effect of adsorbents on igm and igg measles antibodies.sera from rabbits immunized with l-16 measles virus absorded with monkey blood cells; kaolin and blood cells; and mncl2 and heparin were examined in haemagglutination inhibition (hi) and neutralization tests. kaolin and mncl2 adsorbed primarily hi igm antibodies from the early immunization period. the adsorbents used had no influence on hi and neutralization igg antibodies. human convalescent serum gave similar results, i.e. only igg antibodies were found and they were not affected by kaolin and ...19751989
letter: lymphocyte agglutination in multiple sclerosis. 197552801
letter: measles-virus-induced migration inhibition of human leucocytes: an immunologically unspecific phenomenon? 197553765
generation on infected fibroblasts of human t and non-t lymphocytes with specific cytotoxicity, influenced by histocompatibility, against measles virus-infected cells. 197987462
[use of the precipitation reaction for studying viral antibodies in blood sera]. 197989261
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (sspe) agent in hamsters.a hamster-adapted sspe agent was shown to cause a productive infection in weanling hamster brain, which changed to a cell-associated or defective infection coincident with the appearance of measles antibodies in serum. antibodies to measles hemagglutinin, hemolysin and neucleocapsid antigens developed in serum, which also contained neutralizing activity for regular measles virus. the agent recovered from the brains prior to the appearance of serum antibodies was infectious in cell-free media, ca ...197799679
virus antibody levels in serum specimens from patients with optic neuritis and from matched controls;.virus antibody levels in serum specimens taken in acute and convalescent phases from 77 patients with optic neuritits were tested by measles hamagglutination inhibition (hi), measles hemolysis inhibition (hli), rubella hi, parainfluenza-1 hi, epstein-barr immunofluorescence (if), and against 11 other viruses and mycoplasma pneumoniae with the complement fixation (cf) technique. the virus antibody levels were indicated to be usually very stable, and a fourfold change in virus antibody levels was ...1975165652
newer knowledge in comparative virology--its contribution to human health other comparative sciences, and despite its recent beginning comparative virology has already contributed useful applications and observations to human health research. teachings derived from the study of marek's disease found application in that of burkitt's lymphoma, and may lead to a possible vaccine against the human disease. equally useful information came from the study of canine distemper in the development of a chorio-allantoic membrane attenuated measles vaccine, and in our knowled ...1975167504
virologic studies in rheumatoid arthritis.comparison of virus antibody titers in jra and matched controls failed to implicate rubella, measles, parainfluenza type 1 or epstein-barr viruses. neither rna viruses or mycoplasma were detected in rheumatoid synovial cell cultures by 3h-uridine incorporation. mycoplasma were not isolated from rheumatoid synovial membranes or cell cultures using the large specimen-broth culture procedure. the balance of available evidence, including our own, suggests that mycoplasma are not involved in ra. viru ...1975173010
adherence of human peripheral blood lymphycytes to measles-infected cells. enhancement by prostaglandin e1.we studied the effect of prostaglandins in vitro on an immune reaction mediated by t cells; adherence of lymphocytes to measles-virus-infected human epithelial cells. normal human lymphocytes adhered to a mean +/- s.d. 20.1 +/- 5.2 per cent of these hep-2 cells. the percentage positive cells increased to 50.3 +/- 5.7 when lymphocytes were incubated with 10(-6) m prostaglandin e1 (p less than 0.01 vs. untreated lymphocytes); 10(-8) m and 10(-10) m were as effective. prostaglandin f2alpha had no e ...1977194153
morphology of human cells, carrier of measles virus, using nomarski optics and scanning electron microscopy.a human cell line (lu106) carrier of measles virus was studied in a nomarski interference-contrast microscope (nicm) and a scanning electron microscope (sem). the results from this were correlated with fine structure findings obtained from analyses made in the transmission electron microscope (tem). in both the nicm and sem it was possible to identify intracellular perinuclear structures, which most likely represent aggregates of measles nucleocapsids. these structures appeared in the nicm as op ...1977194389
immunologic "memory" for microbial antigens in lymphocytes obtained from human bronchial mucosa.memory for previous immunologic contact with microbial antigens has been detected in lymphocytes from human bronchi as a secondary immune response, when tested in vitro. antigens stimulated a predominantly proliferative response in blood lymphocytes that was significantly greater than the response in mucosal lymphocytes with purified protein derivative and herpes simplex type 1 antigens. co-culture experiments with autologous blood lymphocytes showed that cell-dependent suppression was one mecha ...1978204236
hyporesponsiveness of lymphocytes to virus antigens in rheumatoid arthritis.the immune response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to measles, rubella, parainfluenza types 1, 2, and 3 rna virus antigens and to varicella-zoster and herpes virus type 1 dna virus antigens was evaluated in 14 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (ra) and 14 matched controls by assessing 3h-thymidine incorporation. the results demonstrated hyporesponsivenss of lymphocytes from ra patients to virus antigens and phytohemagglutinin (pha), which did not appear to be nonspecific because of a lack of c ...1978205223
virus infection in demyelinating diseases.several animal and human demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (cns) are associated with rna or dna viruses. these viruses infect cns cells lytically or persistently. they mainly belong to the group of envelope viruses which derive their envelope partly from the host cell membrane. the process of virus release may result in the appearance of new antigens of virus-infected cells or the incorporation of cell membrane material into the viral envelope. these changes may lead to an imm ...1978211825
the mutagenic effect of measles virus on cell cultures of different origin.differences between strains of measles virus in their mutagenic effect on cells of different animals and man were found. the mutagenic activity of measles virus strains was species-specific. in the process of spontaneous transformation the sensitivity of cells to the mutagen changed.1975241227
interactions between human lymphocytes and paramyxovirus-infected cells: adsorption and cytotoxicity.the capacity of human lymphocytes to adhere to paramyxovirus-infected monolayers and their capacity to kill paramyxovirus-infected cells was investigated. a large fraction of human lymphocytes was found to adhere firmly to the paramyxovirus-infected monolayers. predsorption of lymphocytes on mumps virus-infected cells impaired their adsorption to a second cell monolayer of the same type. the cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes against mumps virus-infected cells was also reduced after predsorption ...1977300397
demonstration of anti-rubella antibody-secreting cells in rheumatoid arthritis the present study we describe a plaque-forming cell assay using erythrocytes coated with viral antigen, which detected anti-viral antibody-secreting cells against various viral antigens. these anti-viral antibody-secreting cell were studied in normal individuals with known viral infections and in rheumatoid arthritis patients. rubella anti-viral antibody-secreting cells were present after induction in the peripheral blood of eight out of ten patients. no plaques were seen before induction. sy ...1979472665
the binding of protein a of immunoglobulin g and of fab and fc fragments.results are presented to show that protein a (pa) may fix to the fab region of igg outside the antigen binding site. thus, pa-reactive fab fragments were isolated both from specific anti-egg albumin and specific anti-measles virus antibodies. a probable significance of this fab reactivity in the precipitation reaction between igg and pa is discussed. reactive igg from human, guinea pig, rabbit, and porcine normal sera all showed similar avidity towards pa. slight differences between igg subclass ...1979484238
generation of virus-specific cytolytic activity in human peripheral lymphocytes after vaccination with vaccinia virus and measles virus.human peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) harvested after vaccination with vaccinia or measles virus showed a specific activity against virus-infected target cells. this activity peaked on day 7 and was specific for the target cells infected with the virus used for the vaccination. the cytotoxic activity was not related to hla markers. the cells involved in the cytolytic process were lymphocytes bearing fc receptors. in addition, the cytotoxic activity was abrogated by more than 90% by rabbit fab ...1978723792
structural homogeneity of human subacute sclerosing panencephalitis antibodies.three homogeneous immunoglobulin fractions were isolated from the serum of a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (sspe). all three fractions reacted in immunodiffusion with measles and sspe virus preparations. the amino-terminal sequence of the light and heavy chains of one of the antibody fractions was determined by automated edman degradation. a single amino acid residue was obtained at every step, confirming the homogeneity of this human antibody.1975807623
an in vitro study of the susceptibility of cells from a meningioma of human origin for measles virus.a cell culture from a meningioma of human origin was found permissive for the edmonston strain of measles virus. virus was isolated from the supernatant of infected cell sheet as soon as 48 hr post-inoculation. cytopathic effect, observed by light microscopy, exhibited syncitia plus intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions. electron microscopy enabled viral nucleocapsids to be observed first in the cytoplasm and secondly within the nucleus of infected cells.1977859012
rubella antibodies and acute viral hepatitis.high antibody titres against rubella and measles viruses have recently been associated with certain chronic disorders such as chronic active hepatitis and occasionally with acute hepatitis. the present study was designed to evaluate the frequency of this association with acute hepatitis. haemagglutination inhibition (hi) and complement fixation (cf) antibodies to rubella, measles and influenza a viruses were determined in 97 consecutive patients with acute viral hepatitis and in 97 control perso ...1977905781
inhibition of lymphocyte stimulation by measles virus.the effect of measles virus on phytohemagglutinin-(pha) induced stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was investigated to delineate possible mechanisms for viral suppression of cell-mediated immunity (cmi). it was noted that medium which had several days contact with uninfected monolayers as well as unpurified measles virus preparations produced significant inhibition of 3h-thymidine incorporation by pha-stimulated lymphocytes. when partially purified measles virus preparations ...1975804515
identification of measles virus-specific hemolysis-inihibiting antibodies separate from hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies.the occurrence of antibodies giving hemolysis inhibition (hli) but not hemagglutination inhibition (hi) was examined in human convalescent and rabbit hyperimmune sera. hi antibodies, which through their interaction with hemagglutinin components display hli activity, were removed by absorption with tween 80-ether (te)-treated measles virus material. this absorption did not change the titer of non-hi hli antibodies. after removal of hi antibodies from 16 late measles convalescent sera and three ba ...1975803467
complement-dependent cytotoxicity of sera obtained from subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients.human lymphoid cells (nc-37) persistently infected with either measles virus (schwarz and tycsa strains) or subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (sspe) virus (halle and mantooth strains) were destroyed in the presence of complement by anti-measles sera as well as by sera from sspe patients. the cytotoxic activity was demonstrated in both igg and igm fractions of measles convalescent sera, but only in igg fraction of sspe sera. measles convalescent sera completely lost the cytotoxic activity to al ...1978672673
measles antibodies and immunoglobulins in sera from patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (sspe) and from an infected ferret.cellulose acetate electrophoresis of sera from 2 patients with sspe revealed a slow-moving and a fast-moving gamma-globulin band. the igg fractions from sera were isolated by the combination of starch block electrophoresis, sephadex gel filtration and isoelectric focusing techniques. the purity of each protein was tested by immunoelectrophoresis using a potent goat anti-whole human serum. the isolated igg preparations were tested in hi, cf and n tests against measles virus envelope, measles viru ...19751185233
affinity for measles virus anti-haemolysin of a residual immunoglobulin m in sera of some patients with multiple sclerosis.hep2 cells persistently infected with measles virus were treated with trypsin to remove haemagglutinin (ha) and examined unfixed or fixed in acetone by fluorescent antibody methods, comparing those sera specific for structural antigens of the virus. staining patterns combined with the blocking of specific immunofluorescence indicated that igg specific for measles virus haemolysin could be recognized in multiple sclerosis (ms) sera and that in some sera from which rheumatoid factor had been remov ...1979383332
studies on antiviral glycosides, 4. inhibition of the multiplication of paramyxoviruses by phenyl-6-chloro-6-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranoside.the antiviral activity of phenyl-6-chloro-6-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranoside (pcg) was studied. pcg specifically inhibited the growth of paramyxoviruses including sendai, measles and newcastle disease viruses in llcmk2 cells at a concentration of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, but did not restrict the multiplication of other rna viruses (influenza, vesicular stomatitis and polio viruses) at these concentrations. pcg might act in the late stage during virus replication of sendai virus as it did not inhibit virus rna ...1979230307
molecular cloning of natural paramyxovirus copy-back defective interfering rnas and their expression from dna.using the unique sequence organization of copy-back defective interfering (di) rnas of paramyxoviruses, sendai virus (sv), and measles virus copy-back di rnas were pcr amplified and cloned, without having to separate them from their helper nondefective genomes. the cloning was designed so that t7 polymerase transcription of the plasmids would generate di rnas with the exact 5' and 3' ends. the sv di clone, transcribed from the plasmid in bhk cells using t7 polymerase produced by a vaccinia virus ...19921329337
isolation of a heterogeneous population of temperature-sensitive mutants of measles virus from persistently infected human lymphoblastoid cell lines.two human lymphoblastoid b-cell lines, wi-l2 and 8866, were infected with the edmonston strain of measles virus at a multiplicity of infection of 10(-6), and stable persistent infections were established. by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, the vast majority of cells from both cell lines were expressing viral antigens and releasing virion-like particles. however, very little infectious virus could be detected at 37 degrees c, either by an infectious centers assay or by titration of su ...1978210247
epstein-barr virus-associated and other antiviral antibodies during intense bcg administration to patients with burkitt's lymphoma in remission.patients with burkitt's lymphoma in chemotherapy-induced remission received through dermal scarifications one or two doses per week of approximately 3 x 10(8) living bcg organisms (pasteur institute vaccine). this treatment was always followed by usually rapid increases by 1--4 log2 steps in the antibody titers to epstein-barr virus (ebv)-associated cell membrane antigens. titer increases of less than 2.5 log2 steps within the first month after the start of bcg treatment correlated with a signif ...1978203706
the nucleotide sequence of the l gene of marburg virus, a filovirus: homologies with paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses.the nucleotide sequence of the l gene of marburg virus, strain musoke, has been determined. the l gene has a single long open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 2330 amino acids (mw 267,175) that represents the viral rna-dependent rna polymerase. the putative transcription start signal (3'cuaccuauaauu 5') and the termination signal (3' uaauucuuuuu 5') of the gene could be identified. computer-assisted comparison of the l protein with l proteins of other nonsegmented negative-stranded rna vi ...19921546452
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the mumps virus gene encoding the l protein and the trailer sequence.we have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequences of the seventh gene of the miyahara strain of mumps virus (muv) encoding the l protein. the l gene is 6925 nucleotides in length and contains a single long open reading frame which is capable of coding for a protein of 2261 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 256,571 da. the deduced amino acid sequence of the l protein of muv showed significant homology with those of six other paramyxoviruses, human parainfluenza type 2 virus, ...19921585659
silver staining and nucleolar patterns in human heteroploid and measles-carrier cells. 197880393
measles virus receptor on human t lymphocytes. 19751079923
evaluation of live attenuated varicella vaccine (oka-rit strain) and combined varicella and mmr vaccination in 13-17-month-old children.the oka-rit strain of live attenuated varicella vaccine at dose levels 5300 pfu (high titre) and 2000 pfu (low titre) was tested in 13-17-month-old children; 50% of the children received the varicella vaccine alone, and the other 50% received it together with a measles-mumps-rubella (mmr) vaccine. the high titre and low titre varicella vaccines induced 96% and 92% seroconversion rates, respectively. following combined vaccination with mmr, the corresponding seroconversion rates for varicella wer ...19911661057
[effect of infectious factors on human and animal cytogenetic structures].the analysis of blood leucocyte chromosomes has been carried out on 60 patients with different infectious diseases (influenza, measles, scarlet fever, and disentery), and on 47 patients immunized against measles, tick-born encephalitis, typhoid fever and brucellosis. the mutagenic influence of viruses on the genital cells of mice and on the human somatic cells in vitro was studied. both viruses and bacteria appeared to be able to bring about different breaks in human and animal cells.19761027162
[2-site competitive immunoenzyme analysis based on monoclonal antibodies for the detection and titration of antihemagglutinating measles antibodies].using monoclonal antibodies (mca) to measles virus (strain leningrad-16) hemagglutinin, a competitive enzyme immunoassay (ceia) was developed for the detection and titration of antihemagglutinating antibodies in human sera. serum samples from children, collected in measles foci, were tested in ceia, sp-eia, hi, and pha tests. the results evidence a high correlation of antihemagglutinin titres in ceia and hi tests, the correlation coefficient of ceia and pha being 97.7%. the ceia based on mca to ...19911716391
replication of measles virus in a cell culture from a glioblastoma of human origin.a cell culture from a glioblastoma of human origin infected with the edmonston strain of measles virus produced and released infectious measles virus. all cellular types seemed to be involved in the process of virus replication. staining with hematin-eosin revealed the presence of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions. examination with the electron microscope revealed viral nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm and, rarely, in the nuclei of infected cells.1977894326
chromosome aberrations in cells infected with various strains of measles virus.the incidence of chromosome fragmentation and/or breakage has been studied in cultured human embryonic diploid cells infected with different wild and vaccinal strains of measles virus. it seemed that for wild strains the mean incidence of fragmentation was two times higher, that of breakage two times lower than for the vaccinal strains.19751089353
measles and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus proteins: lack of antibodies to the m protein in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.studies on the immunoprecipitation of the proteins of several different measles and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (sspe) virus strains from lysates of infected cells have revealed a relative lack of antibodies to the nonglycosylated viral membrane protein (m) in the sera of patients with sspe, in contrast to a high level of antibodies to other viral proteins. no evidence was found for the existence of a large number of antigenically unique m proteins. in contrast to sspe sera, other hyperi ...1979287042
[modification of a method to study cell fusion induced in vitro by viruses].a studying method of viruses induced cell-fusion is described, using monolayers of vero monkey cells. nature and density of cells and infection multiplicity are studied. the sensibility is equal to 4 hemagglutining units of sendaï and accuracy about +/- 3 % of polykaryocytosis. quantification. comparison and kinetics study of cell-fusion are allowed by this method which may lead to systematic and routine exploration of cell-fusion ability of biological extracts from slow degenerative diseases of ...1979226237
serological studies in the elderly.sera from 108 elderly patients in psychiatric and general hospitals were tested for antibodies to seven viruses. measles virus antibody levels were significantly higher in patients from the psychiatric hospital, regardless of diagnosis, than in those from other hospitals. demented patients, regardless of their hospital, had significantly higher levels of antibody to adenovirus than control patients.1978208409
deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion glycoprotein of turkey rhinotracheitis virus has greater identity with that of human respiratory syncytial virus, a pneumovirus, than that of paramyxoviruses and morbilliviruses.the sequence of the fusion (f) glycoprotein of turkey rhinotracheitis virus (trtv) has been deduced from cdna clones derived from oligo(dt)-selected infected cell rna. the protein consists of 538 amino acids, the f2 and f1 subunits containing 102 (including the f2-f1 connecting peptide rrrr) and 436 residues, respectively. each subunit has one potential n-linked glycosylation site. the protein has 38 to 39% amino acid identity with the f protein of respiratory syncytial virus (pneumovirus genus) ...19911990068
purification of host dna synthesis-suppressing factor (dsf) produced by infection with measles dna synthesis-suppressing factor (dsf) produced into culture fluid of cloned hela cells (hela c-9) infected with a small plaque variant of toyoshima strain of measles virus was purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, chromatography on cm-cellulose and deae-cellulose, and gel-filtration on sephadex g-100 and g-200. the specific activity of the finally purified dsf was 302 units/mg of protein representing approximately 300-fold purification. the molecular weight of dsf was estimated ...19761018343
psychiatric disorders in the encephalitic form of multiple sclerosis.multiple sclerosis lesions may occur predominantly in the hemispheric white matter and cause various psychiatric disorders such as remitting-relapsing endoform or exogenous psychosis, organic personality alterations and dementia. nineteen patients suffering from this encephalitic form of multiple sclerosis as diagnosed by characteristic csf immunoglobulin findings are analysed according to established psychopathological criteria. all cases began with psychiatric symptoms and neurological signs w ...19902156956
measles virus-induced migration inhibition of human leukocytes in vitro: an expression of cell-mediated immunity?attempts were made to establish measles virus-induced migration inhibition of human leukocytes as an in vitro test of cell-mediated immunity to the virus. crude material from cell cultures infected with two different strains of measles virus was used as antigen in the capillary modification of the test. both virus preparations induced migration inhibition. incubation with puromycin indicated that the inhibition was dependent on protein synthesis, which has been regarded as a characteristic featu ...1976996451
sequence analysis of p gene of human parainfluenza type 2 virus: p and cysteine-rich proteins are translated by two mrnas that differ by two nontemplated g residues.we cloned and sequenced the cdnas against genomic rna and mrna for phosphoprotein (p) of human parainfluenza type 2 virus (piv-2). cdna clone from genomic rna was 1439 nucleotides in length excluding poly(a) and was found to have two small open reading frames encoding proteins of 233 and 249 amino acids. two different mrna cdna clones were obtained; that is, one mrna contained a smaller reading frame coding 225 amino acids, v protein, and the other mrna contained a larger reading frame coding 39 ...19902162103
viral antibodies in multiple sclerosis. a nationwide co-twin study.serum viral antibody titers against 21 viruses were studied in 19 of 23 same-sex twin pairs with multiple sclerosis derived from the finnish twin cohort. thorough neurologic examinations showed two monozygotic pairs to be concordant, whereas all dizygotic pairs were discordant. special attention was given to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses, against which the antibody levels were determined with the complement fixation, hemagglutination inhibition, hemolysis-ingel, and enzyme immunoassay meth ...19902162658
a sensitive elisa system for the rapid detection of virus specific igm antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid.the intrathecal production of igm antibodies to different viral antigens was measured by a modification of elisa that was both sensitive and specific. suitably diluted csf and homologous serum samples containing similar amount of igm were examined, and a comparison of the photometric signals permitted the detection of specific antibodies secreted from activated lymphocytes into the csf compartment during the course of viral infections of the central nervous system. polyvinyl chloride (pvc) micro ...19902162893
the formation and fate of virus antigen-antibody complexes.we report the fate of 125i human igg measles virus antibodies complexed to virus antigens expressed on the surfaces of hela cells persistently infected with measles virus. each hela cell expressing viral antigens on its surface bound about 7.5 x 106 igg molecules under saturation conditions. three hours after 125i antiviral igg bound to and saturated all antigenic sites on infected cells, 30% of the counts were released (85% tca ppt), after 12 hr 60%, and after 24 hr 75% (30% tca ppt). by linear ...1977830754
prediction and identification of a t cell epitope in the fusion protein of measles virus immunodominant in mice and humans.amino acid residues 288 to 302 of the fusion protein of measles virus were predicted by a variety of methods to represent a putative t cell epitope. this sequence was synthesized and the peptide was injected into mice of six inbred strains to test this possibility. lymphocytes from peptide-immunized mice from all six h-2 disparate strains were able to mount a proliferative response following in vitro culture with the peptide. in addition, lymphocytes from three strains also proliferated in the p ...19902212993
immunological studies in tropical spastic paraparesis.tropical spastic paraparesis (tsp) and other chronic-progressive myelopathies have been clearly associated with increased serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibody titers to human t-lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i). however, little is known about the cellular immune function in tsp. in the present study, activated t lymphocytes were found in the peripheral blood of patients with tsp. specifically, there were increased numbers of large cd3+ cells that also expressed hla-dr and interleukin-2-recept ...19902317010
immunologic injury in measles virus infection. iii. presence and characterization of human cytotoxic lymphocytes.human peripheral blood leukocytes (pbl) from patients with chronic measles virus infection (sspe) or from immune, adult humans (convalescent from acute childhood measles virus infection) are cytotoxic for target cells infected with measles virus as measured by a 51cr assay. specific release of 51cr by immune pbl occurred both with and without human antibodies added to measles virus-infected cultures. maximal killing in the absence of added antibodies to measles virus was usually detected only af ...1977830751
measurement of virus antigens on the surface of hela cells persistently infected with wild type and vaccine strains of measles virus by radioimmune assay.persistent states of measles virus infection have been established in hela cells by using edmonston strain virus and two types of measles virus vaccine (m-vac and schwarz). the absolute amount of surface viral antigens expressed on these cells infected separately with the three viruses has been assessed by a newly developed method which employs [125i]-labelled fab fragments of immunoglobulin g (igg) from immune human sera. this method was used to determine the level of viral antigenic expression ...19761255135
[formation of dna-proviruses in cells of a human transplantable lymphoid line during infection with tick-borne encephalitis viruses or measles virus]. 1978620634
adherence of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to measles-virus infected cells: modulation by solubilized rhesus erythrocyte membranes and carbohydrates.the adherence of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to hela cells persistently infected with measles virus (hela-k11) was studied. the following data were observed. (i) the proportion of hela-k11 cells with adherent human peripheral blood lymphocytes of rhesus monkey erythrocytes was similar over a wide range of ratios of hela-k11 cells to lymphocytes or erythrocytes. (ii) the great majority of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and erythrocytes reacted with the same hela-k11 cell (iii). the adh ...1979572346
modulation of the adherence of human lymphocytes to measles-infected cells by prostaglandin e1: a differential effect on lymphocyte subpopulations.prostaglandins of the e series (pge) may serve as important regulators of human immune responsiveness. the present study was designed to examine the possibility that pge may effect human lymphocyte function by the modulation of surface receptors. the presence of surface binding sites on human lymphocytes for measles virus antigens was studied using a rosette adherence assay. we observed that the addition of pge1 increased the proportion of measles-infected cells (hela-kll) with adherent lymphocy ...1979523674
human natural cytotoxic cells: activation by a measles virus-induced lymphocyte factor which increases the expression of the hnc-1a3 antigen.when human lymphocytes were exposed to measles virus antigen or to sspe virus-infected cells, their cytotoxic activity against uninfected ma-160 cells was markedly enhanced. in contrast, mumps virus or herpes simplex virus-infected cells did not show such an enhancing effect and were rather inhibitory. sspe cells and measles virus antigen, but not mumps-virus-infected cells or mumps virus antigen, also induced a two-fold increase in the number of lymphocytes bearing the hnc-1a3 membrane antigen, ...19872445513
antibody-modification of measles "in vitro" infection.while the involvement of measles-like virus with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (sspe) has been shown in many laboratories, the possible mechanisms by which a normal measles infection may lead to the chronic condition are unclear. the work reported here demonstrates that the growth and maintenance of vero cells infected with the mv 30 strain of measles, in the presence of multivalent antibody, results in a redistribution of the viral antigens within the cells and an alteration in the proper ...1977417148
[a case of hepatitis due to measles virus]. 19921431470
leader sequence distinguishes between translatable and encapsidated measles virus rnas.the 3'-terminal 55 nucleotides of the negative-strand measles virus rna genome called the leader sequence is not transcribed into a detectable distinct rna product. most of the monocistronic n and bicistronic n-p rnas lack the leader sequence. however, a subpopulation of the n and n-p rnas and all of the antigenomes possess this leader. here, we show that leader-containing subgenomic rnas are functionally distinct from their leaderless counterparts. in measles virus-infected cells, leaderless mo ...19901688383
increased risk of early measles in infants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive increase in illness due to measles is one of the potential consequences of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) epidemic in africa. during a study of perinatal hiv transmission conducted in kenya, the risk of acquiring measles before vaccination (9 months of age) was found to be 3.8 times higher in infants born to hiv-seropositive mothers than in control infants (10 [9%] of 109 vs. 5 [3%] of 194 infants; p = .02; odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.2). the majority of infants w ...19921730893
intracellular stability of nonreplicating paramyxovirus nucleocapsids.using northern blot analysis, we have demonstrated the ability of infectious measles and sendai virus particles to rescue the intracellular replication of their homologous defective interfering (di) nucleocapsids up to 3 days and 1 day, respectively, after initial di infection. the half-life of the paramyxovirus di nucleocapsids was therefore judged to be similar to that of rhabdoviruses, and to significantly differ from that of orthomyxoviruses. moreover, we conclude that the intracellular half ...19902158685
[mechanisms of disrupting dna repair in human cells. iv. interferon protects dna of noninfected and chronically infected human cells from damage caused by cadmium chloride].the protective activity of interferon on the cadmium chloride-treated human cells (hep-2), infected chronically with meals virus and uninfected, was studied. it was found that cadmium chloride induced the formation of partially non-repairable dna lesions. decrease in cell repair activity was observed in the cells chronically infected with virus. pretreatment of cells with interferon protected cell dna from formation of dna breaks and caused more effective resynthesis of dna breaks.19892482823
extensive antigenic diversity among human parainfluenza type 2 virus isolates and immunological relationships among paramyxoviruses revealed by monoclonal antibodies.a panel of 128 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn), fusion (f), matrix (m), and polymerase (p) proteins, and nucleoprotein (np) of the toshiba strain of human parainfluenza type 2 virus (piv2) was prepared to examine the antigenic relationships among clinical isolates of piv2 and among paramyxoviruses by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. the hn proteins of 18 clinical isolates of piv2 showed extensive antigenic diversity: 23 of 33 anti-hn mab ...19892545038
immunological diagnosis in viral infections of the central nervous system: course of antibody titres against homo- and heterologous clinical cases suspected for viral encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, the estimation of virus-specific antibodies especially in liquor requires high sensitivity as well as specificity. with enzyme immunoassays the sensitivity in detecting antibodies has increased compared to e.g., complement fixation tests. this report concerns the determination of virus-specific antibodies with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in paired liquor/serum samples of four patients with encep ...19892550755
immunodetection of human t-cell lymphotropic virus type i core protein in biological samples by using a monoclonal antibody immunoassay.a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay (eia) has been developed for detection of human t-cell lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i) core protein. the monoclonal antibody (clone 6.11) specifically recognizes the p19 gag gene-encoded protein of the virus. the eia was over 100 times more sensitive than reverse transcriptase measurement and was capable of responding to less than 500 pg of whole-virus lysate. the assay exhibited type specificity in that htlv-ii antigens failed to produce a posit ...19902191015
[conservativism of the matrix protein of paramyxoviruses].cross reactions among paramyxoviruses were determined by the immunoblot method. human parainfluenza viruses, types 1-3, avian parainfluenza virus type 4, mumps, sendai, and measles viruses were used. antisera to human parainfluenza viruses were shown to cross-interact with proteins np and m of other types, and all antisera to the members of paramyxovirus genus cross-reacted with m proteins of other paramyxoviruses. no cross reactions with measles virus proteins were observed. it is concluded tha ...19892609644
replication of measles virus in cultured human thymic epithelial cells.measles virus can replicate in cultures of both infantile and fetal human thymic epithelial cells. virus-induced cytopathology including syncytium formation was first evident around 24 hr after viral inoculation of these cultures. at the same time, the cultures began to lose their characteristic thymus-like organizational structure. viral antigens were detected in infected cells by indirect immunofluorescence, and the presence of progeny virions was demonstrated in culture fluids.19892646394
transient appearance of oligoclonal immunoglobulins and measles virus antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid in a case of acute measles encephalitis.acute measles encephalitis with severe sequelae in a 25-year-old man was studied. a transient appearance of oligoclonal igg in cerebrospinal fluid and of intrathecally produced measles antibodies was found during 2 months after the onset of the disease. on the basis of this finding of local hyperimmunization it is proposed that in the case studied the measles virus infection may have been directly responsible for the disease process in the central nervous system.1976947643
characterisation of various intravenous immunoglobulin preparations.five commercially available immunoglobulin preparations are characterised with regard to molecular weight distribution, immunoglobulin subclass distribution and antibody content. preparations processed utilising enzymic or chemical modification demonstrate considerable variance of molecular weight species and subclass distribution when compared to native preparations. similarly, cytomegalovirus and anti-streptolysin o antibody content is dramatically reduced in the modified preparations. possibl ...19872822815
viral antibody titers. comparison in patients with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.higher titers of antibodies to measles virus envelope antigens, hemolysin and hemagglutinin, epstein-barr virus (ebv) capsid antigen and nuclear antigen, and rubella virus hemagglutinin were demonstrated in serum samples of patients with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis than in age- and sex-matched control subjects. a significant correlation was observed between antibodies to measles and rubella viruses both in patients with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, but such a corr ...19872823754
comparison between parainfluenza virus type 2 and simian virus 5: monoclonal antibodies reveal major antigenic differences.marked differences in the apparent mrs of the hn, np and f proteins of simian virus 5 (sv5) and parainfluenza virus type 2 (pf-2) were revealed by sds-page. to examine the antigenic relationships between sv5, pf-2 and other paramyxoviruses, monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific to pf-2 were isolated. these antibodies had specificities for the hn, np and p proteins and together with 54 mabs to sv5 were tested for their ability to react with sv5, pf-2, pf-3, mumps and measles virus proteins. most ...19882841416
prostaglandin e2 (pge2) effect upon icp-23 human pulmonary fibroblasts growth in culture and on measles virus multiplication in this cell type.the influence of pge2 in different concentrations (10(-4)m, 10(-6)m, 10(-8)m) and of 1 mm ampc upon icp-23 human pulmonary fibroblasts and also the influence of pge2 upon measles virus multiplication in the same cell type were studied. pge2 inhibited fibroblasts growth in all administered concentrations, depending on them. ampc adding to human fibroblasts in culture progressively stimulated cells growth in the first 24 hours, produced a steady growth during 24-48-hour interval and slightly inhib ...19911802052
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: experimental infection in primates.measles virus isolated from the brain of a 12-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis caused a chronic, progressive encephalitis in experimentally infected rhesus monkeys. the infection was eventually fatal in spite of pre-existing measles immunity and a vigorous secondary antibody response in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of the infected animals. the findings provide a basis for studies into the pathogenesis and possible treatment of the human disease.1977831255
generation of mammalian cells expressing stably measles virus proteins via bicistronic rna.the proteins of measles virus are believed to be cytotoxic, and have never been expressed stably from the cloned genes in cultured cells. we found that measles viral proteins can be expressed via a bicistronic rna. the dominantly selectable dhfr* protein-coding region encoding a mutant dihydrofolate reductase was inserted into the 3'-untranslated regions of the measles viral genes encoding nucleoprotein (n), matrix (m) protein, and hemagglutinin (h). the tandemly arranged cistrons were placed un ...19911939503
characterization of measles virus-specific cytotoxic antibodies by use of a chronically infected cell line.the complement-dependent cytotoxic effects of measles virus specific antibodies on a chronically infected cell line were studied by a microcytotoxicity assay. cell damage was determined by trypan blue staining. monospecific antisera against the hemagglutinin (ha) and the hemolysin (hl) of the virus were both cytotoxic. rabbits, immunized with measles virus, developed cytotoxic antibodies in parallel with the appearance of antibodies against the measles virus ha and hl. human sera with high antib ...19751089724
activation of measles virus from silently infected human lymphocytes.lymphocytes were incubated with measles virus for 4 days in the absence of a lymphocyte stimulating agent. such nonstimulated lymphocytes, infected with measles virus, did not express the virus antigens that are detectable by cytotoxic antibodies. approximately 1 out of 5,000, or even fewer, of such lymphocytes produced virus as demonstrated by the infectious center assay; in the supernate only 10--100 infectious viruses per milliliter were detected. no virus structures could be observed by mean ...1978702064
measles virus-substance p receptor interaction: jurkat lymphocytes transfected with substance p receptor cdna enhance measles virus fusion and replication.1. we have demonstrated previously (harrowe et al., 1990), using a lymphoblastoid cell line that constitutively expresses the substance p receptor (spr) (payan et al., 1984, 1986), that this receptor may facilitate measles virus (mv) fusion with these cells. in order to test this hypothesis further, a stable cell line transfected with spr cdna has been established, and various stages of mv infection in spr positive and negative cells compared. 2. jurkat cells, a human t-lymphoblastoid cell line, ...19921281755
rapid dot-immunobinding assay on nitrocellulose for viral antibodies.a procedure is described for the routine laboratory diagnosis of viral serum antibodies. antigens are dotted on nitrocellulose strips or sheets, and sera are applied on absorbent paper strips. antigen-antibody complexes are detected with enzyme-conjugated antiglobulin and development of a colored, insoluble substrate product. the test allows processing of multiple sera in one 3- to 5-h operation and is equal to or more sensitive than serum neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition, and fluores ...19863009525
conserved structures among the nucleocapsid proteins of the paramyxoviridae: complete nucleotide sequence of human parainfluenza virus type 3 np mrna.the nucleotide sequence of the mrna coding for the nucleocapsid protein (np) of the paramyxovirus, human parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv-3), has been determined. the np mrna was found to contain 1642 bases, excluding poly(a), and encode a protein of 515 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 57,823. amino acid residues 1 through 420 of piv-3 np protein showed extensive sequence homology with the corresponding amino acids of sendai virus nucleocapsid protein. there was virtually no homology betw ...19863012866
viral igm antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with multiple sclerosis and controls.serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) from 28 patients with multiple sclerosis (ms), 14 with other neurological diseases (ond) and 31 control subjects with tension headache were analysed for presence of igm antibodies against measles, mumps and varicellae zoster by a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). this technique excluded false positive reaction due to possible presence of rheumatoid factor. twelve of the 28 patients with ms had igm antibodies in serum and 4 in csf, the latter ...19873033976
acute measles in patients with and without neurological involvement: distribution of measles virus antigen and rna.using peroxidase immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to localize viral antigen and rna, we studied autopsy tissues from 20 cases of acute fatal human measles (including seven patients with acute encephalomyelitis) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 patients with acute, nonfatal measles. in immunologically normal patients, virus was detected in five of nine who died five days or less after the onset of rash but in none of 11 who died later. virus was localized to epithelial ...19883042879
rapid accumulation of measles virus leader rna in the nucleus of infected hela cells and human lymphoid cells.the 3' terminus of the single-stranded, negative-sense genome of the measles virus comprises a 55-nucleotide-long sequence, which is transcribed into a short, positive-sense rna called the leader sequence. in other viral systems, this rna has been shown to modulate host cell transcription. here, we report the presence of measles virus leader rna in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of infected hela cells as well as t- and b-lymphoid cells. a sharp and rapid increase in the concentration of ...19911942256
measles virus gene expression in lytic and persistent infections of a human lymphoblastoid cell line.momp1 is a measles virus (mv) long-term steady-state persistently infected culture of the human t lymphoblastoid cell line molt4. the analysis of mv gene expression revealed that in momp1 cells, the major mv proteins, haemagglutinin (h), phosphoprotein (p), nucleoprotein, fusion (f) and matrix (m), are present and the fusion precursor (f0) is cleaved into f2 and f1 peptides. h and f2 proteins are glycosylated in both lytic and persistent molt4 infections. all major proteins are underexpressed in ...19921402813
cerebral endothelial cell infection by measles virus in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: ultrastructural and in situ hybridization evidence.infection of vascular endothelium plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acute measles virus infection outside the central nervous system (cns) but has not been described in the human cns. an ultrastructural survey was made of blood vessels in five cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (sspe) to determine whether or not infection of cerebral vascular endothelium occurred in this persistent fatal cns disease caused by measles virus. morbillivirus nucleocapsids were found in a few endo ...19911944804
the predominance of cd8+ t cells after infection with measles virus suggests a role for cd8+ class i mhc-restricted cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) in recovery from measles. clonal analyses of human cd8+ class i mhc-restricted ctl.stimulation of pbmc, in children recovering from acute measles, with autologous ebv-transformed and measles virus (mv)-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (b-lcl) expanded primarily mv-specific cd8+ t cells. a large number of cd8+ t cell clones were obtained either by passaging of bulk cultures at limiting dilutions or by direct cloning of pbmc without previous stimulation in bulk culture. the mv-specific cd8+ t cell clones responding in a proliferative and a ctl assay were found to be class i mh ...19902107259
sequence analysis of the 22k, sh and g genes of turkey rhinotracheitis virus and their intergenic regions reveals a gene order different from that of other pneumoviruses.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of three genes of turkey rhinotracheitis virus (trtv) together with the nucleotide sequences of the relevant intergenic regions were determined. the deduced amino acid sequence of one of the genes shows significant identity (42%) to that of the 22k protein of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). the trtv 22k gene, like that of rsv, has a second open reading frame, although the amino acid sequence deduced from this reading frame does not show an ...19921629697
non-infectious morphologically altered nucleocapsids of measles virus from persistently infected cells.persistent measles virus infection of human hep-2 or l-41 cells was accompanied by pronounced structural and functional changes of isolated intracellular viral nucleocapsids (ncs). the bulk of persistent ncs possessed altered conformation and a "string-of-beads" appearance, contained substantial amounts of subgenomic size rnas, exhibited reduced transcriptase activity in vitro and lacked infectivity on transfection of susceptible cells. immunogold staining revealed negligible binding of anti-p p ...19873592984
effects of the 'fusion peptide' from measles virus on the structure of n-methyl dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine membranes and their fusion with sendai virus.31p nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31p-nmr) was used to study phospholipid organization in hydrated preparations of n-methyl dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine and a 'fusion peptide' with the sequence: fagv-vlagaalgvaaaaqi, which corresponds to the amino terminus of the f1 subunit of the membrane fusion protein of measles virus. these amino acids are believed to mediate syncytia formation, host-cell penetration and hemolysis by infectious virus. the presence of the peptide at 0.5 mole pe ...19911646029
measles virus-specific human t cell clones. characterization of specificity and function of cd4+ helper/cytotoxic and cd8+ cytotoxic t cell clones.pbmc from healthy adult individuals seropositive for measles virus (mv) were tested for their capacity to proliferate to uv-inactivated mv (uv-mv) or to autologous mv-infected ebv-transformed b cell lines (ebv-bc). mv-specific t cell responses were observed in 11 of 15 donors tested (stimulation index greater than 2), when optimal doses of uv-mv were used in proliferative assays. t cell clones were generated from pbmc of three donors responding to mv, by using either uv-mv or mv-infected autolog ...19892467943
[synthesis of measles virus proteins in chronically infected human cell cultures].synthesis of measles virus proteins in primary and chronic infection of l-41 and hep-2 cells was studied by radioimmunoprecipitation test and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. synthesis of measles virus main structural proteins, h, p, np, and m, was found to occur in chronically infected cells. persistence of measles virus in the systems under study was shown not to be accompanied by changes in electrophoretic mobility of virus polypeptides as compared with proteins synthesized in primary infe ...19863765567
antibody response to different antigenic sites on measles virus surface polypeptides in patients with multiple sclerosis.antibodies to different antigenic sites on measles virus (mv) surface proteins were examined in sera from 34 hla-typed age- and sex-matched pairs of multiple sclerosis (ms) patients and control subjects by a previously developed competitive enzyme immunoassay in which human sera and monoclonal mv-specific antibodies compete for binding to the same antigen. antibodies specific to 4 partly overlapping sites on the haemagglutinin protein and two sites on the fusion protein of mv were measured in ad ...19892470864
immunoglobulin idiotypes: analysis of viral antigen-antibody systems. 19852578680
immunoglobulin g subclass antibodies to measles virus in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis or multiple sclerosis.mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for human immunoglobulin g (igg) subclasses and a sensitive immunoassay were used to evaluate the igg subclass antibody response to measles virus antigens in cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 20 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (sspe), 12 patients with multiple sclerosis (ms), and 11 controls with high measles virus antibody titers in serum. in patients with sspe, measles virus-specific antibodies were found mainly in the igg1 subcla ...19892913037
antigen mimicry involving measles virus hemagglutinin and human respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein.intergenic antigenic relationships between measles virus and respiratory syncytial (rs) virus-specific structural components were studied by using monoclonal antibodies. of 75 monoclonal antibodies against these components, only one, an anti-measles virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody, cross-reacted. immunofluorescence analysis of measles virus- and rs virus-infected cells with this monoclonal antibody showed qualitatively different staining patterns which indicated that the antigen involved ...19862416956
[characteristics of the ribonucleoprotein of the measles virus persisting in a human cell culture].the properties of virus-specific rnps recovered from human hep-2 and l-41 cells chronically infected with measles virus were studied in comparison with those of rnps formed in acute infection of l-41 cells. the persisting rnp was shown to contain nucleoprotein not differing in the electrophoretic mobility from the same protein of measles virus virions, and rna in the persisting rnp was found to be insensitive to the action of rn-ase. rnp from chronically infected cells had a changed ultrastructu ...19862432728
characteristics of secretory immune system in human middle ear: implications in otitis media. 19744205203
virological studies on chromosome damage of hela cells induced by myxoviruses. 19664290662
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