recombinant vaccinia virus expression of the bovine leukaemia virus envelope gene and protection of immunized sheep against infection.the bovine leukaemia virus (blv) envelope gene encoding extracellular glycoprotein gp51 and transmembrane glycoprotein gp30 was cloned into the ha locus of vaccinia virus (copenhagen strain), downstream of the vaccinia virus early-late promoter, h6, or a triple promoter element consisting of the promoter for the vaccinia virus h6 gene, the promoter for the cowpox virus a-type inclusion (ati) gene and the promoter for the vaccinia virus ha gene. inoculation of rabbits or sheep with the recombinan ...19911645899
[isolation and characterization of cowpox virus]. 19705537837
new outlook on the biology of cowpox virus.analysis of cowpox outbreaks revealed an extremely wide range of virus pathogenicity including 9 orders of mammals. recent serological and virological data support the hypothesis that wild rodents may be a natural reservoir of cowpox virus. cowpox infection of humans occurring without any contact with infected cattle (registered in the u. k. and poland) is especially interesting for medical and veterinary virology. surveillance seems justified of the possible virus dissemination beyond its natur ...19846151360
bovine herpes mammillitis in two new york dairy herds.bovine herpes mammillitis was diagnosed in 2 new york dairy herds. lesions ranged from vesiculation and ulceration of large (up to 10 cm wide) areas of udder and teat skin to single small (2-3 cm wide) plaques of edema. some lesions resembled "umbilicated pocks" characteristic of cowpox virus infections. recently freshened heifers were the most severely affected; older cows and heifers with less turgid udders had milder lesions. in 2 cows, incurable mastitis developed. in other cows, the lesions ...19826282794
natural and experimental pox virus infection in the domestic cat.three naturally occurring cases of cowpox virus infection in the domestic cat are described. isolate l97 was identified as cowpox virus on the basis of morphology, serology and characteristic cytopathic effect in tissue culture and on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated eggs. all three cases showed multiple skin lesions, slight conjunctivitis or purulent ocular discharge but there were no respiratory signs. two animals recovered, the third was put down as a stray. the disease was reprodu ...19836836897
observations on the epidemiology of lumpy skin disease in kenya.lumpy skin disease virus strains isolated in kenya over a period of some 20 years have proved to be serologically identical. they were indistinguishable by indirect fluorescent antibody and serum neutralization test from the south african neethling and west african serotypes. these two serological methods proved of value in studying the antibody responses to infection. while epizootic spread of lsd has occurred in kenya, most cases are of a sporadic nature and are thought to be the result of acc ...19827057030
vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses encode soluble gamma interferon receptors with novel broad species specificity.soluble receptors for gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) are secreted from cells infected by 17 orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia, cowpox, rabbitpox, buffalopox, elephantpox, and camelpox viruses, representing three species (vaccinia, cowpox, and campelpox viruses). the b8r open reading frame of vaccinia virus strain western reserve, which has sequence similarity to the extracellular binding domain of cellular ifn-gamma receptors (ifn-gamma rs), is shown to encode an ifn-gamma binding activity by ex ...19957609027
poxvirus virions: their surface ultrastructure and interaction with the surface membrane of host cells.virions of vaccinia and orf viruses were examined by ultrahigh-resolution scanning electron microscopy using a non-coating method. intracellular mature particles of vaccinia virus appeared to be covered with a net and ultrastructurally their surface consists of many fine ridges and globules, while the surfaces of orf virus mature particles recovered from infected cells consist of spirally running protrusions. the ridge-like structures of vaccinia virus were presumed to correspond to surface tubu ...199910742959
an emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in rio de janeiro state: cantagalo virus may derive from brazilian smallpox vaccine.the biological properties of poxvirus isolates from skin lesions on dairy cows and milkers during recent exanthem episodes in cantagalo county, rio de janeiro state, brazil, were more like vaccinia virus (vv) than cowpox virus. pcr amplification of the hemagglutinin (ha) gene substantiated the isolate classification as an old world orthopoxvirus, and alignment of the ha sequences with those of other orthopoxviruses indicated that all the isolates represented a single strain of vv, which we have ...200011080491
[smallpox and smallpox virus--200 years since the first vaccination in norway].in december 1801, the first vaccination against smallpox in norway took place. vaccine material came from denmark, england, ireland, and other countries; it was also obtained from a few local cowpox cases. what mattered was the effect, not the origin. several reports indicate that variola virus itself, the cause of smallpox, was also used for human vaccination after passages through cows and horses. a vaccine institute for production of vaccine in calves was established in kristiania in 1891. co ...200111808015
characterization of wild-type and cidofovir-resistant strains of camelpox, cowpox, monkeypox, and vaccinia viruses.cidofovir ([(s)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine] [hpmpc])-resistant forms of camelpox, cowpox, monkeypox, and vaccinia viruses were developed by prolonged passage in vero 76 cells in the presence of drug. eight- to 27-fold-higher concentrations of cidofovir were required to inhibit the resistant viruses than were needed to inhibit the wild-type (wt) viruses. resistant viruses were characterized by determining their cross-resistance to other antiviral compounds, examining their di ...200211959564
detection of smallpox virus dna by lightcycler pcr.a 300-bp plasmid fragment of the hemagglutinin gene was used as target dna to develop a rapid real-time lightcycler (roche applied science, indianapolis, ind.) pcr assay for laboratory detection of smallpox virus. pcr primers and probes were designed specifically for detection of smallpox virus dna, but all viruses of the genus orthopoxvirus tested could be detected by use of the hemagglutinin gene target sequence. base pair mismatches in the 204-bp amplicon allowed discrimination of cowpox viru ...200212037052
cell-mediated cytotoxicity in recovery from poxvirus infections.the availability of mutant and gene targeted knockout mice with defects in components of cellular cytotoxicity mediated by either the fas or the exocytosis pathway permitted an analysis of their role in recovery from poxvirus infections. ectromelia (ev), a natural mouse pathogen causing mousepox, the closely related orthopoxviruses cow pox (cpv) and vaccinia virus (vv), each encode serpins that inhibit fas mediated apoptosis and lysis of target cells. nevertheless, distinct differences were seen ...200312820184
[intranasal infection in mice inoculated with cowpox virus strain ep-2 isolated from the elephant].the specific features of reproduction of ep-2 strain of cowpox virus (cpv) were studied in intranasally infected balc/c mice by light and electron microscopy. virus replication was found in the ciliated, intercalary, basal, and goblet cells (the nasal respiratory area), basal and supporting cells (the nasal olfactory area), ciliated, intercalary, goblet cells (the tracheal and bronchial epithelium), and collagen-producing, schwann's, endothelial, smooth muscle, and adventitial cells. it has been ...200516104522
[human infection by the cowpox virus in the microregion of itajubá, state of minas gerais: case report].the authors report three human cases of cowpox infection, among farm workers who were manually milking infected cows, in the microregion of itajubá, minas gerais. the diagnostic techniques used were: isolation of samples similar to the vaccinia virus, from skin lesion secretions; polymerase chain reaction; electronic microscopy; and antibodies for orthopoxvirus in the patients' blood.200819009196
when good vaccines go wild: feral orthopoxvirus in developing countries and beyond.the presence of zoonotic poxviruses in nature represents a potential human health risk that has to be re-evaluated by health authorities not only in developing countries, but also in many developed countries. for example, buffalopox virus infection remains to be a threat to humans and cattle in india, and monkeypox virus infection persists in several inhabited places in africa and, more recently, in the usa. there are also a great number of zoonotic transmissions of cowpox virus from cats to hum ...200819738346
rapid detection of orthopoxvirus by semi-nested pcr directly from clinical specimens: a useful alternative for routine laboratories.orthopoxvirus (opv) has been associated with worldwide exanthematic outbreaks, which have resulted in serious economic losses as well as impact on public health. although the current classical and molecular methods are useful for the diagnosis of opv, they are largely inaccessible to unsophisticated clinical laboratories. the major reason for the inaccessibility is that they require both virus isolation and dna manipulation. in this report, a rapid, sensitive and low-cost semi-nested pcr method ...201020166167
[importation of infectious diseases to europe via animals and animal products: risks and pathways].importation of tropical infectious diseases to europe via animals and animal products. most emerging and resurgent diseases observed in france in recent decades have been zoonoses, and some have caused unprecedented health crises. the growing international trade in domestic and wild animals and foodstuffs of animal origin is contributing to the emergence or resurgence of such zoonoses, along with accidental or deliberate introduction of certain species into new geographical areas, and the recent ...200920669546
the interplay between ara+ºatuba virus and host signaling pathways: role of pi3k/akt in viral this study, we describe the interaction between ara+ºatuba virus (arav), a naturally occurring brazilian vaccinia virus isolated from an outbreak at a dairy farm, and the host cell's signal transduction pathways. even though arav infection led to phosphorylation of mapks mek/erk, jnk, and p38mapk, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of these pathways had no impact on viral replication. we also provide evidence that arav stimulated the phosphorylation of akt (pkb) at serine 473 (s473-p), a s ...201121735213
increased susceptibility of cantagalo virus to the antiviral effect of st-246®.cantagalo virus (ctgv) is the etiologic agent of a pustular disease in dairy cows and dairy workers in brazil with important economical and occupational impacts. nevertheless, no antiviral therapy is currently available. st-246 is a potent inhibitor of orthopoxvirus egress from cells and has proved its efficacy in cell culture and in animal models. in this work, we evaluated the effect of st-246 on ctgv replication. plaque reduction assays indicated that ctgv is 6-38 times more susceptible to th ...201323257396
[infections with original cowpox virus and cowpox-like agents in humans and animals: a literature review].in an evaluation of literature the biological, physical-chemical and antigenic characteristics of cowpoxviruses and cowpox-like agents are presented, the according diseases following a natural and experimental infection are described and their epizootiological and epidemiological aspects discussed.19921642077
[discussion about vaccines from animal origin at the mexican national academy of medicine in the xix century].this is a recount about the prevailing ideas in mexico during the second half of the xix century for introducing the use of vaccines of animal origin; thus, the thoughts of men like agustín andrade, angel iglesias y domínguez, lino ramírez, fernando malanco and luis e. ruiz, who emphasized this work.200516091165
the genome of cowpox virus contains a gene related to those encoding the epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha and vaccinia growth factor.cowpox virus (cpv) is a member of the orthopoxvirus genus and has the genetic capacity to encode a multitude of genes that interfere with the host inflammatory and immune response or modulate the physiological state of infected and non-infected cells. among these cpv factors are receptors homologous to interferon and tumor necrosis factor receptors and also a viral cellular serine-proteinase analog. here we describe the detection of a cpv gene that encodes a protein homologous to epidermal growt ...199910403701
characterization of orthopoxviruses isolated from man and animals in germany.fourteen orthopoxvirus strains isolated from humans, cats, a dog, a cow, and an elephant in germany were characterized. all were classified as cowpox virus based on haemorrhagic lesions induced on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs and reactivity of a 160 kda protein with anti-a-type inclusion protein hyperimmune serum in a western blot. more detailed comparison of the isolates by restriction endonuclease mapping using hindiii and xhoi demonstrated a close relationship between all isol ...199910226615
a 43-nucleotide rna cis-acting element governs the site-specific formation of the 3' end of a poxvirus late mrna.the 3' ends of late mrnas of the ati gene, encoding the major component of the a-type inclusions, are generated by endoribonucleolytic cleavage at a specific site in the primary transcript [antczak et al., (1992), proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 89, 12033-12037]. in this study, sequence analysis of cdnas of the 3' ends of ati mrnas showed these mrnas are 3' polyadenylated at the rna cleavage site. this suggests that ati mrna 3' end formation involves cleavage of a late transcript, with subsequent 3' ...199910049834
clustered cases of paravaccinia in milkers.clustered cases of a disease in men and cows firstly diagnosed as cowpox has been described. clinical manifestation, epidemiology and laboratory diagnostics are presented. virological and serological investigations of the specimens taken from sick persons and animals proved paravaccinia virus (genus parapoxvirus) to be etiological agent of the illness. cowpox virus (genus orthopoxvirus) greatly differs from the latter by phenotypical markers. the disease in humans is called milkers' modules, in ...19863027164
characterization of orthopoxviruses isolated from feline infections in britain.the biological properties and genomes of orthopoxviruses isolated from cats in britain were compared with strains of cowpox virus isolated from cows and their handlers. all the isolates tested produced haemorrhagic pocks and a-type inclusions on the cam, but did not produce pocks above 40 degrees c. thus the feline isolates behaved as typical strains of cowpox virus. differences were found in the heat resistance of the virions and in the character of the a-type inclusion which did not correlate ...19921322655
immunodominant viral peptides as determinants of cross-reactivity in the immune system--can we develop wide spectrum viral vaccines?when we look back to edward jenner vaccination of a young man in 1796, we cannot help thinking that he was both lucky and crazy. crazy because he decided to test in a human being a hypothesis based mainly in the traditional belief that people who had acquired cowpox from the udders of a cow were thereafter resistant to smallpox, a quite devastating disease, and lucky because (even considering that he did not know this at that time) he succeeded to induce protection against a pathogen through the ...200516051445
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