutive days starting 120 days after tick exposure; 4 dogs were untreated controls. at day 420 after tick exposure and again before euthanasia, 2 dogs of each group were treated with prednisone for 14 days. all dogs contracted infection and 11 developed acute arthritis 50-120 days after exposure. after day 120, one of 12 antibiotic-treated dogs and 2 of ...200010720533
serum antibodies against particular antigens of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and their potential in the diagnosis of canine lyme borreliosis.dog sera (n = 118) were tested for antibodies recognizing borrelia (b.) burgdorferi sensu stricto strain b31 (atcc 35210) antigens. in total, 18 of the dog sera gave positive results in a whole cell sonicate elisa (wcs elisa). these positive sera were further evaluated by immunoblot assay, utilizing a whole bacterial lysate as antigens. 94.4% (17 of 18) of the dog sera reacted with immunodominant antigens at 20-22 kda (protein c, pc), 31 kda (outer surface protein a, ospa), 34 kda (outer surface ...199910638032
lyme disease vaccine.subunit vaccines consisting of single recombinant outer surface proteins (osp) of borrelia burgdorferi have been highly successful in protecting mice against challenge by borrelial strains closely related to the strain from which the immunogen was derived. humoral immunity is sufficient for protection. a dual mode of action for these vaccines has been suggested because serum factors ingested by the tick during the blood meal may begin to reduce the spirochete inoculum prior to transmission to th ...19968740123
current understanding of borrelia burgdorferi infection, with emphasis on its prevention in dogs. 19938288471
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