bat rabies in canada 1963-1967.six hundred and twenty-eight insectivorous bats originating from seven provinces were submitted to this institute for rabies diagnosis between august 1, 1963 and december 31, 1967. brain tissue was examined by the fluorescent antibody technique and the mouse infectivity test was carried out with brain, salivary gland, interscapular adipose tissue and kidney samples. rabies virus was detected in 44 bats, 29 of which were from ontario, 12 from british columbia and three from manitoba. most of the ...19694242773
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1998.during 1998, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,961 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, a decrease of 6.5% from 8,509 cases in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings reported in 1997. more than 92% (7,358 cases) were in wild animals, whereas > 7.5% (603 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93% in wild animals and 7% in domestic species in 1997). decreases were evident in al ...199910613210
mammalian reservoirs and epidemiology of rabies diagnosed in human beings in the united states, 1981-1998.between 1981 and 1998, 37 cases of rabies were diagnosed in human beings in the united states. information directly linking the cause of infection to animal bite was available for only eight of these cases. indirect incrimination of the vector by analysis of cdna sequences obtained by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of samples indicated that for all cases (12/12) believed to have been acquired in foreign countries, variants of the rabies virus (vrvs) associated with dogs (7/12 in ...200011193644
emerging epidemiology of bat-associated cryptic cases of rabies in humans in the united the united states, during the past half-century, the number of humans to die of rabies dramatically decreased to an average of 1-2 per year. although the number of deaths is low, most deaths occur because individuals are unaware that they had been exposed to and infected with rabies virus, and, therefore, they do not seek effective postexposure treatment. molecular epidemiological studies have linked most of these cryptic rabies exposures to rabies virus variants associated with insectivorous ...200212203172
human rabies--tennessee, 2002.on august 31,2002, a boy aged 13 years residing in franklin county, tennessee, died from rabies encephalitis caused by a rabies virus variant associated with silver-haired and eastern pipistrelle bats. this report summarizes the investigation by the tennessee department of health (tdh). persons should avoid direct contact with bats, other wildlife, and stray or ill domestic animals; however, if direct contact with bats has occurred, exposed persons should see their health-care provider, and the ...200212353742
human rabies--iowa, 2002.on september 28, 2002, a man aged 20 years residing in linn county, iowa, died from rabies encephalitis caused by infection with a variant of rabies virus associated with silver-haired (lasionycteris noctivagans) and eastern pipistrelle (pipistrellus subflavus) bats. this is the first case of human rabies in iowa since 1951. this report summarizes the investigation of the case by the linn county and iowa public health departments. bats found in living quarters should be submitted to local public ...200312570321
trends in national surveillance for rabies among bats in the united states (1993-2000).to describe surveillance trends and epidemiologic features of rabies in bats in the united states, focusing on 3 bat species primarily associated with variants of the rabies virus that affect humans.200312619845
evolutionary timescale of rabies virus adaptation to north american bats inferred from the substitution rate of the nucleoprotein gene.throughout north america, rabies virus (rv) is endemic in bats. distinct rv variants exist that are closely associated with infection of individual host species, such that there is little or no sustained spillover infection away from the primary host. using bayesian methodology, nucleotide substitution rates were estimated from alignments of partial nucleoprotein (n) gene sequences of nine distinct bat rv variants from north america. substitution rates ranged from 2.32 x 10(-4) to 1.38 x 10(-3) ...200515831959
a new phylogenetic lineage of rabies virus associated with western pipistrelle bats (pipistrellus hesperus).bats represent the major source of human rabies cases in the new world. in the usa, most cases are associated with species that are not commonly found or reported rabid. to understand better the epidemiology and public health significance of potentially important bat species, a molecular study was performed on samples collected from naturally infected rabid western pipistrelle (pipistrellus hesperus), eastern pipistrelle (pipistrellus subflavus) and silver-haired bats (lasionycteris noctivagans) ...200616847127
rabies in bats from on rabies virus infection in bats that were submitted to the alabama department of public health from 1995-2005 were analyzed. demographic factors, such as species and sex, and temporal aspects, such as yearly and monthly trends, were investigated. thirteen species of bats were submitted, and of those, individuals from seven species were rabid; prevalence was highest in lasiurus borealis and pipistrellus subflavus and lowest in eptesicus fuscus and nycticeius humeralis. there was no differe ...200717495316
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2007.summary: during 2007, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,258 cases of rabies in animals and 1 case in a human to the cdc, representing a 4.6% increase from the 6,940 cases in animals and 3 cases in humans reported in 2006. approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,659 raccoons (36.6%), 1,973 bats (27.2%), 1,478 skunks (20.4%), 489 foxes (6.7%), 274 cats (3.8%), 93 dogs (1.3%), and 57 ca ...200818795848
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2008.during 2008, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,841 cases of rabies in animals and 2 cases in humans to the cdc, representing a 3.1% decrease from the 7,060 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2007. approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,389 (34.9%) raccoons, 1,806 (26.4%) bats, 1,589 (23.2%) skunks, 454 (6.6%) foxes, 294 (4.3%) cats, 75 (1.1%) dogs, and 59 (0.9%) catt ...200919751163
human rabies - kentucky/indiana, 2009.on october 19, 2009, clinicians from kentucky contacted cdc regarding a suspected case of rabies in a man from indiana aged 43 years. this report summarizes the patient's clinical presentation and course, the subsequent epidemiologic investigation, and, for the first time, provides infection control recommendations for personnel performing autopsies on decedents with confirmed or suspected rabies infection. before the patient's death on october 20, a diagnosis of rabies was suspected based on th ...201020379132
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2010.during 2010, 48 states and puerto rico reported 6,154 rabid animals and 2 human rabies cases to the cdc, representing an 8% decrease from the 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human cases reported in 2009. hawaii and mississippi did not report any laboratory-confirmed rabid animals during 2010. approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,246 raccoons (36.5%), 1,448 skunks (23.5%), 1,430 bats (23.2%), 429 foxes (6.9%), 30 ...201121916759
rabies surveillance among bats in tennessee, usa, 1996-2010.rabies virus (rabv) infects multiple bat species in the americas, and enzootic foci perpetuate in bats principally via intraspecific transmission. in recent years, bats have been implicated in over 90% of human rabies cases in the us. in tennessee, two human cases of rabies have occurred since 1960: one case in 1994 associated with a tricolored bat (perimyotis subflavus) rabv variant and another in 2002 associated with the tricolored/silver-haired bat (p. subflavus/lasionycteris noctivagans) rab ...201526251992
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
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