reactions of immune sera against the nucleocapsid, envelope and whole herpes simplex virus type 1.antibodies against (a) naked particles, (b) virus envelope, and (c) whole herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 were investigated. immune rabbit serum against naked particles (and formalized naked particles) contained virus neutralizing (vn) antibody in a low titre as compared to the titre of complement-fixing (cf) antibody. immune rabbit serum against the viral envelope had similar titres of vn and cf antibodies. in gel double diffusion precipitation tests, whole hsv gave two precipitation zones wi ...19767940
measurement of antibodies to herpesvirus types 1 and 2 in human sera by microradioimmunoassay.the binding of 125i-labelled anti-human antibodies against the fc igg fragment to unlabelled antiviral immunoglobulins in the surface of infected cells was used to quantitate antibodies against herpes simplex virus type (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in sera from patients with cervix carcinoma. the microradioimmunoassay technique (micro-ria) proved to be 5-10 times more sensitive than the microneutralization test. antibody titres determined by micro-ria correlated with neutralizing antibody titres t ...197722235
experimental pathogenesis of non-lethal herpesvirus infection and the establishment of rabbits inoculated into the right scarified cornea with the kupka strain of human herpesvirus type 1 (hhv 1), healing of the keratitis occurred between days 8--12 post infection (p.i.). viral particles were seen in nuclei and cytoplasm of corneal epithelium cells and in a few fibrocytes of corneal stroma. by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, the virus was demonstrated in single neurons and satellite cells of the homolateral gasserian ganglion since 24 hr p.i. from 20 hr to 8 days p. ...197829466
differential feulgen-deoxyribonucleic acid hydrolysis patterns of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infected cells.infection of human embryonic lung cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-2) resulted in: (a) qualitative (nuclear cytopathologic) alterations and quantitative (nuclear area) differences in infected compared to control nuclei; (b) increased feulgen-deoxyribonucleic acid (f-dna) amounts in infected cells, probably due to viral dna; (c) higher f-dna levels in hsv-2 infected cells; and (d) increased rates of f-dna hydrolysis in viral-infected as compared to uni ...197547871
detection of early antigens in nuclei of cells infected with cytomegalovirus or herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 by anti-complement immunofluorescence, and use of a blocking assay to demonstrate their fibroblasts exposed to cytosine arabinoside (ara c) were infected with either cytomegalovirus (cmv) or herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and 2. herpesvirus-determined early antigens (hv-ea), detected by anti-complement immunofluorescence (acif), occurred primarily in the nucleic, and the specificity of these results was established by an acif blocking reaction using f(ab')2 fragments of human and hyperimmune reference sera. direct tests with selected sera and cross-blocking experiments betw ...197764461
cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 antigens in leukoplakia and carcinoma in man.cell-mediated immune responses to herpes simplex virus 1 and type 2 virion and non-virion antigens were assessed in patients and in controls with oral leukoplakia, carcinoma and recurrent herpes labialis. enhanced proliferation was found in lymphocytes from patients with recurrent herpes labialis or with leukoplakia showing epithelial atypia, and depressed responses were found in carcinoma. very significantly positive correlations were shown between the responses to each of the herpes virus anti ...197665753
enhancement of ige-mediated histamine release from human basophils by viruses: role of interferon.human leukocytes maintained in culture are induced to release histamine when exposed to ragweed antigen e or anti-ige. leukocyte cultures incubated with virus (i.e. hsv-1, influenza a, and adeno-1) but not exposed to ragweed antigen e or anti-ige fail to release histamine. if, however, leukocyte cultures are first exposed to virus and then to ragweed antigen e or anti-ige, significant enhancement of histamine release occurs. both infectious and inactivated virus enhance histamine release and the ...197767173
influence of human leukocyte interferon on igg on the replication of herpes simplex virus in nervous tissue in vitro.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) replicated productively in rabbit and guinea pig ganglia and nerve organ cultures when inoculated in high titres. treatment with igg 20 hr before and 48 hr after infection produced a delay of 4 to 7 days in the recovery of hsv-1 by the method of co-cultivation. the same result was obtained when igg was combined with human leukocyte interferon. there was no difference in the period up to hsv recovery between the groups treated with interferon alone and the hsv ...197994767
stimulation of human lymphocytes by herpes simplex virus antigens.lymphocytes from individuals with laboratory evidence of prior infection with herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 or type 2 demonstrated transformation (av antigens. higher stimulation indexes were obtained when lymphocytes were incubated with the homologous as compared with the heterologous antigen. higher mean lymphocyte stimulation indexes were also demonstrated in seropositive as compared with seronegative individuals. lymphocytes from children with hsv-1 stomatitis usually became responsive t ...1975163788
differential action of deoxynucleosides on mammalian cell cultures infected with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.cytopathic effects induced by eight serologically defined isolates of herpes simplex virus type 2 (tested on human amnion cells) were markedly inhibited by thymidine at a concentration of 5 mm; eight serologically defined isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1, however, were not significantly inhibited. a similar effect was seen with thymidine, deoxyguanosine, and deoxycytidine at 1-mm concentrations in tests with rabbit kidney cultures. the inhibitory effect of thymidine was not blocked by the ...1975163871
anatomy of herpes simplex virus dna: strain differences and heterogeneity in the locations of restriction endonuclease cleavage sites.digestion of herpes simplex virus dna by the hiniii or eco ri restriction endonucleases yielded 11 to 15 fragments with molecular weights between 1 x 10(6) and 28 x10(6). the electrophoretic profiles obtained in 0.3% agarose gels with dna fragments from none different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 could be readily differentiated from the patterns exhibited by the corresponding fragments from four separate strains of type 2 virus; however, with each serotype, the laboratory strains diffe ...1975168574
solid phase radioimmunoassay for typing herpes simplex viral antibodies in human indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay (ria) was developed for typing antibody to herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) in human sera. the test is based upon absorption of sera with uninfected, hsv-1-infected cells and testing for residual antibody. the high sensitivity of the ria method for detecting hsv antibody permits examination of sera at high dilutions, and thus relatively small volumes of virus-infected cells are required for cross-absorption of antibodies. results ...1975172526
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to target cells infected with type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus.the phenomenon of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytoxicity (adcc) has been extended to include target cells acutely infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus (hsv-1) or herpes simplex type 2 virus (hsv-2) in an in vitro system that employs immune human serum and human blood mononuclear cells. the cytotoxic reaction was detectable after 1 hr of incubation and was complete between 4 and 8 hr. the amount of adcc noted was directly proportional to the logarithm(10) of the effector: target cell ra ...1976173757
variability in the structural polypeptides of herpes simplex virus 1 strains: potential application in molecular epidemiology.this paper reports on the variability of structural polypeptides of 53 strains of herpes simplex virus 1 isolated from italy, uganda, south africa, and various locations in the united states. most strains were passaged a limited number of times at low multiplicity outside the human host; a few strains were characterized by numberous passages at variable multiplicities in cell culture and experimental animals. the acrylamide gel electrophoresis of polypeptides from purified virions revealed seven ...1976175016
in vitro stimulation of human lymphocytes by purified cytomegalovirus.lymphocytes from 19 healthy donors were tested against purified cytomegalovirus (cmv) strain ad 169, in a lymphocyte-transformation test. the test was performed in microcultures using various preparations and concentrations of antigen. these included, besides purified cmv, cmv-infected cells, herpes simplex virus type 1 antigen, and control antigens. lymphocytes from cmv-seropositive donors were stimulated by purified virus and infected cells, whereas lymphocytes from seronegative donors did not ...1975186434
complement-fixing antigen of human cytomegaloviruses.the titer of complement-fixing (cf) antigen of human cytomegalovirus (cmv) strain c87 was not reduced by 10 cycles of freezing and thawing or by storage at 4 c for two months, although the virus was labile at 37 c and 100 c. the rapid increase in titers of cf antigen and plaque-forming units was seen from days 3 through 6 after infection; however, cf antigen was detected 24 hr after infection. the molecular weight of cf antigen was estimated by gel filtration to be greater than 1.5 x 10(7) dalto ...1977190330
activation of latent herpesvirus hominis in explants of rabbit trigeminal ganglia: the influence of immune serum.more than fifty albino rabbits were inoculated into the right scarified cornea with 10(7) pfu of the kupka strain of human herpes virus type 1 (hhv-1). at intervals ranging from 4--280 days post infection (p.i.), both gasserian ganglia, both trigeminal nerve trunks and pieces from brain stem and from both corneas were explanted. activation of the latent hhv-1 was found mainly in the homolateral ganglion tissue, but also in explants originating from the opposite ganglia. within 24--72 hours, prio ...1977192182
[prevention and therapy of viral diseases with special reference to interferon].human leukocyte interferon (hli) was used for treatment of human diploid fibroblasts before and after infection with vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2), and varicella zoster virus (vzv). vero cells were infected with medical lake macaque herpes virus (mlmv), and treated with hli in the same way. in all of these systems hli exhibited an antiviral effect when administered before infection, and this effect could be increased by additional hli tr ...1977192653
anatomy of herpes simplex virus dna viii. properties of the replicating dna.this paper concerns the properties of herpes simplex virus 1 dna replicating in hep-2 and human embryonic lung cells. the results were as follows. (i) only a small fraction of input viral dna entered the replicative pool. the bulk of the input viral dna cosedimented with marker viral dna and did not appear to be degraded or dissociated into l and s components. (ii) nascent dna sedimented faster and banded at a higher density than that of mature viral dna extracted from virions. pulse-chase exper ...1977196115
search for inhibitors against herpes simplex virus type-i in cell extracts derived from human lymphoblastoid cell lines.cell extracts obtained from kb cells and 5 human lymphoblastoid cell lines including 2 from burkitt's lymphoma (p3hr-1 and raji), one each from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (no.223), acute lymphatic leukemia (molt-4) and a healthy person (nc-37) were tested for their inhibitory effects on the growth of herpes simplex virus type-1 (hsv-1) in green monkey kidney (gmk) cells by the plaque titration method. the relationship between the production of hsv-1 inhibitors and the degree of epstein-barr virus ...1977196817
[herpes simplex virus (hsv-1 and hsv-2) infection: its clinical and oncogenic properties (author's transl)].the epidemiology and clinical features of diseases caused by the herpes simplex virus, are reviewed and recent results are discussed which give an insight into the complex mechanism of primary and chronic, recurrent hsv-1 infections. immunological reactions in hsv infection and data concerning the oncogenic potential of hsv-1 and -2 are dealt with. furthermore, current therapeutic possibilities are outlined.1977201107
suppression of the synthesis of cellular macromolecules by herpes simplex virus.synthesis of cellular protein was substantially inhibited within 1 h of infection with herpes simplex virus, type 2, strain g (hsv-2). the inhibition also occurred, although no virus-specific protein synthesis was detected, after infection with u.v. irradiated virus and in cytoplasts that had been enucleated before infection. the inhibitory activity could not be distinguished from infectivity by dilution, sedimentation or reaction with gamma-globulin. hsv-2 also suppresssed the synthesis of send ...1978212520
restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of herpes simplex virus dna: a novel epidemiological tool applied to a nosocomial a blind study, 14 isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) that included nine isolates from a temporal cluster of hsv infections in a hospital pediatric intensive care unit and five unrelated isolates were analyzed by digestion of their dna with four restriction endonucleases. these enzymes (hsui, bglii, ecori, and hpai) cleave the dna in about 52 sites. to date, at least 16 sites have been found to be variable in the sense that they may be present or absent independently of any other ...1978213496
the polypeptide and the dna restriction enzyme profiles of spontaneous isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 from explants of human trigeminal, superior cervical and vagus ganglia.analysis of the infected cell polypeptides and the dna restriction profiles of 31 hsv-1 isolates from the trigeminal, superior cervical and vagus ganglia from 17 individuals (12 u.s.a., 2 japanese, 3 norwegian) could be classified as 15 different virus strains. with the exception of the three norwegian isolates which gave identical profiles, virus isolates from the ganglia of different individuals could all be distinguished from one another. in contrast virus isolates from the trigeminal, superi ...1979225415
natural killing of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected target cells: normal human responses and influence of antiviral antibody.studies of a mouse model of genetic resistance to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) indicate that the marrow-dependent effector cell of allogeneic resistance plays an important role in natural resistance to this virus infection. since the marrow-dependent effector cell appears to be closely related to the natural killer (nk) cells, an nk assay with hsv-1-infected fibroblasts [nk(hsv-1)] has been developed to study this resistance mechanism in humans. incubation of effector and target cells for ...1979227799
herpes virus production as a marker of repair in ultra-violet irradiated human skin cells of different origin.confluent cultures of human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with ultra-violet light 0 to 48 hours before infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv). the one-cycle viral yield was measured. different responses were obtained according to the origin of the host cells. (1) cells from three normal donors showed a dose-dependent recovery of hsv production during the 36--40 hours following u.v. exposure. the recovery was maximal for a dose at which a plateau level of unscheduled dna synthesis (u ...1979227802
evidence for herpes simplex virus type-selective receptors on cellular plasma membranes.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) interfered with the adsorption of subsequently added homotypic but no heterotypic hsv, suggesting that the cellular receptors involved were type-selective. both infective and u.v.-irradiated virus could block the attachment of virions to cellular surface receptors. the adsorption rate was studied by assaying non-adsorbed infective virus remaining in the fluid medium and cell-associated 3h-thymidine labelled hsv, and hsv mutants assayed in presence of phosphono ...1979227992
induction of thymidine kinase and dnase in varicella-zoster virus-infected cells and kinetic properties of the virus-induced thymidine kinase.thymidine kinase (tk), dna polymerase, and dnase activities were induced in human foreskin fibroblasts after varicella-zoster virus infection. the induced tk and dnase activities have electrophoretic mobilities different from the corresponding host enzymes. varicella-zoster virus-induced tk was purified and separated from the host enzyme by affinity column chromatography. this enzyme has been shown to have a broader substrate specificity with respect to either the phosphate donor or acceptor as ...1979228052
comparative study of herpes group virus-induced dna polymerases.a comparative biochemical study of virus-induced dna polymerases was made among the herpes group viruses: namely, herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and type 2, human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv). although these virus-induced enzymes shared some biochemical properties, they differed in several important aspects. all these virus-induced dna polymerases could efficiently use poly(dc) . oligo(dg)12--18 and poly(da) . oligo(dt)12--18 as template-primers. however, in phospho ...1979231586
serological studies on the antigenic relationship between herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus.if crossreacting antibodies between varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and herpes simplex virus (hsv) exist, one would expect more positive reactions with vzv in a group of hsv positive patients than in a group of hsv negative patients. this statement can only apply to a group of individuals where positive and negative reactions with respect to hsv and vzv are evenly distributed. such a distribution can only be found among children. therefore, the relationship between hsv-1 and vzv was the only one wh ...1979232073
the physical state of herpes simplex virus dna in infected human cells.treatment of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-infected human embryo lung (hel) cells with phosphonoacetic acid (paa) resulted in complete inhibition of hsv dna replication. dna was extracted from paa-treated hel cells infected with hsv-1 and centrifuged in a neutral cscl density gradient. the hsv dna sequences in the nuclei of paa treated cells at 24 hr post infection banded at the same density as free hsv dna (1.725 g/cm3), but a significant amount of viral dna sequences were detected in the ...1979232235
experimental latent herpesvirus infection in rabbits, mice and hamsters: ultrastructure of the virus activation in explanted gasseric ganglia.the frequency of latent infection as established in trigeminal ganglia of rabbits, mice and hamsters with human herpesvirus type 1 (hvh) was compared using two different virus strains. explantation proved to be effective in reisolation of hvh from ganglion tissue, which did not yield infectious virus at time of its removal. after healing of acute keratitis, the latent infection in homolateral gasseric ganglia of rabbits was detected at a relatively high frequency (60-80 per cent) up to 120 days ...1975235193
comparative evaluation of human leukocyte and fibroblast interferon in the prevention of herpes simplex virus keratitis in a monkey model.the prophylactic potency of topically applied human leukocyte interferon and human fibroblast interferon was compared in a monkey model with herpes simplex virus type 1-induced keratitis. both interferons effectively prevented keratitis at 1.9 x 10(6) u of activity per ml but were ineffective at 1.9 x 10(3) u/ml. slight differences between human leukocyte interferon and human fibroblast interferon observed at the level of 1.9 x 10(5) u/ml were not statistically significant.1977408274
a possible role for polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the defence against recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in man.we have used a 51cr release assay to demonstrate that human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (pmnl) can damage herpes simplex infected target cells sensitized with antiviral antibody. effective sensitizing antibodies were found in both serum and saliva of all those persons tested who were subject to recurrent cold sores. pmnl were much less effective as killer cells than peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but as they are the predominant inflammatory cell with the hsv1 lesion they may be, quantitati ...1978640713
antiviral activity of extracts from marine algae.extracts of two species of marine algae, constantinea simplex and farlowia mollis, were tested for antiviral activity in tissue culture and in experimental infections of mice. treatment of confluent mouse embryo fibroblast cell monolayers with either compound before viral inoculation was effective in inhibiting the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, vaccinia virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus, but not encephalomyocarditis virus, semliki forest virus, or murine cytomegalovi ...1978686707
sequence determination and genetic content of an 8.9-kb restriction fragment in the short unique region and the internal inverted repeat of marek's disease virus type 1 dna.the dna sequence (8.9 kb) covering about 70% of the short unique region (us) and part of the short inverted repeat of the marek's disease virus type 1 ga strain was determined. computer analysis of the sequence showed the presence of nine potential open reading frames (orfs), consisting of more than 300 nucleotides in the us region. of these orfs, four were found to be homologous to us10 (minor virion protein), us3 (protein kinase), us2, and us6 (gd) in the us region of alpha-herpesvirus herpes ...19921282282
detection of herpesvirus dna in the large intestine of patients with ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease using the nested polymerase chain reaction.the prevalence of herpesvirus dna was examined in inflammatory bowel disease tissue. dna was extracted from resection and biopsy specimens of the large intestine from patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 21), patients with crohn's disease (n = 29), and patients with noninflammatory bowel disease (controls) (n = 21). the nested polymerase chain reaction was used to detect viral dna using primer pairs specific for either cytomegalovirus (cmv), herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv1), human herpesvirus 6 (h ...19921287131
incorporation of the carbocyclic analog of 2'-deoxyguanosine into the dna of herpes simplex virus and of hep-2 cells infected with herpes simplex virus.the carbocyclic analog of 2'-deoxyguanosine (cdg) is active against herpes simplex virus (hsv), human cytomegalovirus, and human hepatitis-b virus. in order to understand the mechanism of action of this compound against hsv, we have evaluated (a) the incorporation of [3h]cdg into viral and host dna in hep-2 cells infected with hsv and (b) the interaction of the 5'-triphosphate of cdg (cdg-tp) with the hsv dna polymerase and human dna polymerases alpha, beta, and gamma (ec incubation of ...19921311407
the herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument protein vp22 is encoded by gene ul49.vp22 is a major tegument protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 and is highly phosphorylated in the infected cell. indirect evidence exists to suggest that it is encoded by gene ul49, present in the bamhi f fragment of the genome. using the polymerase chain reaction we have cloned the ul49 open reading frame into a mammalian expression vector under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early gene promoter. after transfection into cos-7 cells expression of the gene product was detect ...19921312128
recombination between a herpes simplex virus type 1 vector deleted for immediate early gene 3 and the infected cell genome.we have used a vector derived from a herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) mutant deleted for 3.6 kbp of the essential immediate early gene 3 to transduce the tn5 neomycin phosphotransferase (neor) gene into rodent and primate cells in culture. the transgene was flanked by genomic sequences from the human hprt gene. we demonstrate in this study that sequences introduced by infection with the replication-defective hsv vector can be stably inserted into the cell genome by recombination. both the eff ...19921318949
identification of the glycoprotein h gene of murine cytomegalovirus.partial sequencing of the hindiii c fragment of murine cytomegalovirus (mcmv) revealed an open reading frame of 2172 nucleotides in length encoding a 724 amino acid protein with a predicted mr of 80.4k. analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed homology with glycoprotein h (gh) from a number of other herpesviruses. mcmv gh showed strongest amino acid identity with human (h) cmv and human herpesvirus 6 gh, and less identity with the gh protein sequences of epstein-barr virus, varicel ...19921321219
a novel herpes simplex virus gene (ul49a) encodes a putative membrane protein with counterparts in other herpesviruses.comparative analysis of dna sequences located between the coding regions of genes ul49 and ul50 of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and -2) has revealed a small open reading frame (orf) of 91 and 87 codons respectively with the characteristics of a genuine protein-coding region. the predicted protein products are clearly related and exhibit features of membrane-inserted proteins, with potential n-proximal signal peptides and c-proximal membrane anchor regions. counterparts are present i ...19921322965
the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early polypeptide icp4 is required for expression of globin genes located in the viral genome.we infected vero cells with icp4-deficient herpes simplex virus recombinants bearing the rabbit beta-globin and human alpha 2-globin genes under the control of their own promoters and found that globin gene expression occurred only when icp4 was provided in trans. these results demonstrate that icp4 is required for the activity of globin promoters located in the viral genome and support the hypothesis that these cellular promoters are functionally equivalent to hsv early regulatory regions.19921326818
sequences of the bovine herpesvirus 1 homologue of herpes simplex virus type-1 alpha-trans-inducing factor (ul48).a virion protein of herpes simplex virus type-1, called vmw65, alpha tif or vp16, interacts with cellular transcription factors to transactivate immediate early viral genes. we have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the homologous protein in bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1). the amino acid sequence of the bhv-1 protein is similar to that of alpha tif, except in the c-terminal one-third of the protein. since the ability of alpha tif to activate transcription is depend ...19921327963
comparison of immunocytology to tissue culture for diagnosis of presumed herpesvirus dendritic epithelial keratitis.the objective of this study is to prospectively compare the sensitivity and specificity of immunodetection of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in impression cytology specimens obtained directly from presumed herpesvirus dendritic epithelial keratitis with virus isolation by tissue culture of cells scraped from the same lesion.19921328982
transcription of bamhi-a region of the ebv genome in npc tissues and b cells.analysis by northern blotting and sequencing of cdna clones from a transcription library of a tumor biopsy from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) patient showed that the bamhi-a region of the epstein-barr virus genome is abundantly and regularly transcribed in tumor tissues from npc patients. the transcription occurred in a rightward direction terminating between coordinates 160,965 and 160,995, where two polyadenylation sites are located. rightward transcription of this region also occurred in b ...19921329317
analysis of the ul36 open reading frame encoding the large tegument protein (icp1/2) of herpes simplex virus type 1.using peptide antisera specific for regions within the n terminus and c terminus of the predicted ul36 gene product, immunoblotting experiments were performed to demonstrate definitively that icp1/2 is encoded by the ul36 gene. these data also suggest that both the cell- and the virion-associated forms of icp1/2 are colinear with the complete predicted amino acid sequence of the ul36 gene. computer-assisted analyses of the predicted amino acid sequence of the ul36 gene revealed the presence of t ...19921331541
effects of dimethyl prostaglandin a1 on herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus replication.we have investigated the direct effect of dimethyl prostaglandin a1 (dmpga1) on the replication of herpes simplex virus (hsv) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). dmpga1 significantly inhibited viral replication in both hsv and hiv infection systems at concentrations of dmpga1 that did not adversely alter cellular dna synthesis. the 50% inhibitory concentration (id50) for several hsv type 1 (hsv-1) strains ranged from 3.8 to 5.6 micrograms/ml for vero cells and from 4.6 to 7.3 microg ...19921332592
improved synthesis and biological evaluation of an acyclic thiosangivamycin active against human cytomegalovirus.we previously described the synthesis and in vitro antiviral activity of an acyclic thiosangivamycin analog (gupta et al., 1989a). in order to extend these initial studies, a new, multi-gram synthesis of 4-amino-7-[(2-hydroxy- ethoxy)methyl]pyrrolo]2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-thiocarboxamide (compound 229) was achieved in 5 steps from the known 5-amino-2-bromo-3,4-dicyanopyrrole in good overall yield. in plaque reduction assays with hcmv, compound 229 had an ic50 of 7 microm; in yield reduction assays th ...19921332597
search for evidence of herpes simplex virus, type 1, or varicella-zoster virus infection in postmortem brain tissue from schizophrenic patients.the highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to search for herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-i) or varicella-zoster virus (vzv) in the dna extracted from postmortem temporal cortex samples of 8 schizophrenic subjects, 8 nonschizophrenic suicide victims and 8 normal controls. hsv-i or vzv-specific dna amplification was not detected in any of the samples studied.19921336636
inhibition of hsv-1-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes by recombinant-derived gp120 of hiv-1.the ability of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (hiv-1) and recombinant hiv-1 gp120 to prevent target cell lysis by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) was assessed by limiting dilution analysis. live and inactivated hiv-1 as well as recombinant-derived gp120 all substantially inhibited hsv-1-specific ctl. soluble cd4 antigen reversed the inhibition by gp120 when simultaneously added with gp120 to the assay. in addition, the monoclonal anti-cd4 antibody ...19921361737
report of twelve years experience in open study of skinner herpes simplex vaccine towards prevention of herpes genitalis.three hundred and forty-seven subjects at risk for herpes genitalis were vaccinated with skinner vaccine, nfuac.hsv1.(s-mrc5), and were followed for an average duration of 2 years representing a total consortship of 664.4 years. based on survey information obtained during this consortship, there were estimated to be 3076 recurrences which summated to 3.5 years total duration of disease and comprised at least 6794 lesions; there were an estimated 51997 episodes of intercourse including at least 2 ...19921549071
herpes simplex virus immediate early gene expression in the absence of transinduction by vmw65 varies during the cell cycle.the requirement for the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) protein vmw65 (vp16) for activation of immediate early (ie) gene expression was examined in synchronized hela cells. analyses of ie rna levels were conducted during infection with a viral vmw65 mutant, in1814. the results revealed an increased requirement for vmw65 when cultures reached g2 phase of the cell cycle. the levels of ie rnas 1, 2, and 4 were reduced 5-10 times more in g2 than g1/s for in1814-infected cells when compared to ce ...19921604810
merocyanine-sensitized photoinactivation of enveloped viruses.a wide range of enveloped viruses, including human herpes simplex virus type 1, human cytomegalovirus, human t cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type i, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, sindbis virus, and friend erythroleukemia virus, are highly susceptible to merocyanine 540 (mc 540)-sensitized photoinactivation. by contrast, human pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, red cells, factor viii, and von willebrand factor are much less sensitive. this suggests that mc 540 may be useful for the inact ...19921617187
sequence analysis of the 4.7-kb bamhi-ecori fragment of the equine herpesvirus type-1 short unique localize gene that may encode immunogens potentially important for recombinant vaccine design, we have analysed a region of the equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) genome where a glycoprotein-encoding gene had previously been mapped. the 4707-bp bamhi-ecori fragment from the short unique region of the ehv-1 genome was sequenced. this sequence contains three entire open reading frames (orfs), and portions of two more. orf1 codes for 161 amino acids (aa), and represents the c terminus of a possib ...19911647359
the six conserved helicase motifs of the ul5 gene product, a component of the herpes simplex virus type 1 helicase-primase, are essential for its function.the ul5 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1, one component of the viral helicase-primase complex, contains six sequence motifs found in all members of a superfamily of dna and rna helicases. although this superfamily contains more than 20 members ranging from bacteria to mammalian cells and their viruses, the importance of these motifs has not been addressed experimentally for any one of them. in this study, we have examined the functional significance of these six motifs for the ul5 protein ...19921309257
high levels of enhanced reactivation of herpes simplex virus in skin fibroblasts from various hereditary cancer-prone syndromes.the dose response of the enhanced reactivation (er) of herpes simplex virus type 1 has been studied in uv-irradiated normal human skin fibroblasts and fibroblasts from the following hereditary cancer-prone syndromes: retinoblastoma, aniridia, polyposis coli, neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2, dysplastic nevus syndrome, von hippel-lindau syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, and bloom's syndrome. surprisingly, much higher levels of er were observed in all these genetically heterogeneous her ...19921309228
characterization of a recombinant herpes simplex virus which expresses a glycoprotein d lacking asparagine-linked oligosaccharides.glycoprotein d (gd) is an envelope component of herpes simplex virus essential for virus penetration. gd contains three sites for addition of asparagine-linked carbohydrates (n-cho), all of which are utilized. previously, we characterized mutant forms of herpes simplex virus type 1 gd (gd-1) lacking one or all three n-cho addition sites. all of the mutants complemented the infectivity of a gd-minus virus, f-gd beta, to the same extent as wild-type gd. here, we show that recombinant viruses conta ...19911649339
modulation of herpes simplex virus replication in adenovirus transformed cells.the ability of herpes simplex virus 1 to replicate in cells transformed by adenovirus type 5 is strongly dependent on the origin of the cells. studies show that adenovirus transformed rat cells lose their permissiveness while cells of hamster or human origin retain their ability to replicate hsv although at a reduced level when compared to the untransformed parent cells. one line of adenovirus transformed rat cells, 107, demonstrates thermosensitive events, allowing hsv to replicate at 34 degree ...1979230284
immunogenicity of subviral herpes simplex virus preparations. i. formation of neutralizing antibodies in different animal species after administration of herpes simplex virus solubilized antigens.production of neutralizing antibodies was followed in guinea pigs, rabbits, hamsters and mice immunized with crude antigen extracts (am) from human diploid cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1. the am induced relatively high levels of neutralizing antibodies in all four species. the antibodies were predominantly complement-requiring and remained so even after administration of repeated am doses. with the strains used, the antibody response was predominantly type specific and, surprisi ...1979229789
effect of antiviral lipids, heat, and freezing on the activity of viruses in human milk.semliki forest virus (sfv), herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), coxsackievirus b4, and cytomegalovirus (cmv) were added to human milk, which was then subjected to treatments that approximated those required for the decontamination or storage of milk. boiling was the only treatment that eliminated these viruses from the milk. pasteurization (at 62.5 c for 30 min) did destroy cmv, but the other viruses could still be detected. all of the viruses except hsv-1 were detectable after the contaminated ...1979227969
identification of the human herpesvirus 6 glycoprotein h and putative large tegument protein genes.determination of the nucleotide sequences of two molecular clones of human herpesvirus 6 (hhv-6) (strain gs) and comparison with those of human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) has allowed the identification of the genes for the glycoprotein h (gh) and the putative large tegument protein of hhv-6. two molecular clones of fragments of hhv-6, the bamhi-g fragment (7,981 bp) of the clone termed pzvb43 and a hindiii fragment (8,717 bp) of the clone termed pzvh14, represent approximately 10% of the hhv-6 genom ...19911654455
transfer of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene from human cells to mouse cells by means of metaphase chromosomes.thymidine kinase (tk)-deficient human cells were infected with ultraviolet light-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1, and "transformed" cells that expressed herpes tk activity were isolated. purified metaphase chromosomes were isolated from the transformed human line and incubated with tk-deficient mouse cells. tk+ cells were selected, and it was shown that these cells were gene transferents which expressed herpes tk activity, identical to that found in the transformed human cells. the gene ...1979225836
herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of isogenic epstein-barr virus genome-negative and -positive burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell lines.the epstein-barr virus (ebv) genome-negative burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell lines bjab and ramos and their in vitro ebv-converted sublines bjab-b1, bjab-a5, bjab-b95-8, and aw-ramos were infected with high multiplicities of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1; 10 to 70 pfu/cell). cultures were monitored for cell growth and hsv-1 dna synthesis. ebv-converted bjab cultures were more permissive for hsv-1 infection than bjab cultures. significant cell killing and hsv-1 dna synthesis were observed du ...1979225521
the glycoproteins of the human herpesviruses.the herpesvirus family contains several important human pathogens. human herpesviruses include herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus and human t-cell lymphotropic virus. the general property of herpesviruses is their ability to establish latency and to be periodically reactivated. all human herpesviruses contain a subset of genes encoding viral glycoproteins that are clearly homologous, and their similarity is significantly greater a ...19911657514
leukoregulin, a novel cytokine enhances the anti-herpesvirus actions of acyclovir.leukoregulin is a naturally occurring immunologic cytokine which increases membrane permeability and drug uptake in tumor cells but not in normal cells. in this paper we show that leukoregulin also increases membrane permeability of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-infected cells. more importantly, we demonstrate that leukoregulin significantly enhances the ability of acyclovir (acycloguanosine, acv) to inhibit the cellular release of infectious hsv-1. the ability of 1-100 microm acv to inhib ...19911649027
detection of the latency-associated transcript in neuronal cultures during the latent infection with herpes simplex virus type 1.the transcriptional studies reported in this paper indicate that the latency-associated transcript (lat) is present in neuronal cultures during the latent infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). during the latent infection glycoprotein d (gd) mrna, a mrna characteristic of the productive infection, is not detected. however, following reactivation by nerve growth factor (ngf) deprivation, gd mrna is detected in the neuronal cultures. thus, the restricted viral gene expression in the i ...19911647075
evaluation of a test based on baculovirus-expressed glycoprotein g for detection of herpes simplex virus type-specific immunoblot assay for discrimination of antibodies to herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 was devised using extracts of recombinant-baculovirus-infected insect cells expressing hsv-1 or -2 glycoprotein g (gg1 or gg2). the assay was evaluated by comparing its results with those obtained by using an immunodot assay based on gg immunopurified from hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected cells. each of 110 human serum specimens was tested blindly and independently three times. at a serum dilution of 1:20, ...19911659601
t-cell immune response to human herpesvirus-6 in healthy adults.the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from healthy adults to human herpesvirus-6 (hhv-6) was examined. it was found that pbmc from 13 of 14 hhv-6-seropositive adults apparently proliferated in response to stimulation with hhv-6 antigen in contrast to the lack of response of cord blood mononuclear cells. in order to confirm the presence of hhv-6-specific memory t cells in the peripheral blood of healthy adults, we established hhv-6-specific t-cell clones from an ...19911661364
in vitro evaluation of the synergistic antiviral effects of acemannan in combination with azidothymidine and acyclovir.the antiviral effects of selected combinations between acemannan (ace-m), a long-chained, polydispersed, beta-(1,4)-acetylated mannan, were tested in combination with azidothymidine (azt) and acyclovir (acy) in vitro. the rationale for such combinations was based on the antiviral and immunomodulatory properties exhibited by ace-m. in addition, the observed antiviral effects of ace-m against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and other enveloped viruses appear to be related to modificati ...19911662957
evidence for selective evolution in codon usage in conserved amino acid segments of human alphaherpesvirus proteins.the genomes of human viruses herpes simplex 1 (hsv1) and varicella zoster (vzv), although similar in biology, largely concordant in gene order, and identical in many amino acid segments, differ widely in their genomic g + c (abbreviated s) content, which is high in hsv1 (68%) and low in vzv (46%). this paper analyzes several striking codon usage contrasts. the s difference in coding regions is dramatically large in codon site 3, s3, about 42%. the large difference in s3 is maintained at the same ...19911663999
acyclovir bioavailability in human skin.clinical experience demonstrates that oral acyclovir (acv) is superior to topical acv in treating recurrent cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) infections. cutaneous hsv-1 infections are complex in their pathology, affecting the basal epidermis in skin as well as establishing a latency phase in sensory ganglia. in vitro and in vivo human skin model systems were used in the present study to quantitate acv disposition and absorption in skin and blood following two routes of administratio ...19921593149
mutagenesis by apurinic sites in normal and ataxia telangiectasia human lymphoblastoid cells.we used a shuttle vector based on the epstein-barr virus origin of plasmid replication (orip) to determine the types of mutations induced by depurination in human cells. plasmid dna was incubated at ph 2 at 40 degrees c for various times to induce up to 20 apurinic (ap) sites per 9.7-kb plasmid and electroporated into lymphoblastoid cells derived from either a normal individual or an ataxia telangiectasia patient. after replication of the vector in the human cells, plasmid dna was isolated and a ...19921503643
vaccination against herpesvirus, fiction or reality?against herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1) there are commercially available vaccines which may induce protection against symptoms of primary infections, but not against establishment of latency. effective animal vaccines have been developed against herpes simplex-like viruses, for example pseudorabies vaccine for pigs, and an experimental vaccine can protect cattle against infection with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus. there are also commercially available effective live vaccines again ...19911666442
establishment and functional characterization of human herpesvirus 6-specific cd4+ human t-cell order to clarify the protective immune responses against a newly identified herpesvirus, human herpesvirus 6 (hhv-6), we established hhv-6-specific human t-cell clones and examined their functional properties. five cd3+cd4+cd8- t-cell clones, which proliferated in response to stimulation with two different strains of hhv-6 in the presence of autologous antigen-presenting cells but not with herpes simplex virus type 1 or human cytomegalovirus, were established from peripheral blood lymphocytes ...19921348547
detection of latent herpes simplex virus dna and rna in human geniculate ganglia by the polymerase chain using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) we detected latent herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) in human geniculate and trigeminal ganglia obtained from autopsy cases. a pair of primers which were specific for a part of the hsv-1 thymidine kinase domain were used for detection of hsv dna. we also examined the latency-associated transcript (lat), known as latency-specific rna, by means of reverse transcription-pcr with a pair of lat-specific primers. hsv-1 dna was detected in 16 of 17 (94%) t ...19921336296
evidence that hiv-1 gag precursor shares antigenic sites with the major capsid protein of human cytomegalovirus.a rabbit antiserum prepared against disrupted sucrose-banded hiv-1 virus (strain fre-3) reacted with antigens present in nuclear inclusions, pathognomonic for human cytomegalovirus (hcmv). this cross-reactivity was observed in autopsy specimens from individuals infected with cmv, in the presence or absence of co-infection with hiv-1. a towbin immunoassay showed that the serum reacted specifically with the hcmv major capsid protein (mcp, 153 kda), both in the nuclear fraction of infected cells an ...19901691565
selective virus inhibitors.our recent efforts have been directed at the development of selective inhibitors of different classes of viruses, including adeno, pox, and herpesviruses [herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2), varicella-zoster (vzv), cytomegalovirus (cmv), epstein-barr virus (ebv)], (+/-)rna viruses (reo- and rotavirus), (-)rna viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, measles, respiratory syncytial, vesicular stomatitis and rabies virus) and retroviruses [i.e. human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), the ...19901693749
rapid detection of human herpes simplex virus type 1 in saliva.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv1) can be rapidly identified in saliva from patients with acute herpetic gingivostomatitis, by in vitro amplification using the polymerase chain reaction and specific primers. amplification of dna results in a product of 110 bp length corresponding to the region 1381-1490 bp of the hsv1 thymidine kinase gene. the specificity of the reaction was demonstrated in three ways: (i) the presence of a sma 1 restriction enzyme site in the amplified product sequence; (ii) s ...19921332660
l-thymidine is phosphorylated by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and inhibits viral growth.we have demonstrated that herpes simplex 1 (hsv1) thymidine kinase (tk) shows no stereospecificity for d- and l-beta-nucleosides. in vitro, l enantiomers are not recognized by human tk, but function as specific substrates for the viral enzyme in the order: l-thymidine (l-t) >> 2'-deoxy-l-guanosine (l-dg) > 2'-deoxy-l-uridine (l-du) > 2'-deoxy-l-cytidine (l-dc) > 2'-deoxy- l-adenosine (l-da). hsv1 tk phosphorylates both thymidine enantiomers to their corresponding monophosphates with identical ef ...19921331461
antiretroviral activity, biochemistry, and pharmacokinetics of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxy-5-methylcytidine.3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxy-5-methylcytidine (cs-92, azddmec) is an antiviral nucleoside analogue structurally related to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (azt). cs-92 is a potent and selective inhibitor of hiv-1 reverse transcriptase and hiv-1 replication in human lymphocytes and macrophages. the ec50 for cs-92 in hiv-1-infected human pbm cells was 0.09 microm. in hiv-1-infected human macrophages, the ec50 was 0.006 microm. this compound was also effective against human immunodeficiency virus type 2 in ly ...19901706574
9-[(2rs)-3-fluoro-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl] derivatives of purines: a class of highly selective antiretroviral agents in vitro and in vivo.a new class of compounds, 9-[(2rs)-3-fluoro-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl] [(rs)-fpmp] derivatives of purines, is described that has selective activity against a broad spectrum of retroviruses [including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and type 2 (hiv-2)] but not other rna or dna viruses. this activity spectrum is completely different from that of the parental compounds, 9-[(2s)-3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl] [(s)-hpmp] derivatives of purines, which are active against a broad range ...19911711214
the conserved helicase motifs of the herpes simplex virus type 1 origin-binding protein ul9 are important for function.the ul9 gene of herpes simplex virus encodes a protein that specifically recognizes sequences within the viral origins of replication and exhibits helicase and dna-dependent atpase activities. the specific dna binding domain of the ul9 protein was localized to the carboxy-terminal one-third of the molecule (h. m. weir, j. m. calder, and n. d. stow, nucleic acids res. 17:1409-1425, 1989). the n-terminal two-thirds of the ul9 gene contains six sequence motifs found in all members of a superfamily ...19921328687
glycoprotein h of human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) forms a stable complex with the hcmv ul115 gene product.the human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) ul75 gene product is the homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein h (gh), a virion glycoprotein that is essential for infectivity and which is conserved among members of the alpha-, beta- and gamma-herpesviruses. it has previously been shown that hsv-1 gh forms a stable complex with hsv-1 gl, the product of the ul1 gene, and the formation of this complex facilitates the cell surface expression of gh. none of the open reading frames within the ...19921328481
nucleotide sequence and transcriptional mapping of the major capsid protein gene of pseudorabies virus.the gene encoding the 142-kda major capsid protein (mcp142) of pseudorabies virus (prv) was isolated and sequenced. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the mcp142 gene has a single open reading frame of 3993 nucleotides (nt) encoding 1330 amino acids. the 4400-nt major rna from the mcp142 gene was detected in prv-infected cells. the 5' end of the transcript was located 60 nt upstream of the initiation codon. the 3' end of the transcript was located 18 nt downstream of a putative poly(a) s ...19911718089
computer predictions of antigenic domains in herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 glycoprotein d as compared with experimentally proven domains.the primary amino-acid sequence of the glycoprotein d (gd) of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2) was analyzed by computer programs that provided values for hydrophilicity, surface probability, flexibility, and antigenicity, as well as the secondary structure conformation. putative antigenic domains with a high hydrophilicity, surface probability, and antigenicity index were determined and compared with the reported antigenic domains in hsv-1 and hsv-2 gd protein based on experimen ...19911724582
identification of the 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive enhancer of the ms gene of the epstein-barr virus.we previously located two 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa)-responsive enhancers, mstre-i and mstre-ii, in the upstream sequence of the ms gene of epstein-barr virus (liu, q., and summers, w.c. (1989) j. virol. 63, 5062-5068). the core sequence of the mstre-i enhancer is now determined to be between -718 and -708 of the upstream sequence of the ms gene. the activity of the enhancer is also sensitive to its immediate surrounding sequence on either side. a single copy of a 30-base pair (b ...19921318308
severe herpes simplex virus hepatitis following autologous bone marrow transplantation: successful treatment with high dose intravenous acyclovir.a 17-year-old male patient with t-cell type lymphoblastic lymphoma in complete remission underwent high dose chemotherapy (busulfan 16 mg/kg and cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg) followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation (abmt). the patient had been taking oral acyclovir (200 mg x 5) daily from seven days prior to the abmt (day -7). on day +24, he complained of epigastralgia and general malaise, and the next day his got and gpt rose to 570 u/l and 397 u/l, respectively. although he had no muc ...19911753418
the gamma 1(34.5) gene of herpes simplex virus 1 precludes neuroblastoma cells from triggering total shutoff of protein synthesis characteristic of programed cell death in neuronal cells.the gamma 1(34.5) gene of herpes simplex virus 1 was previously shown to play a role in viral virulence since deletion of the gene reduced by a factor of approximately 100,000 the capacity of the virus to replicate in the central nervous system and cause mortality in the mouse. here we show that in the human neuroblastoma cell line sk-n-sh of neuronal origin gamma 1(34.5) null mutants expressed early proteins, viral dna, and mrna of late genes. however, the onset of viral dna synthesis triggered ...19921314384
vaginal infection of mice with hsv type 2 variant er-: a new animal model for human primary genital hsv type 2 infections.studying the pathogenesis of vaginal infections in mice with two variants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain er we observed that both variants er+ and er- caused severe vaginitis but only er+ invaded the cns leading to lethal neurological disease. in contrast, mice infected with er- cleared the virus from the vagina and recovered from infection. er+ and er- expressed equal levels of thymidine kinase (tk) indicating a tk-independent difference in neurovirulence. using the non-neuroviru ...19921313825
protection from retinal necrosis by passive transfer of monoclonal antibody specific for herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d.passive administration of antibody against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) has been shown to protect against stromal keratitis and death from encephalitis. although the exact mechanism by which passively-transferred antibody protects is not known, one of the features of protection by passively-transferred antibody is interference with the ability of the virus to spread within the nervous system. in the experiments reported herein, studies were performed to determine if 8d2, a monoclonal anti ...19921313751
a cellular function can enhance gene expression and plating efficiency of a mutant defective in the gene for icp0, a transactivating protein of herpes simplex virus type 1.icp0 transactivates herpes simplex virus type 1 genes of all classes as well as a number of heterologous viral and cellular genes, yet it is not essential for virus replication in vitro or in vivo. stocks of icp0 deletion mutants, however, exhibit significantly lower plating efficiencies on standard 24-h-old vero cell monolayers than do stocks of wild-type virus. in an attempt to determine whether the growth status of cells in the monolayer affects the ability of icp0 mutants to initiate plaque ...19911649316
natural killer-mediated lysis of some but not all hsv-1- or vsv-infected targets requires the participation of hla-dr-positive accessory cells.natural killer (nk)-mediated lysis of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected fibroblasts (hsv-fs) has been previously shown to require the co-operation of cd16-positive nk cells and an hla-dr-positive accessory cell population. in contrast, lysis of k562 tumour cells requires the presence of only the leu-11-positive cells. in the current study, targets of different morphologies, both virally infected and non-infected, were tested in an attempt to dissect out which target characteristics determine ...19911851136
synthesis and anticancer and antiviral activities of various 2'- and 3'-methylidene-substituted nucleoside analogues and crystal structure of 2'-deoxy-2'-methylidenecytidine hydrochloride.various 2'- and 3'-methylidene-substituted nucleoside analogues have been synthesized and evaluated as potential anticancer and/or antiviral agents. among these compounds, 2'-deoxy-2'-methylidene-5-fluorocytidine (22) and 2'-deoxy-2'-methylidenecytidine (23) not only demonstrated potent anticancer activity in culture against murine l1210 and p388 leukemias, sarcoma 180, and human ccrf-cem lymphoblastic leukemia, producing ed50 values of 1.2 and 0.3 microm, 0.6 and 0.4 microm, 1.5 and 1.5 microm, ...19911652024
the effects of ultraviolet and ionizing radiation on herpesviruses, sv40 and adenoviruses in relation to the small-plaque effect.the small-plaque effect occurs with a wide range of herpesviruses following irradiation with ultraviolet light. the 37 per cent survival (d37) values, or dose required for one lethal hit (e-1), for herpes simplex, pseudorabies and pigeon herpesviruses in different cells indicate a broad spectrum of host-cell repair capacity. other dna-containing viruses such as sv40 and adenoviruses, which also replicate in the cell nucleus, show the small-plaque effect. ionizing irradiation of herpes simplex vi ...1979231946
a novel strategy for converting recombinant viral protein into high immunogenic antigen.interleukin 2 (il-2) is a lymphokine promoting immune response and therefore has been investigated as an immunological adjuvant. in order to enhance the immunogenicity of recombinant viral protein, herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein d (gd), we genetically created a fusion protein consisting of gd and human il-2. the fusion protein, without any other adjuvants, induced high antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity to hsv-1 in mice. mice immunized with the fusion protein were pr ...19911652468
analysis of herpes simplex virus-induced mrna destabilizing activity using an in vitro mrna decay system.most host mrnas are degraded soon after infection of cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). this early shutoff or early destabilization response is induced by a virion component, the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein. hsv-1 mutants, vhs1 and vhs-delta sma, which produce defective or inactive vhs protein, fail to induce early shutoff. we have used an in vitro mrna decay system to analyze the destabilization process. polysomes from uninfected human erythroleukemia cells, used as a source ...19911653415
neurovirulence factor. 19911656275
the cytoplasmic tail of hiv-1 gp160 contains regions that associate with cellular membranes.the hiv-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 associates with cellular membranes via a discrete transmembrane domain. unlike other retroviral envelope proteins, however, gp160 also forms a secondary association with the lipid bilayer mediated by one or more regions located in the cytoplasmic tail. we have expressed the full cytoplasmic tail sequence of gp160, as a fusion protein with the hsv-1 glycoprotein d signal sequence, transiently in a human embryonic kidney cell line. our results show that in the ...19911984664
activation of the cellular transcription factor ap-1 in herpes simplex virus infected cells is dependent on the viral immediate-early protein icpo.lytic infection with herpes simplex virus (hsv) results in the repression of most host cell protein synthesis but produces an increased activity of the cellular ap-1 transcription factor. this increase is paralleled by an increase in the transcription rate of the proto-oncogene encoding the ap-1 component, c-jun resulting in an increase in c-jun protein in infected cells. the increased ap-1 activity in infected cells is dependent upon the hsv immediate-early protein icpo. thus a mutant lacking t ...19911656381
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