[tenth anniversary of smallpox eradication: results of epidemiological and virological surveillance and studies in the post-eradication period].in accordance with recommendations of the global commission on the certification of smallpox eradication for the 10-year period after the eradication of this infection, all suspected cases of smallpox have been thoroughly checked up, and in none of them the diagnosis of smallpox has been confirmed. the study of monkeypox in humans has revealed that this zoonosis is spread over a wider area than supposed earlier and covers 7 countries of equatorial africa, occurring most frequently in zaire. in a ...19892552712
characterization of a cowpox-like orthopox virus which had caused a lethal infection in august 1990 an orthopox virus (opv) had been isolated from a severe case of a generalized infection with lethal outcome in an immunosuppressed 18-year-old man. in this communication we present a detailed characterization of the causative virus strain. based on distinct epitope configurations detected by various monoclonal antibodies the isolate could be differentiated from other opv species and was classified as a cowpox virus (cp). this classification was confirmed by a species-specific pcr ...19979413522
activation of caspases in pig kidney cells infected with wild-type and crma/spi-2 mutants of cowpox and rabbitpox viruses.the cowpox virus (cpv) crma and the equivalent rabbitpox virus (rpv) spi-2 proteins have anti-inflammatory and antiapoptosis activity by virtue of their ability to inhibit caspases, including the interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ice; caspase-1). infection of llc-pk1 pig kidney cells with a cpv crma mutant, but not with wild-type (wt) cpv, results in the induction of many of the morphological features of apoptosis (c. a. ray and d. j. pickup, virology 217:384-391, 1996). in our study, llc-pk1 ...19989557631
characterization of orthopoxviruses isolated from man and animals in germany.fourteen orthopoxvirus strains isolated from humans, cats, a dog, a cow, and an elephant in germany were characterized. all were classified as cowpox virus based on haemorrhagic lesions induced on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs and reactivity of a 160 kda protein with anti-a-type inclusion protein hyperimmune serum in a western blot. more detailed comparison of the isolates by restriction endonuclease mapping using hindiii and xhoi demonstrated a close relationship between all isol ...199910226615
expression of secreted cytokine and chemokine inhibitors by ectromelia virus.the production of secreted proteins that bind cytokines and block their activity has been well characterized as an immune evasion strategy of the orthopoxviruses vaccinia virus (vv) and cowpox virus (cpv). however, very limited information is available on the expression of similar cytokine inhibitors by ectromelia virus (ev), a virulent natural mouse pathogen that causes mousepox. we have characterized the expression and binding properties of three major secreted immunomodulatory activities in 1 ...200010954546
feline orthopoxvirus infection transmitted from cat to human.we report the case of a 56-year-old female patient who presented with an inflamed, ulcerated lesion on the left side of her neck after contact (scratch) with a cat living in the patient's house. satellite lesions developed despite local treatment and parenteral clindamycin. histopatholgic examination and the tzanck test showed evidence of a viral infection. subsequent transmission electron microscopy of scrap tissue and material from a fresh pustule exhibited multiple typical poxvirus particles, ...200312963921
[cowpox virus infection in a child].although human cowpox virus infection is rare nowadays, an animal reservoir of this virus still exists. the general course of cowpox virus infections is usually benign but the diagnosis is difficult and often late. case report: an 11-year-old boy, owner of two cats, presented with an infected sacral wound lesion associated with fever and lymph nodes. the wound became necrotic and other cutaneous and mucous membrane lesions developed secondarily. blood tests did not show hyperleukocytosis or a sy ...200415051092
combinatorial optimization of isatin-beta-thiosemicarbazones as anti-poxvirus agents.novel strategies are required to combat pox virus infections, whether caused by escape of viruses such as monkeypox from indigenous areas or intentional release of smallpox. anti-smallpox drugs with a unique mode of antiviral action, inhibition of transcription termination, were known but not therapeutically useful. using a combinatorial method, variants of the basic isatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone structure were prepared and examined for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity in vaccinia virus- and ...200515828843
short communication inhibitory activity of 4-[(1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-3h-indol-3-ylidene)amino]-n-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl) benzenesulphonamide and its derivatives against orthopoxvirus replication in vitro.4-[(1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-3h-indol-3-ylidene)amino]-n-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl) benzenesulphonamide and its derivatives were tested in vitro for antiviral activity against vaccinia and cowpox virus replication in human foreskin fibroblast (hff) cells, and their activity was compared with cidofovir (cdv). among the tested compounds, 4-[(5-methyl-1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-3-h-indol-3-ylidene)amino]-n-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzene-sulphonamide was the most active against vaccinia virus, with a 50% eff ...200617042332
specific inhibition of orthopoxvirus replication by a small interfering rna targeting the d5r gene.concerns about the potential use of smallpox in bioterrorism have stimulated interest in the development of novel antiviral treatments. currently, there are no effective therapies against smallpox and new treatment strategies are greatly needed.200818572748
effect of oral treatment with hexadecyloxypropyl-[(s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2- phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine] [(s)-hpmpa] or octadecyloxyethyl-(s)-hpmpa on cowpox or vaccinia virus infections in mice.we have previously reported that (s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine, or (s)-hpmpa, is active in vitro against cowpox virus (cv) and vaccinia virus (vv) but is not active orally in animals. however, the ether lipid esters of (s)-hpmpa, hexadecyloxypropyl-[(s)-hpmpa] [hdp-(s)-hpmpa] and octadecyloxyethyl-[(s)-hpmpa] [ode-(s)-hpmpa], had significantly enhanced activity in vitro and are orally bioavailable in mice. in the current study, hdp-(s)-hpmpa and ode-(s)-hpmpa were prepared i ...200717846137
synthesis and antiviral evaluation of alkoxyalkyl-phosphate conjugates of cidofovir and adefovir.esterification of cidofovir (cdv), an antiviral nucleoside phosphonate, with alkyl or alkoxyalkyl groups increases antiviral activity by enhancing cell uptake and conversion to cdv diphosphate. hexadecyloxypropyl-cdv (hdp-cdv) has been shown to be 40-100 times more active than cdv in vitro in cells infected with herpes group viruses, variola, cowpox, vaccinia or ectromelia viruses. since the first phosphorylation of cdv may be rate limiting, we synthesized the hexadecyloxypropyl-phosphate (hdp-p ...200717367874
cowpox virus transmission from pet rats to humans, early 2009, four human cases of cowpox virus cutaneous infection in northern france, resulting from direct contact with infected pet rats (rattus norvegicus), were studied. pet rats, originating from the same pet store, were shown to be infected by a unique virus strain. infection was then transmitted to humans who purchased or had contact with pet rats.200919402968
properties of the recombinant tnf-binding proteins from variola, monkeypox, and cowpox viruses are different.tumor necrosis factor (tnf), a potent proinflammatory and antiviral cytokine, is a critical extracellular immune regulator targeted by poxviruses through the activity of virus-encoded family of tnf-binding proteins (crmb, crmc, crmd, and crme). the only tnf-binding protein from variola virus (varv), the causative agent of smallpox, infecting exclusively humans, is crmb. here we have aligned the amino acid sequences of crmb proteins from 10 varv, 14 cowpox virus (cpxv), and 22 monkeypox virus (mp ...200617070121
oxindole alkaloids from uncaria tomentosa induce apoptosis in proliferating, g0/g1-arrested and bcl-2-expressing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells.natural products are still an untapped source of promising lead compounds for the generation of antineoplastic drugs. here, we investigated for the first time the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of highly purified oxindole alkaloids, namely isopteropodine (a1), pteropodine (a2), isomitraphylline (a3), uncarine f (a4) and mitraphylline (a5) obtained from uncaria tomentosa, a south american rubiaceae, on human lymphoblastic leukaemia t cells (ccrf-cem-c7h2). four of the five tested alkaloi ...200616445836
human cowpox in a veterinary student. 201020334852
human cowpox: presentation and investigation in an era of bioterrorism. 200516230199
a novel highly reproducible and lethal nonhuman primate model for orthopox virus infection.the intentional re-introduction of variola virus (varv), the agent of smallpox, into the human population is of great concern due its bio-terroristic potential. moreover, zoonotic infections with cowpox (cpxv) and monkeypox virus (mpxv) cause severe diseases in humans. smallpox vaccines presently available can have severe adverse effects that are no longer acceptable. the efficacy and safety of new vaccines and antiviral drugs for use in humans can only be demonstrated in animal models. the exis ...201020454688
human cowpox virus infection acquired from a circus elephant in germany.a 40-year-old asian circus elephant developed mouth and trunk ulcers. three weeks later, her 19-year-old animal warden noticed a vesicle on his forearm, evolving into a scab. identical cowpox strains were isolated from lesions of the elephant and the warden. cowpox virus could no longer be isolated after the scab disappeared, but pcr still revealed orthopox dna. healing was complete seven weeks later, leaving a 1 cm scar.201020580588
development of real-time pcr assay for specific detection of cowpox virus.the number of recorded human cowpox cases are recently increasing. the symptoms caused by cowpox virus (cpxv) in a number of human cases are close to the symptoms characteristic of the orthopoxviral human infections caused by monkeypox or smallpox (variola) viruses. any rapid and reliable real-time pcr method for distinguishing cowpox from smallpox and monkeypox is yet absent.201020594906
[importation of infectious diseases to europe via animals and animal products: risks and pathways].importation of tropical infectious diseases to europe via animals and animal products. most emerging and resurgent diseases observed in france in recent decades have been zoonoses, and some have caused unprecedented health crises. the growing international trade in domestic and wild animals and foodstuffs of animal origin is contributing to the emergence or resurgence of such zoonoses, along with accidental or deliberate introduction of certain species into new geographical areas, and the recent ...200920669546
immunodominant viral peptides as determinants of cross-reactivity in the immune system--can we develop wide spectrum viral vaccines?when we look back to edward jenner vaccination of a young man in 1796, we cannot help thinking that he was both lucky and crazy. crazy because he decided to test in a human being a hypothesis based mainly in the traditional belief that people who had acquired cowpox from the udders of a cow were thereafter resistant to smallpox, a quite devastating disease, and lucky because (even considering that he did not know this at that time) he succeeded to induce protection against a pathogen through the ...200516051445
poxvirus infection in a cat with presumptive human transmission.the present report describes a case of generalized cowpox virus infection with necrotizing facial dermatitis in a cat and a likely transmission to an animal keeper. the viral aetiology was confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, pcr, virus isolation, dna sequencing and electron microscopy. histopathological examination of the cat's skin revealed a severe, necrotizing dermatitis with ballooning degeneration and hyperplasia of epithelial cells with pathognomonic cytoplasmic eosinophilic ...201121375609
[phylogenetic analysis of chemokine-binding protein gene from orthopoxviruses].poxviruses, belonging to the genus of orthopoxviruses and leporipoxviruses, express a protein that binds a wide spectrum of cc-chenokines. the above viral protein (vcci) has no homology by the amino acid sequence with the known cellular receptors of chemokines or with any other proteins represented in databases. sixty-nine nucleotide sequences of the vcci protein gene of 4 orthopoxviruses, which are pathogenic to man, and of 2 species, to whom man is immune, as well as 16 of such sequences borro ...200415025002
cowpox virus in llama, italy.cowpox virus (cpxv) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in italy. transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. cpxv-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a cpxv isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to cpxv-monkre08/1-2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in germany.201121801638
clinical potential of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates cidofovir, adefovir, and tenofovir in treatment of dna virus and retrovirus infections.the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates hpmpc (cidofovir), pmea (adefovir), and pmpa (tenofovir) have proved to be effective in vitro (cell culture systems) and in vivo (animal models and clinical studies) against a wide variety of dna virus and retrovirus infections: cidofovir against herpesvirus (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus [cmv], epstein-barr virus, and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8), polyomavirus, papillomavirus, adenovirus, and poxvirus (variola ...200314557287
[human cowpox--a new zoonosis in finland]. 200112181963
cowpox virus in a 12-year-old boy: rapid identification by an orthopoxvirus-specific polymerase chain reaction.although smallpox was eradicated 20 years ago, other members of the genus orthopoxvirus (opv), such as cowpox virus (cpxv) or monkeypox virus, are still a threat to humans. because human cpxv infection is rare, it is seldom suspected on clinical grounds only. we report a boy who presented with two necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema. infection with opv was suspected, as antibiotic treatment had not produced improvement and smears were negative for anthrax. an opv was isolated and an opv-sp ...200111453925
orthopoxvirus il-18 binding proteins: affinities and antagonist activities.the affinities of purified recombinant human il-18 binding protein (bp) and ectromelia and cowpox virus homologs for human and murine il-18 were compared by plasmon resonance. the dissociation constants of human il-18bp were similar for murine and human il-18. by contrast, the dissociation constants of the viral proteins for murine il-18 were 12- to 50-fold lower than that for human il-18. the ectromelia and cowpox virus proteins were biologically active, as judged by their ability to inhibit in ...200111145885
local blockade of allergic airway hyperreactivity and inflammation by the poxvirus-derived pan-cc-chemokine inhibitor vcci.allergen-induced asthma is characterized by chronic pulmonary inflammation, reversible bronchoconstriction, and airway hyperreactivity to provocative stimuli. multiple cc-chemokines, which are produced by pulmonary tissue in response to local allergen challenge of asthmatic patients or experimentally sensitized rodents, chemoattract leukocytes from the circulation into the lung parenchyma and airway, and may also modify nonchemotactic function. to determine the therapeutic potential of local int ...200010975861
caspase inhibitors.caspases are the key effector molecules of the physiological death process known as apoptosis, although some are involved in activation of cytokines, rather than cell death. they exist in most of our cells as inactive precursors (zymogens) that kill the cell once activated. caspases can be controlled in two ways. the processing and activation of a caspase can be regulated by molecules such as fadd, apaf-1, bcl-2 family members, flip and iaps. active caspases can be controlled by a variety of inh ...199910578177
the zinc finger protein a20 interacts with a novel anti-apoptotic protein which is cleaved by specific caspases.a20 is a cys2/cys2 zinc finger protein which is induced by a variety of inflammatory stimuli and which has been characterized as an inhibitor of cell death by a yet unknown mechanism. in order to clarify its molecular mechanism of action, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to screen for proteins that interact with a20. a cdna fragment was isolated which encoded a portion of a novel protein (txbp151), which was recently found to be a human t-cell leukemia virus type-i (htlv-i) tax-binding protei ...199910435631
myxoma virus serp2 is a weak inhibitor of granzyme b and interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme in vitro and unlike crma cannot block apoptosis in cowpox virus-infected cells.the serp2 protein encoded by the leporipoxvirus myxoma virus is essential for full virulence (f. messud-petit, j. gelfi, m. delverdier, m. f. amardeilh, r. py, g. sutter, and s. bertagnoli, j. virol. 72:7830-7839, 1998) and, like crma of cowpox virus (cpv), is reported to inhibit the interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ice, caspase-1) (f. petit, s. bertagnoli, j. gelfi, f. fassy, c. boucraut-baralon, and a. milon, j. virol. 70:5860-5866, 1996). serp2 and crma both contain asp at the p1 position ...199910400732
involvement of a crma-insensitive ice/ced-3-like protease in ceramide-induced apoptosis.ceramide has emerged as a novel lipid mediator of tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-induced apoptosis. however, the signals involved in this response are unknown. the present study demonstrates that ceramide-induced internucleosomal dna cleavage is temporally associated with proteolytic cleavage of poly(adp-ribose) polymerase (parp) and protein kinase c (pkc) delta. overexpression of baculovirus protein p35 blocked ceramide-induced dna fragmentation and proteolytic activity, whereas overexpression of ...19969160353
inhibition of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme by the cowpox virus serpin crma. an example of cross-class inhibition.we reported previously that human interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ice) is regulated by the crma serpin encoded by cowpox virus. we now report the mechanism and kinetics of this unusual inhibition of a cysteine proteinase by a member of the serpin superfamily previously thought to inhibit serine proteinase only. crma possesses several characteristics typical of a number of inhibitory serpins. it is conformationally unstable, unfolding around 3 m urea, and stable to denaturation in 8 m urea ...19948034697
mechanism of antibody-mediated protection against herpes simplex virus infection in athymic nude mice: requirement of fc portion of antibody.experiments were performed to investigate the resistance of the host due to antibody-mediated mechanisms to herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection. transfer of hyperimmune anti-hsv mouse serum inhibited the development of skin lesions and prolonged the survival of lethally hsv-infected nude mice. relatively high concentrations of antibody were required to achieve this protection. antisera prepared in heterologous animals were also effective, while administration of anti-cowpox virus serum or inter ...19826290850
isolation of cowpox virus a-type inclusions and characterization of their major protein component.a-type inclusions (ati)2 are large well-defined structures that appear in the cytoplasm during the late stages of the multiplication cycles of many poxviruses. the atis produced by the cprc1 strain of cowpox virus in strain 143 human osteosarcoma cells have been isolated and characterized. these inclusions which can be recovered in large amounts (about 20 mg per 10(9) cells), appear to consist entirely of a single protein species that has a molecular weight of 160,000. it is a late protein, stab ...19863456179
what is human catpox/cowpox infection? 19911955221
factors involved in the expression of cowpox virus-specific antigen in sendai virus carrier cells.formation of cowpox virus-specific cell surface antigen (cpvs-ag) hvj (sendai virus) carrier cells compared to that in parent cells. temperature shifts from 32 to 35 to 37 degrees c for these carrier cultures reduced this enhancing activity, making them equivalent to parent cells. the eclips phase and one-step growth of cpv in the carrier cells were shorter than in normal cells. extracts of carrier cells exhibited a stimulating activity causing the temporary rise and subsequent lowering of cpv i ...1976185330
[human infection by the cowpox virus in the microregion of itajubá, state of minas gerais: case report].the authors report three human cases of cowpox infection, among farm workers who were manually milking infected cows, in the microregion of itajubá, minas gerais. the diagnostic techniques used were: isolation of samples similar to the vaccinia virus, from skin lesion secretions; polymerase chain reaction; electronic microscopy; and antibodies for orthopoxvirus in the patients' blood.200819009196
activities of certain 5-substituted 4'-thiopyrimidine nucleosides against orthopoxvirus part of a program to identify new compounds that have activity against orthopoxviruses, a number of 4'-thionucleosides were synthesized and evaluated for their efficacies against vaccinia and cowpox viruses. seven compounds that were active at about 1 microm against both viruses in human cells but that did not have significant toxicity were identified. the 5-iodo analog, 1-(2-deoxy-4-thio-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (4'-thioidu), was selected as a representative molecule; and this comp ...200919029322
human to human transmission of poxviruses have been observed previously. 200919890422
cowpox virus inhibits the transporter associated with antigen processing to evade t cell recognition.cowpox virus encodes an extensive array of putative immunomodulatory proteins, likely contributing to its wide host range, which includes zoonotic infections in humans. unlike vaccinia virus, cowpox virus prevents stimulation of cd8(+) t cells, a block that correlated with retention of mhc class i in the endoplasmic reticulum by the cowpox virus protein cpxv203. however, deletion of cpxv203 did not restore mhc class i transport or t cell stimulation. here, we demonstrate the contribution of an a ...200919917498
effective blockage of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis in mice by tat-crma.evidence accumulates that in clinically relevant cell death, both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway synergistically contribute to organ failure. in search for an inhibitor of apoptosis that provides effective blockage of these pathways, we analyzed viral proteins that evolved to protect the infected host cells. in particular, the cowpox virus protein crma has been demonstrated to be capable of blocking key caspases of both pro-apoptotic pathways. to deliver crma into eukaryotic cells ...201020427266
[a study of neutralizing activity and cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to ectromelia virus with orthopoxviruses pathogenic for man].an extensive collection of 125 rat hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to ectromelia virus (ev) polypeptide (poxviridae family, orhtopoxvirus genus) was set up. a significant portion of mabs (37 types) recognized epitopes of the 14 kda polypeptide as well as the 37 and 35 kda polypeptides. however, a majority of mabs interacted with conformation-dependent epitopes, which were destroyed in immunoprecipitation. one hundred and thirteen of mabs cross-interacted with antigenic determin ...200415455686
innate immunity in human immunodeficiency virus infection: effect of viremia on natural killer cell function.we examined the effect of viremia on cell contact and soluble factor-mediated suppression of endogenous human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) replication in cd4+ t cells from hiv-1-infected individuals by autologous natural killer (nk) and cd8+ t cells. nk cells suppressed hiv replication as effectively as did cd8+ t cells. suppression of hiv replication by nk cell culture supernatant was predominantly mediated by cc-chemokine secretion and was considerably greater in patients without viremia than ...200312660917
virus and infections 2010 - bit's first world congress.the world congress of virus and infections, held in busan, south korea, included topics reviewing the field of zoonoses. this conference report highlights selected presentations on surveillance, epidemiology and measures for the control and prevention of zoonotic diseases. topics discussed include human factors influencing zoonoses, the molecular epidemiology of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever, the emerging nipah virus, and the re-emergence of cowpox virus.201020878585
tumor necrosis factor receptors encoded by poxviruses.poxviruses encode several cytokine response modifying (crm) proteins. the crm proteins possess sequence homology to several human proteins important in immunity. this homology and the conservation of crm proteins among poxvirus strains suggest an immunomodulatory function that provides a survival advantage to the virus. cowpox virus encodes several tumor necrosis factor (tnf) receptor family homologues: crmb, crmc, and crmd. crmb and crmd encode a similar approximately 155 amino acid cooh-termin ...199910444338
tyrosine-based 1-(s)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine and -adenine ((s)-hpmpc and (s)-hpmpa) prodrugs: synthesis, stability, antiviral activity, and in vivo transport studies.eight novel single amino acid (6-11) and dipeptide (12, 13) tyrosine p-o esters of cyclic cidofovir ((s)-chpmpc , 4) and its cyclic adenine analogue ((s)-chpmpa, 3) were synthesized and evaluated as prodrugs. in vitro ic(50) values for the prodrugs (<0.1-50 μm) vs vaccinia, cowpox, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex type 1 virus were compared to those for the parent drugs ((s)-hpmpc, 2; (s)-hpmpa, 1; ic(50) 0.3-35 μm); there was no cytoxicity with kb or hff cells at ≤100 μm. the prodrugs ...201121812420
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