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brucella abortus in bison. ii. evaluation of strain 19 vaccination of pregnant cows.protection against brucella abortus induced abortion and infection provided by strain 19 (s19) vaccination was evaluated in american bison (bison bison). forty-eight pregnant bison were manually inoculated (mi) with s19 vaccine, 44 were ballistically inoculated (bi) with an absorbable hollow pellet containing lyophilized s19, and 46 were manually injected with buffered saline as non-vaccinated controls (nvc). all bison were brucella spp. seronegative prior to the experiment, in the second trimes ...19911906114
serologic survey for bovine pathogens in free-ranging european bison from poland.from 1980 to 1983, blood was taken from 60 selected european bison (bison bonasus) in poland. serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against brucella abortus, 14 serovars of leptospira interrogans, chlamydia spp., coxiella burnetti; foot and and mouth disease virus, bovine leukemia virus and bovine herpes virus-1. in addition, an attempt was made to isolate bovine herpes virus-1 from the prepuce of selected bulls. serological tests suggested chlamydial infection in 28 bison, su ...19912023316
brucella abortus in captive bison. i. serology, bacteriology, pathogenesis, and transmission to cattle.two groups of six, non-brucellosis vaccinated, brucellosis seronegative pregnant american bison (bison bison) were individually challenged with 1 x 10(7) colony forming units (cfu) of brucella abortus strain 2308. three days after challenge, each bison group was placed in a common paddock with six non-vaccinated, brucellosis susceptible, pregnant domestic heifers. in a parallel study, two groups of six susceptible, pregnant cattle were simultaneously challenged with the identical dose as the bis ...19902117675
the role of wild north american ungulates in the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis: a review.published reports of brucella abortus infections in wild north american ungulates and domestic cattle herds were reviewed to determine if infection in these species was related. bison (bison bison) were frequently found infected, but are probably a minor threat to livestock due to their current limited distribution. most elk (cervus elaphus) were free of infection except where their range was shared with infected bison or livestock. deer (odocoileus spp.), pronghorns (antilocapra americana), moo ...19853908724
abortion caused by brucella abortus biovar 1 in a free-ranging bison (bison bison) from yellowstone national park.a near-term aborted bison (bison bison) fetus was collected near old faithful geyser in yellowstone national park, wyoming (usa). on necropsy, the fetus liver had a small capsular tear, and there was a small quantity of blood in the peritoneal cavity. microscopic lesions included mild, purulent bronchopneumonia and mild, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from fetal abomasal contents, lung, and heart blood.19947933293
the brucellosis and tuberculosis status of wood bison in the mackenzie bison sanctuary, northwest territories, canada.postmortem examinations were done on 51 wood bison (bison bison athabascae) killed as part of a multidisciplinary research project in the mackenzie bison sanctuary, northwest territories, canada, between 1986 and 1988. there was no gross, histological or bacteriological evidence of brucellosis or tuberculosis in these bison. traumatic lesions were seen in one calf that had been attacked by wolves and a second calf that had been gored. antibody titers to brucella abortus were not found in sera fr ...19938269360
brucellosis in free-ranging bison (bison bison) from teton county, wyoming.brucellosis was studied opportunistically in bison (bison bison) in the free-ranging jackson herd of approximately 120 in teton county, wyoming (usa) in march 1989. recent abortion was diagnosed in a 2-yr-old cow and brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from vaginal discharge, uterine contents, uterus, and supramammary lymph nodes. endometritis was characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the lamina propria and neutrophils in uterine glands and within necrotic debris and exudate in th ...19938445770
brucellosis in free-ranging bison (bison bison) in yellowstone, grand teton, and wood buffalo national parks: a review. 19958592398
abortion and placentitis in pregnant bison (bison bison) induced by the vaccine candidate, brucella abortus strain rb51.to determine the ability of brucella abortus strain rb51 to induce placentitis and abortion in bison after sc vaccination.19968915438
bacterial survival, lymph node pathology, and serological responses of bison (bison bison) vaccinated with brucella abortus strain rb51 or strain 19.from august 1993 to june 1994, 3 month-old bison (bison bison) were vaccinated with brucella abortus strain rb51 (srb51, n = 6), strain 19 (s19, n = 3), or with saline (n = 1) and serologic responses and persistence of vaccine strains within lymph nodes were monitored. bison vaccinated with s19 had granulomatous lymphadenitis and greater peak numbers of b. abortus than those vaccinated with srb51. bison vaccinated with rb51 had similar histological lesions and b. abortus were still present in ly ...19979027704
the pathogenicity of brucella suis biovar 4 for bison.the pathogenicity of brucella suis biovar 4 for bison (bison bison) was evaluated by inoculation of 2.1 x 10(7) colony forming units (cfu) in 0.1 ml saline into the conjunctival sac of six pregnant cows. six pregnant bison were inoculated with 1.27 x 10(7) cfu of brucella abortus strain 2308 as a positive control. bison were inoculated on 23 january 1992, and observed until calving or abortion after which they were euthanized, and necropsied. bacteriological and histological examinations were co ...19969359055
conservation of germ plasm from bison infected with brucella abortus.reproductive procedures for cattle were adapted to american bison (bison bison) to evaluate the potential preservation of germ plasm from bison infected with brucella abortus without transmission of the pathogen to the recipient or offspring. two of four experimentally inoculated bison bulls excreted b. abortus in the semen. four healthy calves were produced from non-infected, un-vaccinated bison cows by natural breeding with a bison bull excreting b. abortus in the semen. there was no seroconve ...19989706568
safety of brucella abortus strain rb51 in bison.to determine the safety of brucella abortus strain rb51 (srb51) vaccine in american bison (bison bison), 31 animals from a herd with brucellosis were used. in october 1996, 10 adult bison males and seven calves were vaccinated with the standard calfhood cattle dose of 1.8 x 10(10) colony forming units (cfu) of srb51 subcutaneously while the adult females received the standard adult cattle dose of 1 x 10(9) cfu. western immunoblot indicated the presence of srb51 antibodies following vaccination. ...19989813857
validation of the fluorescence polarization assay and comparison to other serological assays for the detection of serum antibodies to brucella abortus in bison.a number of serological tests were compared for the detection of antibodies to brucella abortus in bison (bison bison). the performance of the fluorescence polarization assay (fpa) in both the preliminary evaluation and a subsequent blind validation indicated that this test was the most suitable for serological diagnosis of brucellosis in bison. the sensitivity and specificity in the preliminary evaluation were 92.1% and 99.4%, respectively. the sensitivity and specificity in a subsequent blind ...200010941731
pathology of brucellosis in bison from yellowstone national park.between february 1995 and june 1999, specimens from seven aborted bison (bison bison) fetuses or stillborn calves and their placentas, two additional placentas, three dead neonates, one 2-wk-old calf, and 35 juvenile and adult female bison from yellowstone national park (usa) were submitted for bacteriologic and histopathologic examination. one adult animal with a retained placenta had recently aborted. serum samples from the 35 juvenile and adult bison were tested for brucella spp. antibodies. ...200111272483
experimental infection of nontarget species of rodents and birds with brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccine.the brucella abortus vaccine strain rb51 (srb51) is being considered for use in the management of bnucellosis in wild bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus) populations in the greater yellowstone area (usa). evaluation of the vaccines safety in non-target species was considered necessary prior to field use. between june 1998 and december 1999, ground squirrels (spermophilus richardsonii, n = 21), deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus, n = 14), prairie voles (microtus ochrogaster, n = 21), and ...200111504226
safety of brucella abortus strain rb51 in deer mice.brucella abortus strain rb51 is an approved brucellosis vaccine for use in cattle that may have potential as an oral vaccine for use in elk (cervus elaphus) and/or bison (bison bison). this study was designed to determine effects of strain rb51 on deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus), a nontarget species that could have access to treated baits in a field situation. in february 1994, 90 mice were orally dosed or intraperitoneally injected with 1 x 10(8) colony forming units strain rb51 and 77 contr ...200111504238
brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccination in elk. i. efficacy of reduced dosage.bovine brucellosis is a serious zoonotic disease affecting some populations of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone area, usa. the fear that elk and/or bison may spread brucella abortus to livestock has prompted efforts to reduce or eliminate the disease in wildlife. brucella abortus strain rb51 (rb51) vaccine has recently been approved for use in cattle. unlike strain 19 vaccine, rb51 does not cause false positive reactions on standard b ...200211838212
safety of brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccine in non-target ungulates and coyotes.brucellosis is endemic in free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone area (gya; usa). it is possible that an oral brucellosis vaccine could be developed and disseminated in the gya to reduce disease transmission. should this occur, non-target species other than elk and bison may come in contact with the vaccine resulting in morbidity or mortality. to assess biosafety, bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis; n = 10), pronghorn (antilocapra americana; n = 9), mule ...200212238372
the hook lake wood bison recovery project: can a disease-free captive wood bison herd be recovered from a wild population infected with bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis?the hook lake wood bison recovery project (hlwbrp) is a wildlife conservation project aimed at recovering a captive, disease-free herd of wood bison (bison bison athabascae) from a wild herd infected with bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) and brucellosis (brucella abortus). the disease eradication protocol that we have used involves a combination of techniques, including (1) orphaning of newborn wild-caught calves to minimize exposure to b. abortus and m. bovis, (2) testing calves for ma ...200212381597
immune responses of bison to ballistic or hand vaccination with brucella abortus strain rb51.from january through july of 2000, a study was conducted to evaluate clearance, immunologic responses, and potential shedding of brucella abortus strain rb51 (srb51) following ballistic or subcutaneous (sq) vaccination of 7 mo old bison (bison bison) calves. ten bison calves were vaccinated sq with 1.4 x 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of srb51 and five calves were inoculated sq with sterile 0.15 m sodium chloride. an additional 10 bison calves were ballistically inoculated in the rear leg mus ...200212528440
immune responses of elk to vaccination with brucella abortus strain rb51.in a study conducted from january to august 2000, elk (cervus elaphus) were vaccinated with brucella abortus strain rb51 (srb51, n = 6) or injected with 0.15 m nacl solution (n = 3) at approximately 6 mo of age. beginning at 2 wk and continuing to 25 wk after vaccination, srb51-vaccinated elk had greater antibody responses (p < 0.05) to srb51 when compared to nonvaccinated elk. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from srb51-vaccinated elk had greater (p < 0.05) proliferative responses to s ...200212528441
safety of revaccination of pregnant bison with brucella abortus strain rb51.from december 1998 through february 1999, a study was conducted in a brucella-infected bison herd to evaluate the safety of booster vaccination of adult bison (bison bison) with 6 x 10(9) colony forming units (cfu) of brucella abortus strain rb51 (srb51) that had previously been vaccinated as yearlings with 1 x 10(10) cfu of srb51. abortions or other adverse effects were not observed after srb51 booster vaccination. at 10 wk after adult vaccination, pregnant and nonpregnant bison (n = 65) were r ...200314733277
experimental brucella abortus infection in wolves.four juvenile male wolves (canis lupus) each received an oral dose of 1.6-1.7 x 10(12) colony-forming units of brucella abortus biovar 1 isolated from a bison (bison bison) in wood buffalo national park (canada), and two others served as negative controls. infected wolves did not show clinical signs of disease but did develop high brucella antibody titers. small numbers of b. abortus were excreted sporadically in feces until day 50 postinoculation (pi). very small numbers of the bacterium were i ...200415137489
brucellosis in captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) caused by brucella abortus biovar 4.nine (four female, five male) captive adult rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (cervus elaphus) fetus. clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. gross pathologic findings included enlargement of the testes or epididymides, or both, and yellow caseous abscesses and pyogranulomas of the same. b ...200415362833
brucellosis in elk of eastern idaho.brucellosis occurs in free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone area, which includes portions of idaho, wyoming, and montana. brucella abortus was first detected in elk in idaho in 1998, and from 1998 to 2002, serologic surveillance of hunter-killed elk was conducted in northeastern and southeastern idaho. prevalence of antibodies in these elk varied annually, but averaged between 2% and 3%. elk were also trapped in northeastern idaho from 1998-2002 and ...200616870849
immune responses of elk to initial and booster vaccinations with brucella abortus strain rb51 or 19.previous studies have suggested that currently available brucellosis vaccines induce poor or no protection in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). in this study, we characterized the immunologic responses of elk after initial or booster vaccination with brucella abortus strains rb51 (srb51) and 19 (s19). elk were vaccinated with saline or 10(10) cfu of srb51 or s19 (n=seven animals/treatment) and booster vaccinated with a similar dosage of the autologous vaccine at 65 weeks. compared to nonvaccinates, ...200617028213
the existing and potential importance of brucellosis and tuberculosis in canadian wildlife: a review.as the campaign to eradicate bovine brucellosis (brucella abortus) and tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) in canadian livestock nears completion, the importance of extraneous sources of these diseases increases. this review summarizes the literature on brucellosis and tuberculosis in canadian wildlife species to determine existing and potential hosts. canadian caribou (rangifer tarandus) are reservoirs of brucella suis biotype 4 which is pathogenic in caribou, humans and muskoxen but reportedly ...198617422637
enhanced immune response of red deer (cervus elaphus) to live rb51 vaccine strain using composite microspheres.brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of nearly worldwide distribution. the occurrence of the infection in humans is largely dependent on the prevalence of brucellosis in animal reservoirs, including wildlife. the current vaccine used for cattle brucella abortus strain rb51, has proven ineffective in protecting bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus nelsoni) from infection and abortion. to test possible improvements in vaccine efficacy, a novel approach of immunization was examined from apri ...200919204345
pathogenesis and epidemiology of brucellosis in yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their progeny.our objective in this prospective study was to determine the natural course of brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative, female bison (bison bison) and their offspring in yellowstone national park (ynp) for 5 yr. we collected specimens from 53 adult females and 25 calves at least once and from 45 adults and 22 calves more than once. annual seroconversion rates (negative to positive) were relatively high (23% for calves and juvenile bison, 6% in the total sample of a ...200919617483
oral vaccination with microencapsuled strain 19 vaccine confers enhanced protection against brucella abortus strain 2308 challenge in red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in the greater yellowstone area (gya), usa, are infected with brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, and they serve as a wildlife reservoir for the disease. bovine brucellosis recently has been transmitted from infected elk to cattle in montana, wyoming, and idaho and has resulted in their loss of brucellosis-free status. an efficacious brucella vaccine with a delivery system suitable for wildlife would be a valuable tool ...200919901378
vaccination strategies for managing brucellosis in yellowstone bison.concerns over migratory bison (bison bison) at yellowstone national park transmitting brucellosis (brucella abortus) to cattle herds on adjacent lands led to proposals for bison vaccination. we developed an individual-based model to evaluate how brucellosis infection might respond under alternate vaccination strategies, including: (1) vaccination of female calves and yearlings captured at the park boundary when bison move outside the primary conservation area; (2) combining boundary vaccination ...201020362620
brucellosis in the united states: role and significance of wildlife reservoirs.regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the u.s. for almost 80 years. wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsonii) for brucella abortus whereas brucella suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. the persistence of brucellosis in wildlife reservoirs poses a risk for reintroduction of brucella into domestic livestock. reducing the prevalence of brucellosis in wildlife reservoirs is anticipated to ...201020362627
status of brucellosis in free-ranging elk and bison in wyoming.brucella abortus is the causative agent of brucellosis, a disease enzootic in populations of free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone ecosystem, usa. we define the distribution of the disease in elk throughout wyoming, usa, using three epidemiologic/geographic classifications based on winter-foraging opportunity. antibody prevalence for >3,300 yearling and adult, female elk, sampled from supplemental feedgrounds in western wyoming, usa, since 1985, was ...201020688637
dna vaccination of bison to brucellar antigens elicits elevated antibody and ifn-+¦ responses.brucella abortus remains a threat to the health and well-being of livestock in states bordering the greater yellowstone area. during the past several years, cohabitation of infected wildlife with cattle has jeopardized the brucellosis-free status of idaho, usa; wyoming, usa; and montana, usa. current livestock b. abortus vaccines have not proven to be efficacious in bison (bison bison) or elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). one problem with the lack of vaccine efficacy may stem from the failure to und ...201121719815
immune responses and safety after dart or booster vaccination of bison with brucella abortus strain rb51.one alternative for management of brucellosis in yellowstone national park bison (bison bison) is vaccination of calves and yearlings. although brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccination protects bison against experimental challenge, the effect of booster vaccinations was unknown. this study characterized immunologic responses after dart or booster vaccination of bison with brucella abortus strain rb51. in two studies, 8- to 10-month-old female bison were inoculated with saline (n = 14), hand vacc ...201222461528
brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock in the greater yellowstone ecosystem: inferences from dna genotyping.the wildlife of the greater yellowstone ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th century. brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, brucella abortus . we examined b. abortus transmission between american bison ( bison bison ), rocky mountain elk ( cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (vntr) markers on dn ...201728118557
risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater yellowstone area (ii): cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.recent cases of bovine brucellosis (brucella abortus) in cattle (bos taurus) and domestic bison (bison bison) of the southern greater yellowstone area (sgya) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus). several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. it is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of ...201627836044
feasibility of quarantine procedures for bison (bison bison) calves from yellowstone national park for conservation of brucellosis-free bison.objective--to determine the feasibility of qualifying individuals or groups of yellowstone national park bison as free from brucellosis. design--cohort study. sample--serum, blood, and various samples from live bison and tissues taken at necropsy from 214 bison over 7 years. procedures--blood was collected from bison every 30 to 45 days for serologic tests and microbiological culture of blood for brucella abortus. seropositive bison were euthanized until all remaining bison had 2 consecutive neg ...201424548234
the use of contraception as a disease management tool in wildlife.contraception offers potential as a tool for managing certain diseases in wildlife, most notably venereally transmitted diseases or diseases transmitted at parturition. brucellosis is an excellent example of an infectious disease present in wild populations that could potentially be managed through immunocontraception. previous studies in bison (bison bison) suggest that a single injection of gonacon (national wildlife research center, u.s. department of agriculture/animal and plant health inspe ...201324437094
integrating ecology with management to control wildlife brucellosis.bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus) in the greater yellowstone ecosystem have long been infected with brucella abortus. the continued culling of large numbers of yellowstone bison to reduce the risk of brucellosis transmission to cattle could negatively affect long-term conservation. a desirable management objective is to reduce the level of b. abortus infection while conserving wildlife populations. identifying the ecological factors that influence immune suppression and vulnerabilityt ...201323837381
risks of brucella abortus spillover in the greater yellowstone area.recurrent spillover of brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the greater yellowstone area (gya) has prevented the united states from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. while the brucellosis prevalence in wild, fre ...201323837366
evaluation of bison (bison bison) semen from yellowstone national park, montana, usa, bulls for brucella abortus shedding.to determine if bison (bison bison) bulls from yellowstone national park (ynp), montana, usa, shed an infective dose of brucella abortus in semen, 50 ynp bulls were captured on public lands in montana during the winter and early spring (april-may) of 2010 and 2011. the bulls were immobilized, and blood and semen samples were collected for serology and brucella culture. thirty-five bulls (70%) were antibody-positive, and b. abortus was cultured from semen in three (9%) of the 35 antibody-positive ...201323778628
evaluation of transmission of brucella abortus strain 19 in bison by intravaginal, intrauterine, and intraconjunctival inoculation.bovine brucellosis, caused by the bacterium brucella abortus, is endemic in bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in the area of yellowstone national park, usa. two strategies have been proposed to reduce the risk of transmission of disease in bison: remote vaccination with the vaccine rb51, and the use of immunocontraception of bison to decrease shedding of organisms from infected females. the frequent occurrence of venereal transmission in bison would complicate eith ...201323778600
yersinia enterocolitica: an unlikely cause of positive brucellosis tests in greater yellowstone ecosystem bison (bison bison).yersinia enterocolitica serotype o:9 has identical o-antigens to those of brucella abortus and has apparently caused false-positive reactions in numerous brucellosis serologic tests in elk (cervus canadensis) from southwest montana. we investigated whether a similar phenomenon was occurring in brucellosis antibody-positive bison (bison bison) using y. enterocolitica culturing techniques and multiplex pcr of four diagnostic loci. feces from 53 yellowstone bison culled from the population and 113 ...201222740518
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