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analysis of a 9.6 kb sequence from the 3' end of canine coronavirus genomic rna.we have analysed the organization of the 3' end of the genomic rna of canine coronavirus (ccv), a virus which has a close antigenic relationship to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), porcine respiratory coronavirus (prcv) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv). genomic rna isolated from ccv strain insavc-1-infected a72 cells was used to generate a cdna library. overlapping clones, spanning approximately 9.6 kb [from the 3' end of the polymerase gene, 1b, to the poly(a) tail] wer ...19921431811
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of canine coronavirus and its antibody in dogs.two methods of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were developed for the diagnosis of canine coronavirus (ccv) infection in dogs. one elisa, in which ccv-infected crfk cell lysate is used as antigen, is for the detection and titration of antibody against ccv, and the other elisa uses the double antibody sandwich method for the detection of ccv antigen. the first elisa procedure demonstrated antibody responses in dogs inoculated with ccv, as did the virus neutralization test; the second el ...19911850890
canine coronavirus infection in cats; a possible role in feline infectious peritonitis. 19901966440
viral antibody studies of laboratory dogs with diarrheal disease.viral antibody studies were done on laboratory dogs in an epizootic of gastrointestinal disease. increased hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers to a parvovirus (pv) antigenically related to feline panleukopenia virus were found in convalescent serum specimens of 78% (20/26) of the affected dogs and in 83% (5/6) of apparently healthy dogs. with one exception, all dogs tested had significant levels of hemagglutination-inhibition antibody to this pv. similar increased antibody titers were fo ...19816275746
the molecular genetics of feline coronaviruses: comparative sequence analysis of the orf7a/7b transcription unit of different biotypes.feline coronaviruses (fcovs) have been subdivided into feline enteric coronaviruses (fecvs) and feline infectious peritonitis viruses (fipvs) on the basis of pathogenic properties. serologically, a distinction has been made between type i and ii fcovs, the latter of which more closely resemble canine coronavirus (ccv). to gain more insight into the genetic relationships between different fcov biotypes, we determined the nucleotide sequences of the orf7a/7b transcription unit of nine strains. the ...19957571432
development of a nested pcr assay for detection of feline infectious peritonitis virus in clinical specimens.a diagnostic test for feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) infection based on a nested pcr (npcr) assay was developed and tested with fipv, feline enteric coronavirus (fecv), canine coronavirus (ccv), and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) and clinical fluid samples from cats with effusive feline infectious peritonitis (fip). the target sequence for the assay is in the s1 region of the peplomer protein e2 gene. a vaccine strain of fipv and two wild-type fipv strains tested positive ...19979041410
development and evaluation of an elisa to measure antibody responses to both the nucleocapsid and spike proteins of canine coronavirus.a rapid and reproducible enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for detection of canine coronavirus (ccv) specific antibodies directed to both the nucleocapsid (nc) and the spike (s) proteins. the coating antigen, a methanol-treated, s-protein enriched preparation, was produced by subjecting infected cells to triton x-114 detergent followed by phase separation. the sensitivity of this assay was determined by following the course of infection in dogs experimentally infected with ...19989530608
identification of coronaviruses in dogs that segregate separately from the canine coronavirus genotype.the genetic diversity of 16 canine coronavirus (ccov) samples is described. samples were obtained from pups infected naturally living in different areas. sequence data were obtained from the m gene and pol1a and pol1b regions. the phylogenetic relationships among these sequences and sequences published previously were determined. the canine samples segregated in two separate clusters. samples of the first cluster were intermingled with reference strains of ccov genotype and therefore could be as ...200312505636
two genotypes of canine coronavirus simultaneously detected in the fecal samples of dogs with diarrhea.sixty-nine fecal samples from diarrheic puppies were examined by reverse transcription-pcr assays for the m and the s genes of canine coronaviruses (ccovs). the isolates in 10 samples were recognized as ccov type i, and the isolates in 6 samples were recognized as ccov type ii, while isolates of both genotypes were simultaneously detected in 53 samples.200415071054
canine distemper and related diseases: report of a severe outbreak in a kennel.an outbreak of canine distemper in a kennel of german shepherds in the province of bari is reported. six 42-day-old pups developed typical signs of canine distemper (fever, conjunctivitis, respiratory distress and enteritis) and died within 7-10 days. neurological symptoms were observed only in one pup. four additional pups, which had shown no sign of illness, were separated and vaccinated, but two of these developed a severe, fatal nervous form 15 days later. post-mortem examination, carried ou ...200415164629
serological prevalence of canine respiratory coronavirus.canine respiratory coronavirus (crcov) has recently been detected in dogs; it is a group 2 coronavirus showing similarity to bovine coronavirus (bcov) but is distinct from canine enteric coronavirus (cecov). crcov may play an important role in canine infectious respiratory disease (cird) either by predisposing to further and potentially more serious viral and bacterial infections or possibly as a primary pathogen. the prevalence of serum antibodies to crcov, in a population of dogs in the south ...200616551493
canine coronavirus highly pathogenic for dogs.canine coronavirus (ccov) is usually responsible for mild, self-limiting infections restricted to the enteric tract. we report an outbreak of fatal disease in puppies caused by a pathogenic variant of ccov that was isolated from organs with severe lesions.200616704791
exposure of free-ranging maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus) to infectious and parasitic disease agents in the noël kempff mercado national park, bolivia.maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus) are neotropic mammals, listed as a cites appendix ii species, with a distribution south of the amazon forest from bolivia, through northern argentina and paraguay and into eastern brazil and northern uruguay. primary threats to the survival of free-ranging maned wolves include habitat loss, road kills, and shooting by farmers. an additional threat to the conservation of maned wolves is the risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious and parasitic diseas ...200517323558
action of disinfectants on canine coronavirus replication in vitro.canine coronavirus (ccov) is responsible for enteric disease in pups. infected dogs generally have a rapid recovery, so the virus is highly contagious and the spread of infection is difficult to control. chemical disinfectants have been widely used in human disease-control programmes to prevent viral infectious diseases from spreading, but to date, there are no studies in the literature on the sensitivity of ccov to chemical biocides. the present study investigated the sensitivity of ccov to dis ...200718035977
etiologic study of upper respiratory infections of household dogs.infectious tracheobronchitis (itb), also known as the kennel cough, is a respiratory syndrome of dogs and usually appears to be contagious among dogs housed in groups. etiologic agent of itb is multiple and sometimes complex. in the present study, 68 household dogs showing clinical signs of respiratory infection were examined, and 20 dogs (29.4%) were found to be positive for either of following agents. bordetella bronchiseptica (b.b.) was most frequently detected from nasal and oropharynx sites ...200818628596
recombinant canine coronaviruses related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine are circulating in dogs.four canine coronavirus type ii (ccov-ii) strains were identified in the guts and internal organs of pups which had died of acute gastroenteritis. the ccov-ii strains were strictly related to porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) in the n-terminal domain of the spike protein, whereas in the other parts of the genome, a higher genetic relatedness to recent ccov-ii isolates was observed. experimental infection of dogs with a tgev-like isolate induced mild gastroenteritis without any s ...200919036814
development of a quantitative real-time pcr for the detection of canine respiratory coronavirus.canine respiratory coronavirus (crcov) has been detected recently in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease and is involved in the clinical disease complex. crcov is a group 2 coronavirus most closely related to bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus oc43. a real-time pcr assay was developed for the detection of crcov. the assay was validated against cell culture grown virus and shown to have a high level of sensitivity. a range of tissue samples were collected from dogs at a re-homin ...200919013196
gain, preservation, and loss of a group 1a coronavirus accessory glycoprotein.coronaviruses are positive-strand rna viruses of extraordinary genetic complexity and diversity. in addition to a common set of genes for replicase and structural proteins, each coronavirus may carry multiple group-specific genes apparently acquired through relatively recent heterologous recombination events. here we describe an accessory gene, orf3, unique to canine coronavirus type i (ccov-i) and characterize its product, glycoprotein gp3. whereas orf3 is conserved in ccov-i, only remnants rem ...200818667517
the seroprevalence of canine respiratory coronavirus and canine influenza virus in dogs in new zealand.to determine whether canine respiratory coronavirus (crcov) and canine influenza virus (civ) are present in dogs in new zealand.200919802044
molecular characterization of the 9.36 kb c-terminal region of canine coronavirus 1-71 strain.a total of 9.36 kb nucleotides of the c-terminal one-third genome of the canine coronavirus (ccv) 1-71 strain, including all the structural protein genes and some non-structural protein (nsp) genes were cloned and sequenced. nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignment as well as phylogenetic analysis of all the structural orfs with reference coronavirus strains showed that ccv 1-71 was highly related to chinese ccv isolates. this indicates that these ccv stains may have the same ancestor. two l ...200818306032
experimental infection of dogs with a novel strain of canine coronavirus causing systemic disease and lymphopenia.a pantropic canine coronavirus (ccov) strain (cb/05) has been recently associated to a fatal outbreak of systemic disease in young dogs. we report the clinical, virological and serological findings in dogs experimentally infected with strain cb/05. the dogs, three 2.5-month-old and two 6-month-old pups, were successfully infected, shedding viral rna with their faeces for the entire observation period (21 days) and displaying systemic clinical signs resembling those observed during the course of ...200818031959
serological prevalence of canine respiratory coronavirus in southern italy and epidemiological relationship with canine enteric coronavirus.canine respiratory coronavirus (crcov) has been detected in dogs suffering from respiratory disease and is thought to be involved in canine infectious respiratory disease (cird) complex. canine enteric coronavirus (cecov) is a widespread pathogen of dogs, responsible for mild to severe diarrhea in pups. the purpose of this study was to establish the seroprevalence of crcov in italy and its relationship to cecov type ii seroprevalence. the age and year of sample collection from seropositive dogs ...200717402612
development of a combined canine distemper virus specific rt-pcr protocol for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (diva) and genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin gene of seven chinese strains demonstrated in dogs.a combined reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of the canine distemper virus (cdv). a pair of primers (p1/p2) was used to detect both cdv wild-type strains and vaccines. another pair (p3/p4) was used to detect only cdv wild-type strains. a 335bp fragment was amplified from the genomic rna of the vaccine and wild-type strains. a 555bp fragment was amplified specifically from the genomi ...201222108430
molecular characterisation of the virulent canine coronavirus cb/05 strain.this paper characterises a virulent strain (cb/05) of canine coronavirus (ccov) isolated from the internal organs of pups that had died of a systemic disease without evidence of other common canine pathogens. high viral rna titres were detected in the internal organs by a real-time rt-pcr assay specific for ccov type ii. sequence analysis of the 3' end (8.7kb) of the genomic rna of strain cb/05 revealed conserved structural as well as non-structural proteins, with the exception of a truncated fo ...200717275120
first detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in pups with haemorrhagic enteritis in spain.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2), the aetiological agent of haemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, includes three antigenic variants, types 2a, 2b and 2c. cpv-2c has been detected initially in italy and subsequently in vietnam. we report the first identification of this novel antigenic variant in spain, where it caused an outbreak of fatal enteritis in basset hound pups in association with canine coronavirus type i and type ii. we suggest that this new antigenic variant of cpv-2 could spread throughout ...200617123424
mutational analysis of aminopeptidase n, a receptor for several group 1 coronaviruses, identifies key determinants of viral host range.feline coronavirus (fcov), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (tgev), canine coronavirus (ccov), and human coronavirus hcov-229e, which belong to the group 1 coronavirus, use aminopeptidase n (apn) of their natural host and feline apn (fapn) as receptors. using mouse-feline apn chimeras, we identified three small, discontinuous regions, amino acids (aa) 288 to 290, aa 732 to 746 (called r1), and aa 764 to 788 (called r2) in fapn that determined the host ranges of these coronavirus ...200717093189
survey of dogs in japan for group 2 canine coronavirus infection.specimens obtained from 96 dogs with respiratory and enteric clinical signs in japan were retrospectively examined for group 2 coronavirus by reverse transcription-pcr. two dogs were found to be positive. phylogenetic analysis of the spike gene indicated that they were most probably related to the canine respiratory coronavirus recently described in the united kingdom.200616825396
the prevalence of a group 2 coronavirus in dogs in japan.canine coronavirus (ccov) has been reported to cause acute diarrhea mainly in young pups. ccov and feline coronavirus are classified as group 1 coronaviruses. however, it has recently been reported in the united kingdom that the group 2 coronavirus gene, which is more closely related to the bovine coronavirus (bcov) and human coronavirus strain oc43, has been detected in respiratory tract tissue samples from dogs with respiratory disease. in this study, we examined the prevalence of antibodies t ...200616462112
detection of canine coronaviruses genotype i and ii in raised canidae animals in china.an rt-npcr assay was used for testing fecal samples of dogs, foxes, raccoon dogs and minks for the presence of canine coronavirus (ccv). the animals were raised in homes, dog schools or farms. seventy out of 81 healthy dog feces from three cities and 21 out of 48 diarrhea feces from pet dogs were positive for type ii ccv. from a total of 61 healthy fox feces, 43 were positive for type ii and 29 for type i ccv, out of which 25 were simultaneously positive for the two different genotypes. among 24 ...200616450706
an update on aspects of viral gastrointestinal diseases of dogs and cats.viruses commonly cause gastrointestinal illnesses in dogs and cats that range in severity from mild diarrhoea to malignant neoplasia. perpetual evolution of viruses is reflected in changing disease patterns, so that familiar viruses are sometimes discovered to cause new or unexpected diseases. for example, canine parvovirus (cpv) has regained the ability to infect felids and cause a panleucopenia-like illness. feline panleucopenia virus (fpv) has been shown to cause fading in young kittens and h ...200316032339
genotype-specific fluorogenic rt-pcr assays for the detection and quantitation of canine coronavirus type i and type ii rna in faecal samples of dogs.two genotype-specific fluorogenic rt-pcr assays were developed for the detection and quantitation of canine coronavirus (ccov) type i and type ii rna in the faeces of dogs with diarrhoea. both the fluorogenic assays showed high specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility, allowing a precise quantitation of ccov type i and type ii rna over a linear range of about eight orders of magnitude (from 10(1) to 10(8) copies of standard rna). comparison with genotype-specific gel-based rt-pcr assays reve ...200516024100
[two genotypes of canine coronavirus simultaneously detected in the fecal samples of healthy foxes and raccoon dogs].61 fecal samples from healthy foxes and 24 from healthy raccoon dogs were examined by rt-nested pcr assays for the presence and genotypic identification of canine coronaviruses (ccvs). 77.0% fox samples were recognized as ccv positive, 43 of which belonged to type ii and 29 to type i, as well as both genotypes were simultaneously detected in 25 samples. out of the total 24 fecal samples from raccoon dogs, 22 were ccv positive for type ii and 16 for type i. m gene fragments of 8 samples were sequ ...200515989282
cloning and expression of two fragments of the s gene of canine coronavirus type i.two fragments, s66 and s55, of the s glycoprotein of the newly identified canine coronavirus type i (ccov type i), were expressed in a procariotic system. the purified recombinant proteins of 350 and 366 amino acids in length, respectively, were employed to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of ccov type i antibodies in dog sera. four canine sera-positive for ccov type ii, four sera-positive for ccov type i and 10 negative control sera were examined. only the ...200415019260
serologic survey of selected viral agents in recently captured wild north american river otters (lontra canadensis).blood samples were collected from 64 wild north american river otters (lontra [lutra] canadensis) from northern and eastern new york state and analyzed for serologic evidence of exposure to selected viral agents during a 1995 1996 translocation program. no clinical signs of disease nor lesions suggestive of prior viral exposure were seen. titers were detected for antibodies against canine distemper virus, canine herpesvirus-1, and canine parvovirus-2 but not for antibodies against canine adenovi ...200010982127
development of a nested pcr assay for the detection of canine coronavirus.a diagnostic test for canine coronavirus (ccv) infection based on a nested polymerase chain reaction (n-pcr) assay was developed and tested using the following coronavirus strains: ccv (usda strain), ccv (45/93, field strain), feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv, field strain), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev, purdue strain), bovine coronavirus (bcv, 9wbl-77 strain), infectious bronchitis virus (ibv, m-41 strain) and fecal samples of dogs with ccv enteritis. a 230-bp segment of t ...199910403671
feline aminopeptidase n is a receptor for all group i coronaviruses.human coronavirus hcv-229e and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), both members of coronavirus group i, use aminopeptidase n (apn) as their cellular receptors. these viruses show marked species specificity in receptor utilization as they can only use apn of their respective species to initiate virus infection. feline and canine coronaviruses are also group i coronaviruses. to determine whether feline apn could serve as a receptor for feline coronaviruses (fcovs), we cloned the cd ...19989782266
serologic survey of giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca), and domestic dogs and cats in the wolong reserve, china.sera from captive and recently rescued giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca) in the wolong reserve, china, were examined by serum neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition for antibodies to canine distemper virus (cdv), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine herpesvirus (chv), pseudorabies virus (prv), canine adenovirus type 2 (cav), and canine parvovirus (cpv). serum samples from village domestic dogs and cats, which run free throughout the reserve also were examined. antibodies against cpv were ...19948151830
further characterization of aminopeptidase-n as a receptor for coronaviruses.we recently reported that porcine aminopeptidase-n (papn) acts as a receptor for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev). in the present work, we addressed the question of whether tgev tropism is determined only by the virus-receptor interaction. to this end, different non-permissive cell lines were transfected with the porcine apn cdna and tested for their susceptibility to tgev infection. the four transfected cell lines shown to express papn at their membrane became sensitive to infection. ...19937911642
genomic relationship of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus to bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus oc43 as studied by the use of bovine coronavirus s gene-specific probes.the genomic relationship of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (hev) to bovine coronavirus (bcv) and human coronavirus (hcv) strain oc43 was examined by dot blot hybridization assays. two bcv s gene-specific probes were generated by polymerase chain reaction from the avirulent l9-strain of bcv. probes were located in the s1 and the s2 region of the peplomeric (s) glycoprotein gene. the s1 probe (726 bp) hybridized with bcv and hcv-oc43, but not with hev under moderate stringency hy ...19957646353
antigenic relationships among homologous structural polypeptides of porcine, feline, and canine coronaviruses.transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (tgev), feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv), and canine coronavirus were studied with respect to their serological cross-reactivity in homologous and heterologous virus neutralization, immune precipitation of radiolabeled tgev, electroblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using individual virion polypeptides prepared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. tgev was neutralized by feline anti-fipv serum, and the reaction was potentiated ...19826182101
multiplication of canine coronavirus in crfk cells. 19863820910
micro-neutralization test with canine coronavirus for detection of coronavirus antibodies in dogs and cats. 19873039227
parasitology and serology of free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) in north carolina, usa.coyotes (canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern us and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. we examined free-ranging coyotes from central north carolina, us, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. we detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (dirofilaria immiti ...201525984773
characterization of canine coronavirus spread among domestic dogs in vietnam.canine coronavirus (ccov) is an important pathogen that causes enteritis in dogs, but there is no information on ccov infection in vietnam. to examine the prevalence of ccov infection among vietnamese dogs, 201 serum samples were analyzed by virus-neutralization (vn) test. the results showed that antibody against ccov-ii was present in 87 dogs (43.3%). to detect genes of ccov, fecal samples collected from 30 diarrheic and 50 healthy dogs were examinated by rt-pcr, confirming that 2 diarrheic dog ...201727840394
prevalence and risk factors for viral exposure in rural dogs around protected areas of the atlantic forest.despite the crucial role of domestic dogs as reservoirs for zoonosis and some of the most threatening diseases for wild carnivores such as distemper and parvovirosis, little is known about the epidemiological features and the risk factors involved in pathogen exposure of dogs that live in human/wildlife interfaces and actually contacts wildlife. through a cross-sectional serological approach and questionnaire survey, we assessed the prevalence along with individual and environment-associated ris ...201626822375
immunogenicity and protective efficacy in dogs of an mf59™-adjuvanted vaccine against recombinant canine/porcine coronavirus.recently, canine coronavirus (ccov) strains with putative recombinant origin with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) were shown to be widespread in europe. in this study, a killed vaccine against tgev-like ccov strains, included in the new subtype ccov-iib, was developed through inactivation with betapropiolactone and emulsification with mf59™ adjuvant. safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the developed vaccine were evaluated in vivo. five 10-week-old beagle pups were administe ...201121272607
pathogens of wild maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus) in brazil.the maned wolf, chrysocyon brachyurus, is an endangered neotropical canid that survives at low population densities. diseases are a potential threat for its conservation but to date have been poorly studied. we performed clinical evaluations and investigated the presence of infectious diseases through serology and coprologic tests on maned wolves from galheiro natural private reserve, perdizes city, minas gerais state, southeastern brazil. fifteen wolves were captured between 2003 and 2008. we f ...201223060508
prevalence of canine enteric coronavirus in a cross-sectional survey of dogs presenting at veterinary practices.in order to determine the prevalence of canine enteric coronavirus (cecov) in the general dog population, faecal samples were obtained in a cross-sectional study of 249 dogs presenting for any reason at veterinary practices randomly selected from across the uk. demographic and clinical data was obtained for each of the samples, including signalment, number of dogs in the household, reason for visiting the practice, and any recent history of diarrhoea. the samples were tested by rt-pcr for the pr ...201019647379
molecular characterization of a canine respiratory coronavirus strain detected in italy.coronaviruses (covs) are positive-stranded, non-segmented rna viruses generally responsible for the emergence of respiratory and enteric disease in humans, companion animals and livestock. their aptitude to evolve by genetic recombination and/or point mutation is recognized, thus giving rise to new viral genotypes and mutants with different tissues or host tropism. in particular, a probable origin from the strictly related bovine coronavirus (bcov) or, alternatively, from a common ancestor has b ...200919162098
genetic analysis of canine group 2 coronavirus in korean dogs.three out of 109 mixed lung and tracheal tissue extracts originating from korean dogs tested positive for infection with canine respiratory coronavirus (crcov) of coronaviridae group 2. the three crcov-positive samples were found to be competent for viral propagation and isolation, using human rectal tumor cells (hrt-18), and the structure and nonstructure proteins encoded in the 3'-end of the crcov genome were sequenced. the small open reading frames situated between the spike and envelope gene ...201019819086
detection and genetic characterization of canine parvoviruses and coronaviruses in southern ireland.canine parvovirus (cpv) and canine coronavirus (ccov) are considered the main pathogens responsible for acute gastroenteritis in dogs. from a collection of 250 samples, seven cpv strains and three ccov strains were identified in symptomatic irish dogs. samples were screened for the viruses using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and typed via dna sequence analysis. three cpv strains were characterized as cpv-2a, while four others were characterized as cpv-2b. to date, cpv-2c remains unreported in ...201021107617
contact with domestic dogs increases pathogen exposure in endangered african wild dogs (lycaon pictus).infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including african wild dogs (lycaon pictus). mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic) "reservoir" hosts, and spill over into ...201222238695
surveillance for antibodies against six canine viruses in wild raccoons (procyon lotor) in japan.raccoons (procyon lotor) are found worldwide. they are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. we examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. we also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. we found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (cdv), ...201728715293
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