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human apobec3 proteins can inhibit xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus infectivity.xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (xmrv) is a novel retrovirus, related to murine leukemia virus (mlv), that has been implicated in human disease. if xmrv is indeed able to replicate in humans, then one might predict that xmrv would have developed resistance to human innate antiviral resistance factors such as apobec3g (ha3g). in fact, we observed that xmrv and mlv are both highly sensitive to inhibition by ha3g and equally resistant to inhibition by murine apobec3. while several hu ...201021131013
pseudotyping of porcine endogenous retrovirus by xenotropic murine leukemia virus in a pig islet xenotransplantation model.the potential of porcine endogenous retrovirus (perv) as a human pathogen, particularly as a public health risk, is a major concern for xenotransplantation. in vitroperv transmission to human cells is well established. evidence from human/pig hematopoietic chimeras in immunodeficient mice suggests perv transmission from pig to human cells in vivo. however, recently yang et al. demonstrated in such a model that perv-c, a nonhuman-tropic class, could be transmitted via pseudotyping by xenotropic m ...200515996230
precise gene localization by phenotypic assay of radiation hybrid cells.a high resolution map of the human genome previously has been constructed by using the g3 panel of human/hamster radiation hybrid cell lines and >15,000 unique human genetic markers. by determining whether human dna sequences are present or absent in each of the hybrids, localization of single genes may routinely be achieved at approximately 250-kb resolution. in this paper we have tested whether similarly precise localization might be achieved by phenotypic screening of the hybrids to facilitat ...200010852967
murine type c retroviruses and intracisternal a-particles in human tumors serially passaged in nude mice.an ultrastructural survey of 11 human tumors passaged in n:nih(s) (nu/nu) mice showed two instances of type c virus production. in one instance type c virus particles were observed in the endothelial murine stromal cell component of an embryonal carcinoma but not in the human tumor cells. in another instance type c virus particles were seen replicating in the chondroblastic human cells of a xenografted osteosarcoma. the type c virus produced in the human cells failed to transform nih/3t3 cells, ...19836310201
susceptibility of human primary neuronal cells to xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related (xmrv) virus infection.xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related (xmrv) virus is a recently identified mouse gammaretrovirus that has the ability to infect certain human cells. in this study, we investigated the susceptibility of primary neuronal cell types to infection with xmrv.201121933387
Seroprevalence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in normal and retrovirus-infected blood donors.BACKGROUND: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in patients with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Although results have been conflicting, the potential of XMRV as an infectious human retrovirus has raised concerns about transfusion safety. To address this issue, normal and retrovirus-infected blood donors were screened for evidence of XMRV infection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma from 1000 US, 100 human immunodeficiency virus Type 1-infected Ca ...201122023235
characterization, mapping, and distribution of the two xmrv parental proviruses.xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (xmrv) was previously reported to be associated with human prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. our groups recently showed that xmrv was created through recombination between two endogenous murine retroviruses, prexmrv-1 and prexmrv-2, during the passaging of a prostate tumor xenograft in nude mice. here, multiple approaches that led to the identification of prexmrv-2, as well as the distribution of both parental proviruses among different ...201222031947
serologic and pcr testing of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome in the united states shows no association with xenotropic or polytropic murine leukemia virus-related viruses.in 2009, a newly discovered human retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus (mulv)-related virus (xmrv), was reported by lombardi et al. in 67% of persons from the us with chronic fatigue syndrome (cfs) by pcr detection of gag sequences. although six subsequent studies have been negative for xmrv, cfs was defined more broadly using only the cdc or oxford criteria and samples from the us were limited in geographic diversity, both potentially reducing the chances of identifying xmrv positive cf ...201121342521
xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus is susceptible to azt.the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (xmrv) is a human retrovirus, recently isolated from tissues of prostate cancer patients with impaired rnase l activity. in this study, we evaluated 10 licensed anti-hiv-1 compounds for their activity against xmrv, including protease inhibitors (pi), nucleoside reverse transcriptase (rt) inhibitors (nrti), non-nucleoside rt inhibitors (nnrti) and an integrase inhibitor. no pi affected xmrv production; even high concentrations of ritonavir failed ...201019959199
no evidence of murine leukemia virus-related viruses in live attenuated human vaccines.the association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (mlv)-related virus (xmrv) in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome reported in previous studies remains controversial as these results have been questioned by recent data. nonetheless, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of human vaccines as a possible source of introduction of xmrv and mlv into human populations. to address this possibility, we tested eight live attenuated human vaccines using generic pcr for xmrv and mlv ...201122216219
xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (xmrv) in prostate cancer cells likely represents a laboratory artifact.the prevalence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (xmrv) in human population and its involvement in prostate cancer are subjects of ongoing research and debate. 22rv1, which is a human cell line that serves as a common model of androgen-independent prostate cancer, was recently reported to carry infectious copies of xmrv. 22rv1 was derived from a prostate cancer xenograft cwr22 that was serially passaged in immunodeficient mice. based on the analysis of the dna from cwr22 and 22rv ...201121642749
antibody responses against xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus envelope in a murine model.xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (xmrv) was recently discovered to be the first human gammaretrovirus that is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer (pc). although a mechanism for xmrv carcinogenesis is yet to be established, this virus belongs to the family of gammaretroviruses well known for their ability to induce cancer in the infected hosts. since its original identification xmrv has been detected in several independent investigations; however, at this ti ...201121494670
no evidence of xmrv in prostate cancer cohorts in the midwestern united states.xenotropic murine leukemia virus (mlv)-related virus (xmrv) was initially identified in prostate cancer (pca) tissue, particularly in the prostatic stromal fibroblasts, of patients homozygous for the rnasel r462q mutation. a subsequent study reported xmrv antigens in malignant prostatic epithelium and association of xmrv infection with pca, especially higher-grade tumors, independently of the rnasel polymorphism. further studies showed high prevalence of xmrv or related mlv sequences in chronic ...201121447170
contamination of human dna samples with mouse dna can lead to false detection of xmrv-like sequences.in 2006, a novel gammaretrovirus, xmrv (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus), was discovered in some prostate tumors. a more recent study indicated that this infectious retrovirus can be detected in 67% of patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (cfs), but only very few healthy controls (4%). however, several groups have published to date that they could not identify xmrv rna or dna sequences in other cohorts of cfs patients, while another group detected murine leukemia virus ...201021171973
characterization of retroviral and lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus envelope glycoprotein.retroviral and lentiviral vectors are effective gene delivery vehicles that are being evaluated in clinical trials. variations in the viral envelope (env) glycoproteins, which are used to pseudotype retroviral or lentiviral vectors, can alter vector performance, including stability, titers, host range, and tissue tropism. xenotropic murine leukemia virus (mlv)-related virus (xmrv) is a novel human retrovirus identified in patients with prostate cancer. xmrv targets xpr1 cell surface receptor, wh ...201020507233
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