isolation of rabies virus from bats in bolivia.rabies virus was isolated from apparently normal blood-sucking (desmodus rotundus) and insectivorous (artibeus planirostris) bats caught in bolivia. the virus was identified by immunofluorescence, biological and sero-neutralisation tests.1978664008
presence of rabies neutralizing antibodies in wild carnivores following an outbreak of bovine an outbreak of bovine rabies in argentina, a study was made of vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) and wild carnivores. rabies antibody rates of high prevalence were found in the bats, foxes (dusicyon gymnocercus) and skunks (conepatus chinga). the outbreak was part of an extensive continuing epizootic of vampire transmitted bovine rabies which may have also involved other vectors in the area of this study. consumption of dead and dying bats by the carnivores is the suggested means of passage of ...19751142554
[isolation of rabies virus from brain, salivary and interscapular glands, heart, lungs and testis of the bat desmodus rotundus, in the state of são paulo (author's transl)].rabies virus was isolated from the brain, salivary and interscapular (brown fat) glands, heart, lungs and testis of naturally infected vampire bat desmodus rotundus found paralyzed in the day at barueri, são paulo state. the rabies virus isolations were made by intracerebral inoculation in 4-5 days and 30 days old mice. the virus strain was identified as rabies virus by the sellers and faraco (mann) techniques, the fluorescent antibody test and intracerebral inoculation of mice. the isolation of ...19751236047
outbreak of human rabies in the peruvian jungle.transmission of rabies to man by vampire bats has been known for 60 years but there have been few reports of the features of rabies transmitted in this way. these aspects of the disease were investigated during an outbreak in peru in early 1990. between jan 1 and april 30, 1990, 29 (5%) of 636 residents of the two rural communities in the amazon jungle in peru acquired an illness characterised by hydrophobia, fever, and headache and died shortly thereafter. a census in one of the two towns revea ...19921346669
[characteristics of a rabies virus strain isolated from the brain of desmodus rotundus]. 19724262443
[on the isolation in brazilof rabies virus from the lung, heart and various other tissues of hematophagous vampire bats belonging to the species desmodus rotundus]. 19666011926
a plaque-purified rabies virus (strains v-319) derived from a vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) in mexico: vaccine potential.a plaque-purified experimental rabies vaccine was developed from an isolate (strain v-319) made from a naturally infected vampire bat (desmodus rotundus). two different vaccines were prepared; one was live virus and the second was an inactivated rabies virus preparation. the live virus vaccine, as well as a betapropiolactone-inactivated vaccine, gave complete protection to challenge inoculation after 1 year. in contrast, greater than 80% of the non-vaccinated experimental control cattle died of ...19846467947
potential force of infection of human rabies transmitted by vampire bats in the amazonian region of brazil.human rabies transmitted by bats has acquired greater epidemiologic relevance in various latin american countries, just when cases transmitted by dogs have decreased. concern has been heightened by reports of increased rates of bats biting humans in villages in the amazonian region of brazil. the aim of the present work was to estimate the potential force of infection (per capita rate at which susceptible individuals acquire infection) of human rabies transmitted by the common vampire bat if the ...19969025698
experimental rabies infection and oral vaccination in vampire bats (desmodus rotundus).a rabies virus variant isolated from a vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) and characterized by genome sequencing was used for the standardization of an experimental infection in this species. the parenteral administration of 10(6) micld50 of this variant was capable of inducing death from rabies in 89% of animals. the mean duration of post-challenge survival was 12 days. none of the experimental rabid vampire bats showed aggressive behaviour. a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine ...19989682368
discrimination between epidemiological cycles of rabies in mexico.the design of efficient rabies control programs within a geographic area requires an appropriate knowledge of the local epidemiological cycles. in latin america, there is a geographical overlap of the two main epidemiological cycles: (a) the terrestrial cycle, where the dog is the main terrestrial vector and the principal cause of human transmission; and (b) the aerial cycle, in which the vampire bat desmodus rotundus is representative in mexico. this bat is the major sylvatic rabies vector tran ...199910372450
survey of bat populations from mexico and paraguay for rabies.a mammalian survey was conducted in mexico (october 1994-january 1996) and in paraguay (august 1996-march 1997); a complete specimen was collected for each bat in the survey, including primary voucher specimen, ectoparasites, karyotype, and various frozen tissues. the surveys combined provided 937 brain samples (65 bat species) for rabies diagnosis. one male lasiurus ega, collected in paraguay, tested positive for the rabies virus (overall prevalence rate of 0.1%). nucleotide sequence from a 300 ...200111504233
antigenic diversity and distribution of rabies virus in mexico.rabies remains a public health problem in the americas because of the great diversity of wild reservoirs that maintain the virus in nature. here we report the antigenic characterization of 254 rabies viruses isolated from 148 nonreservoir and 106 reservoir hosts collected in 27 states of mexico. nine out of 11 antigenic variants previously reported in the united states were detected in mexico by using the limited panel of monoclonal antibodies donated by the centers for disease control and preve ...200211880422
antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. the panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the americas. samples were isolated in the diagnostic laboratory of the pasteur institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in brazil. in addition to the fixed virus samples cvs-31/96-ip, preserved in mouse brain, and pv-bhk/97, preserved in cell c ...200212048546
vaccination of vampire bats using recombinant vaccinia-rabies vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) were vaccinated by intramuscular, scarification, oral, or aerosol routes (n = 8 in each group) using a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus. sera were obtained before and 30 days after vaccination. all animals were then challenged intramuscularly with a lethal dose of rabies virus. neutralizing antirabies antibodies were measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (rffit). seroconversion was observed with each of the routes employed, but s ...200212243138
genetic and antigenic typing of rabies virus in chile. brief report.forty-one isolates of rabies virus from insectivorous bats and one from a domestic cat in chile, were characterized using eight anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) and by nucleotide sequence analysis. thirty-two isolates were identified as antigenic variant 4 associated with tadarida brasiliensis bats, twenty-eight were genetically associated with variant tadarida brasiliensis and four with lasiurus sp. bats. one isolate was identified as antigenic variant 3 associated with desmodu ...200212417953
haematophagous bats in brazil, their role in rabies transmission, impact on public health, livestock industry and alternatives to an indiscriminate reduction of bat population.haematophagous bats exist only in latin america, from méxico to the northern provinces of argentina. they are represented by three species, desmodus rotundus, diphylla ecaudata and diaemus youngii. while two species feed only on blood of wild birds, one species, d. rotundus, causes losses feeding on livestock and could be a vector for rabies virus. the cases in which humans were bitten by the bat have increased in brazil. bats became a target of control activities by farming communities and loca ...200314720182
preservation of rabies virus rna from brain tissue using glycerine.the challenge virus standard (cvs) strain and a wild isolate from a mexican child who died of hematophagous bat (desmodus rotundus)-transmitted rabies were injected intracerebrally into balb/c mice. brains obtained from infected mice were immersed in 80%, 50%, and 40% glycerine/phosphate-buffered saline (pbs). rna was extracted from brains on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 21, and 60, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rt-pcr-rflp) tests were performe ...200315307422
indirect oral immunization of captive vampires, desmodus rotundus.a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus (v-rg) vaccine was tested in hematophagous bats (desmodus rotundus) kept in captivity. the vaccine was applied in a neutral vehicle (vaseline) spread on the back of one or two vector bats, which were then reintroduced into their groups. our hypothesis was that, as in the case of vampire bat control by vampiricide paste, the administration of v-rg vaccine through paste to one bat could indirectly protect other bats from the same group. eight groups ...200515896405
experimental rabies infection in haematophagous bats desmodus order to determine the susceptibility and serum neutralizing antibody response of desmodus rotundus to rabies virus, bats were inoculated with a virus isolated from a naturally infected haematophagous bat. bats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. dilutions of rabies virus containing 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 micld50 (lethal dose 50% for mice inoculated by the intracerebral route) were administrated in the pectoral muscle. the presence of rabies virus was detected in brain an ...200515962559
salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) micld50) of vampire rabies virus variant cass88. saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by pcr. rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that s ...200515966107
molecular diversity of rabies viruses associated with bats in mexico and other countries of the americas.bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in mexico were investigated. eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the americas. patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. several lin ...200616672396
laboratory diagnosis of equine rabies and its implications for human postexposure prophylaxis.laboratory diagnosis is essential to confirm suspected cases of equine rabies and to determine the medical care needed for human postexposure antirabies prophylaxis. equine rabies transmitted by the vampire bat, desmodus rotundus, has increased gradually in the state of são paulo. the present study has several objectives, the most important being the evaluation of fluorescent antibody test (fat) and virus-isolation laboratory tests performed with different equine nervous system tissues (cortical ...200616919789
bat-transmitted human rabies outbreaks, brazilian amazon.we describe 2 bat-transmitted outbreaks in remote, rural areas of portel and viseu municipalities, pará state, northern brazil. central nervous system specimens were taken after patients' deaths and underwent immunofluorescent assay and histopathologic examination for rabies antigens; also, specimens were injected intracerebrally into suckling mice in an attempt to isolate the virus. strains obtained were antigenically and genetically characterized. twenty-one persons died due to paralytic rabie ...200616965697
[rabies virus in naturally infected bats in the state of são paulo, southeastern brazil].to identify the species of bats involved in maintaining the rabies cycle; to investigate the distribution of the rabies virus in the tissues and organs of bats and the time taken for mortality among inoculated mice.200717515992
molecular epidemiology of rabies virus isolated from different sources during a bat-transmitted human outbreak occurring in augusto correa municipality, brazilian amazon.we genetically characterize rabies virus (rabv) strains isolated from human cases, domestic and wild animals during a human outbreak of bat-transmitted rabies in augusto correa municipality, pará state, brazilian amazon in 2005. partial nucleotide sequences of the n gene (491 bp) were obtained for all strains, and phylogenetic analysis grouped these into two major clades (pará and central-southeast) and identified them as bat-related viruses genotype i, desmodus rotundus antigenic variant 3 (agv ...200817996263
first report of rabies in vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) in an urban area, ubatuba, são paulo state, brazil.the purpose of this report is to record the first case of a hematophagous bat (desmodus rotundus) infected with rabies virus in an urban area in brazil. to the authors' knowledge, this is the first such case in latin america. after discovering a bat in his garden at 10 o'clock in the morning, a resident of ubatuba municipality asked the zoonosis control center team to visit his home. the animal was caught alive on the same day and sent to the pasteur institute laboratory, where it was identified ...200718157407
vaccinating the vampire bat desmodus rotundus against rabies.the objective of this study was to extend the previous work of indirect oral rabies immunization of vampire bats (desmodus rotundus) maintained in captivity, which demonstrated the immunogenicity of the v-rg vaccine (vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein) and indicated that although the results had been encouraging, a new method for concentrating the vaccine should be tested in order to avoid vaccine loss and increase the survival proportion of bats after rabies challenge. in this study, three groups of ...200818761044
[antigen profile of rabies virus isolated from different species of non-hematophagous bats in the region of presidente prudente, state of são paulo].using the monoclonal antibody technique, the clinical and molecular virology laboratory of the institute of biomedical sciences of the university of são paulo typed 18 rabies virus samples from non-hematophagous bats of several species from the region of presidente prudente, sp, brazil. among these samples, 15 (82.3%) were defined as variant 3 (compatible with samples isolated from desmodus rotundus bats) and three (16.7%) as variant 4 (compatible with samples isolated from tadarida brasiliensis ...200919287929
genetic characterization of rabies virus isolated from cattle between 1997 and 2002 in an epizootic area in the state of são paulo, brazil.the biogeographical history of rabies can be reconstructed using molecular data. this work describes the genetic characterization of the rabies virus variant that circulates in the desmodus rotundus (vampire bat) population in an epizootic area and is transmitted to herbivorous livestock. the n and g genes of this virus were sequenced, and the phylogenetic trees generated were topologically concordant. three genetic clusters were identified in the epizootic area and were designated rd1, rd2 and ...200919442690
[human rabies encephalitis by a vampire bat bite in an urban area of colombia].human rabies encephalitis by a vampire bat bite in an urban area of colombia a case of rabies encephalitis is presented in a teenaged male, which developed four months after a bat bite in the urban area of floridablanca, santander province, colombia. the complex clinical manifestations prevented the confirmation of an antemortem diagnosis, principally because of the lengthy incubation period and the absence of other similar urban cases. despite application of several therapies, including the mil ...200920128344
genetic characterization of rabies virus isolated from bovines and equines between 2007 and 2008, in the states of são paulo and minas gerais.rabies is an acute disease of the central nervous system and is responsible for the deaths of thousands of humans, wild animals and livestock, particularly cattle, as well as causing major economic losses. this study describes the genetic characterization of rabies virus variants that circulate in desmodus rotundus populations and are transmitted to herbivores.201020464137
human rabies transmitted by vampire bats: antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from the amazon region (brazil and ecuador).since 2004, the main transmitter of human rabies in latin america has been the vampire bat (desmodus rotundus). based on the nucleoprotein of the rabies virus (rv), we analyzed antigenic and genetic profiles of isolates from 29 samples taken from humans living in different areas of the amazon region. two isolates were from ecuador and 27 from the northern and northeastern regions of brazil, which were obtained during outbreaks in various municipalities in the states of pará and maranhão in the y ...201020637811
a comparative study of rabies virus isolates from hematophagous bats in brazil.the brazilian chiropteran fauna consists of 167 species; of which, three are hematophagous: the common vampire bat (desmodus rotundus), the white-winged vampire bat (diaemus youngi), and the hairy-legged vampire bat (diphylla ecaudata). the aim of this study was to describe the isolation of rabies virus from common and hairy-legged vampire bats and to report the first comparative antigenic and genetic studies of isolates from these bats. antigenic and genetic typing of both isolates identified t ...201020966291
pathogenicity of different rabies virus isolates and protection test in vaccinated mice.this study was aimed to evaluate and compare the pathogenicity of rabies virus isolated from bats and dogs, and to verify the efficacy of a commercial rabies vaccine against these isolates. for evaluation of pathogenicity, mice were inoculated by the intramuscular route (im) with 500micld₅₀/0.03 ml of the viruses. the cross-protection test was performed by vaccinating groups of mice by the subcutaneous route and challenged through the intracerebral (ic) route. isolates were fully pathogenic when ...201021049225
in situ apoptosis of adaptive immune cells and the cellular escape of rabies virus in cns from patients with human rabies transmitted by desmodus rotundus.the aim of the current study was to investigate the apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes and immune cells from human patients that were infected with rabies virus by vampire bats bite. apoptotic neurons were identified by their morphology and immune cells were identified using double immunostaining. there were very few apoptotic neurons present in infected tissue samples, but there was an increase of apoptotic infiltrating cd4+ and tcd8+ adaptive immune cells in the rabies infected tissue. no apopto ...201121255623
antemortem diagnosis of human rabies in a veterinarian infected when handling a herbivore in minas gerais, brazil.the ministry of health's national human rabies control program advocates pre-exposure prophylaxis (pep) for professionals involved with animals that are at risk of contracting rabies. we report an antemortem and postmortem diagnosis of rabies in a veterinarian who became infected when handling herbivores with rabies. the antemortem diagnosis was carried out with a saliva sample and a biopsy of hair follicles using molecular biology techniques, while the postmortem diagnosis used a brain sample a ...201121412618
rabies diagnosis and serology in bats from the state of são paulo, brazil.bats are one of the most important reservoirs and vectors of the rabies virus in the world.201121468481
one-step protocol for amplification of near full-length cdna of the rabies virus genome.full-length genome sequencing of the rabies virus is not a routine laboratory procedure. to understand fully the epidemiology, genetic variation and evolution of the rabies virus, full-length viral genomes need to be obtained. for rabies virus studies, cdna synthesis is usually performed using nonspecific oligonucleotides followed by cloning. when specific primers are used, the cdna obtained is only partial and is limited to the coding regions. therefore, the development of methods for synthesiz ...201121473884
[the bats and rabies in the western region of the state of são paulo, brazil.]introduction: the polo da alta sorocabana laboratory in presidente prudente, sp, in partnership with other research institutions, conducted studies related to bats from the western region of the state of sao paulo, brazil. thus, certain situations were investigated, including: a) isolation of the rabies virus from 2006 to 2008; b) identification of respective antigenic variants; and c) characterization of daytime shelters of desmodus rotundus vampire bats. methods: samples for examination origin ...201121556491
[Risk model to assess livestock rabies exposure in the state of São Paulo, Brazil].To propose a qualitative risk assessment model for the study of livestock exposure to rabies virus from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (antigenic variant 3) in the Paraíba do Sul river valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil.201122124696
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2010.during 2010, 48 states and puerto rico reported 6,154 rabid animals and 2 human rabies cases to the cdc, representing an 8% decrease from the 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human cases reported in 2009. hawaii and mississippi did not report any laboratory-confirmed rabid animals during 2010. approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,246 raccoons (36.5%), 1,448 skunks (23.5%), 1,430 bats (23.2%), 429 foxes (6.9%), 30 ...201121916759
rabies in southeast brazil: a change in the epidemiological pattern.this epidemiological study was conducted using antigenic and genetic characterisation of rabies virus isolates obtained from different animal species in the southeast of brazil from 1993 to 2007. an alteration in the epidemiological profile was observed. one hundred two samples were tested using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies, and 94 were genetically characterised by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. from 1993 to 1997, antigenic variant 2 (agv-2), related to a rabies virus maintained in ...201122033596
molecular characterization of rabies virus isolated from non-haematophagous bats in brazil.rabies is an important zoonosis that causes thousands of deaths worldwide each year. although the terrestrial cycle, mainly transmitted by dogs, is controlled in brazil, the aerial cycle remains a serious public health issue, besides the economic problem. in the aerial cycle, the haematophagous bat desmodus rotundus is the main source of infection, where several different species of non-haematophagous bats can be infected and can transmit the virus.201122231241
phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from herbivores and bats in the espírito santo state, brazil.rabies is enzootic in the state of espírito santo, brazil. every year, cattle and horses die from rabies that is transmitted by the vampire bat desmodus rotundus. this paper describes the spread of the rabies virus by the continuous diffusion model using relaxed random walks with beast software. forty-one (41) sequences of gene g from the rabies virus that was isolated from bats and domestic herbivores from several areas of the state between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. the phylogenetic tree sho ...201223264105
foraging choices of vampire bats in diverse landscapes: potential implications for land-use change and disease latin america, the common vampire bat desmodus rotundus is the primary reservoir of rabies, a zoonotic virus that kills thousands of livestock annually and causes sporadic and lethal human rabies outbreaks. the proliferation of livestock provides an abundant food resource for this obligate blood-feeding species that could alter its foraging behaviour and rabies transmission, but poor understanding of the dietary plasticity of vampire bats limits understanding of how livestock influences rabie ...201627499553
short interfering rnas targeting a vampire-bat related rabies virus phosphoprotein mrna.the aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering rnas (sirnas) against rabies virus phosphoprotein (p) mrna in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (braz j microbiol. 2013 nov 15;44(3):879-82). to this end, rabies virus strain rabv-4005 (related to the desmodus rotundus vampire bat) were used to inoculate bhk-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the sirnas was made with lipofectamine-2000™. in vitro re ...201728223028
antigenic and genotypic characterization of rabies virus isolated from bats (mammalia: chiroptera) from municipalities in são paulo state, southeastern brazil.bats have aroused growing attention in the public health sphere because they are considered the main reservoir of rabies virus (rabv) in the americas, in places where canine rabies is under control. antigenic and genetic studies of rabv isolates have been used to describe the epidemiological profile of rabies and to identify possible hosts/reservoirs for different epidemiological cycles. this study describes the antigenic and genotypic characterization of 19 rabv isolates from central nervous sy ...201728108804
geographical analysis for detecting high-risk areas for bovine/human rabies transmitted by the common hematophagous bat in the amazon region, brazil.the common hematophagous bat, desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in latin america. new production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for d. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. in the amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which toget ...201627388498
complete genome sequence of a vampire bat rabies virus from french guiana.a rabies virus was detected in a common vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) in french guiana. its genomic sequence was obtained and found to be closely related to other hematophagous bat-related viruses that widely circulate in the northern amazon region. this virus is named at6.201627056216
virological and serological diagnosis of rabies in bats from an urban area in the brazilian amazon.the outbreaks of rabies in humans transmitted by desmodus rotundus in 2004 and 2005, in the northeast of the brazilian state of para, eastern amazon basin, made this a priority area for studies on this zoonosis. given this, the present study provides data on this phenomenon in an urban context, in order to assess the possible circulation of the classic rabies virus (rabv) among bat species in capanema, a town in the amazon basin. bats were collected, in 2011, with mist nets during the wet and dr ...201527049703
rabies epidemiology and control in ecuador.describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in ecuador.201526493436
fluorescent antibody test, quantitative polymerase chain reaction pattern and clinical aspects of rabies virus strains isolated from main reservoirs in brazil.rabies virus (rabv) isolated from different mammals seems to have unique characteristics that influence the outcome of infection. rabv circulates in nature and is maintained by reservoirs that are responsible for the persistence of the disease for almost 4000 years. considering the different pattern of pathogenicity of rabv strains in naturally and experimentally infected animals, the aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of rabv variants isolated from the main brazilian reservoir ...201526303004
rabies surveillance in bats in northwestern state of são paulo.introduction rabies is an important zoonosis that occurs in mammals, with bats acting as lyssavirus reservoirs in urban, rural and natural areas. rabies cases in bats have been recorded primarily in urban areas in northwestern state of são paulo since 1998. this study investigated the circulation of rabies virus by seeking to identify the virus in the brain in several species of bats in this region and by measuring rabies-virus neutralizing antibody levels in the hematophagous bat desmodus rotun ...201525626649
knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and exposure to bats in two rural communities in guatemala.rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus, of the genus lyssavirus. the principal reservoir for rabies in latin america is the common vampire bat (desmodus rotundus), which feeds routinely on the blood of cattle, and when livestock are scarce, may prey on other mammals, including humans. although rabies is endemic in common vampire bat populations in guatemala, there is limited research on the extent of exposure to bats among human populations living near bat refuges.201525576098
[hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in latin america. wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this spec ...201425123871
bat rabies in guatemala.rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the new world, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. as part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. a total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. the prevalence of rabies virus (rabv) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the ...201425080103
hematologic profile of hematophagous desmodus rotundus bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus.hematophagous desmodus rotundus bats play an important role in the rabies lifecycle. this study describes the hematological profile of these bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus.201425075489
phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in argentina.common vampire bat populations distributed from mexico to argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in latin america. the aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (rabv) variants associated with vampire bats in the americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within argentina. the phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related n gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. the two largest groups of rabv variant ...201424661865
resolving the roles of immunity, pathogenesis, and immigration for rabies persistence in vampire bats.bats are important reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases, yet the mechanisms that allow highly virulent pathogens to persist within bat populations remain obscure. in latin america, vampire-bat-transmitted rabies virus represents a key example of how such uncertainty can impede efforts to prevent cross-species transmission. despite decades of agricultural and human health losses, control efforts have had limited success. to establish persistence mechanisms of vampire-bat-transmitted rabies ...201324297874
serological investigation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies in bats captured in the eastern brazilian 2004 and 2005 a total of 38 cases of human rabies transmitted by the hematophagous bat desmodus rotundus were registered in the brazilian state of pará; 23 (60.5%) cases occurred in the northeastern region. because of this, a serological investigation for the antibodies of rabies virus was performed in municipalities of the northeastern state of pará, in order to assess whether the virus was circulating among different bat species.201324100701
evolutionary history and phylogeography of rabies viruses associated with outbreaks in trinidad.bat rabies is an emerging disease of public health significance in the americas. the caribbean island of trinidad experiences periodic outbreaks within the livestock population. we performed molecular characterisation of trinidad rabies virus (rabv) and used a bayesian phylogeographic approach to investigate the extent to which outbreaks are a result of in situ evolution versus importation of virus from the nearby south american mainland. trinidadian rabv sequences were confirmed as bat variant ...201323991230
enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, peru.during the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (rabv) spread by the common vampire bat (desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in south america, especially in remote areas of the amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. to better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 rabv isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, ...201323969087
antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from uruguay.after 25 years without any reported cases of rabies in uruguay, the northern region of the country experienced an epizootic of bovine paralytic rabies in october 2007. the outbreak affected bovines and equines, and the main source of infection was the bat desmodus rotundus, the only hematophagous species in the country. from october 2007 to july 2008, 42 bovine, 3 equine and 120 chiropteran samples were submitted to the national veterinary diagnostic laboratory for rabies testing. a total of 12 ...201323318595
desmodus rotundus and artibeus spp. bats might present distinct rabies virus brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (rabv) strains from frugivorous bats artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of rabv in artibeus spp. the n and g genes of rabv isolated from artibeus spp. and cattle infected by d. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were c ...201323146155
ecological and anthropogenic drivers of rabies exposure in vampire bats: implications for transmission and control.despite extensive culling of common vampire bats in latin america, lethal human rabies outbreaks transmitted by this species are increasingly recognized, and livestock rabies occurs with striking frequency. to identify the individual and population-level factors driving rabies virus (rv) transmission in vampire bats, we conducted a longitudinal capture-recapture study in 20 vampire bat colonies spanning four regions of peru. serology demonstrated the circulation of rv in vampire bats from all re ...201222696521
first human rabies case in french guiana, 2008: epidemiological investigation and control.until 2008, human rabies had never been reported in french guiana. on 28 may 2008, the french national reference center for rabies (institut pasteur, paris) confirmed the rabies diagnosis, based on hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction on skin biopsy and saliva specimens from a guianan, who had never travelled overseas and died in cayenne after presenting clinically typical meningoencephalitis.201222363830
ultrastructure and morphometric features of epididymal epithelium in desmodus rotundus.the blood-feeding behavior of desmodus rotundus made this bat a potential vector of rabies virus and a public health issue. consequently, the better understanding of its reproductive biology becomes valuable for the development of methods to control its population. in this study, we described morphological aspects of epithelial cells in d. rotundus' epididymis using light and transmission electron microscopy methods. the duct compartment was the main component of initial segment (83%), caput (90 ...201728869875
whole genome sequence phylogenetic analysis of four mexican rabies viruses isolated from cattle.phylogenetic analysis of the rabies virus in molecular epidemiology has been traditionally performed on partial sequences of the genome, such as the n, g, and p genes; however, that approach raises concerns about the discriminatory power compared to whole genome sequencing. in this study we characterized four strains of the rabies virus isolated from cattle in querétaro, mexico by comparing the whole genome sequence to that of strains from the american, european and asian continents. four cattle ...201728818750
genetic demography at the leading edge of the distribution of a rabies virus vector.the common vampire bat, desmodus rotundus, ranges from south america into northern mexico in north america. this sanguivorous species of bat feeds primarily on medium to large-sized mammals and is known to rely on livestock as primary prey. each year, there are hotspot areas of d. rotundus-specific rabies virus outbreaks that lead to the deaths of livestock and economic losses. based on incidental captures in our study area, which is an area of high cattle mortality from d. rotundus transmitted ...201728770072
rabies virus in bats, state of pará, brazil, 2005-2011.rabies is an acute, progressive zoonotic viral infection that in general produces a fatal outcome. this disease is responsible for deaths in humans and animals worldwide and, because it can affect all mammals, is considered one of the most important viral infections for public health. this study aimed to determine the prevalence of rabies in bats of different species found in municipalities of the state of pará from 2005 to 2011. the rabies virus was detected in 12 (0.39%) bats in a total of 310 ...201728678651
predictors and immunological correlates of sublethal mercury exposure in vampire bats.mercury (hg) is a pervasive heavy metal that often enters the environment from anthropogenic sources such as gold mining and agriculture. chronic exposure to hg can impair immune function, reducing the ability of animals to resist or recover from infections. how hg influences immunity and susceptibility remains unknown for bats, which appear immunologically distinct from other mammals and are reservoir hosts of many pathogens of importance to human and animal health. we here quantify total hg (t ...201728484633
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
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