cryopreservation of infective larvae of dipetalonema viteae.infective larvae of dipetalonema viteae produced infections in mongolian jirds (meriones unguiculatus) after storage of infected ticks (ornithodoros tartakovskyi) in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso, 5%) for 7 or 595 days in liquid nitrogen (-196 c). infectivity of these larvae was only partially impaired. microfilaremias of test jirds were generally lower than those of control jirds given nonfrozen larvae; however, the majority of test jirds developed microfilarial counts suitable for u ...19751168704
dipetalonema viteae: resistance in meriones unguiculatus with multiple infections of stage-3 larvae.the jird, meriones unguiculatus, infected with 80 normal infective larvae of dipetalonema viteae, revealed a recovery rate of 27.9% 12 weeks after infection. a pretreatment by three injections of 50 normal larvae each and challenge by 80 larvae resulted in a recovery rate of 10.7%. the recovered worms were longer than those from the challenge control animals. when three times 50 irradiated larvae (35 krad) were inoculated, the recovery rate of the challenge decreased to 2.6%, representing a prot ...19863743715
dipetalonema viteae in the experimentally infected jird, meriones unguiculatus. i. insemination, development from egg to microfilaria, reinsemination, and longevity of mated and unmated worms. 19744856592
dipetalonema viteae in the experimentally infected jird, meriones unguiculatus. ii. microfilaremia in relation to worm burden. 19744856593
identification of immunogenic proteins of dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea) by the "western blotting" technique.sodiumdodecylsulphate (sds)-solubilized proteins of several developmental stages of dipetalonema viteae (adults, uterus content, microfilariae, infective larvae) were subjected to sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred onto nitrocellulose filter sheets. their antigenicity in natural infections of meriones unguiculatus was investigated by immuno-recognition with pooled sera of infected hosts. the antibodies were labelled by radioiodinated protein a and visualized by autoradiograph ...19836349059
acanthocheilonema viteae: rational design of the life cycle to increase production of parasite material using less experimental animals.the maintenance of the life cycle of acanthocheilonema viteae is described with the aim to increase the production of parasite material using less experimental animals. the filaria was maintained in jirds (meriones unguiculatus) and in soft ticks (ornithodoros moubata). the optimal infection dosis for jirds was 80 infective larvae (l3). the mean worm number in groups of animals varied between 18 and 30 adult worms. a stable microfilaremia developed and only few animals developed pathological alt ...19957780447
filariasis testing in a jird model: new drug leads from some old standbys.a total of 65 compounds, most of which were from chemical classes having members known to be active against one or more parasitic organisms, were evaluated against brugia pahangi and acanthocheilonema viteae for macrofilaricidal activity in male mongolian jirds (meriones unguiculatus). sixteen of the 65 compounds tested suppressed the number of parasites. of these 16, three were suppressive for b. pahangi, 10 for a. viteae, and three for both parasites. the antibiotic nigericin and the antihista ...19947810813
turnover of microfilariae in small mammals 2. disintegration of microfilariae (acanthocheilonema viteae) (filarioidea: nematoda) after intravenous injection into the jird, meriones unguiculatus.after i.v. injection of 305 x 10(3) microfilariae (mf) per animal (50 g) into naive jirds, 50.8% of them could be recovered at autopsy 15 min later. of these, 65.8% were calculated to be in the peripheral circulating blood (pcb) and were completely intact; 18.6% were recovered by perfusion of the lungs and 13.6% from the liver. in both organs about half the mf were associated with adherent lymphocytes and neutrophils but a few were partly disintegrated. only 2.6% were recovered from the kidneys ...19948084666
molecular cloning and characterization of the filarial lim domain proteins avl3-1 and ovl3-1.a full-length cdna of the filarial nematode acanthocheilonema viteae was isolated from a cdna library of female worms, using a partial cdna of the ovl3-1 gene of onchocerca volvulus as a probe. the avl3-1 cdna contained an open reading frame which encoded for a protein with a theoretical molecular weight of 64 kda. the deduced protein contained a predicted signal sequence, a short repetitive motive of unknown function, and three lim domains. the structure of the lim domains was identical to thos ...19958543001
acanthocheilonema viteae: vaccination with irradiated l3 induces resistance in three species of rodents (meriones unguiculatus, mastomys coucha, mesocricetus auratus).three species of rodents were immunized with 50 irradiated (35 krad) stage-3 larvae (l3) of the filaria acanthocheilonema viteae and challenged with an infection of normal l3. the immunization induced a significant reduction of the worm burden developing from the challenge infection in all host species, the jird (meriones unguiculatus), the multimammate rat (mastomys coucha) and the golden hamster (mesocricetus auratus). the induced resistance was highest in jirds (92.5 +/- 9.7) followed by gold ...19979018308
characterization of a secreted antigen of onchocerca volvulus with host-protective potential.a cdna designated mov2 was isolated from an onchocerca volvulus library on the basis of its product's recognition by an antiserum raised against the infective stage. immunogold electron microscopy revealed a high density of antigenic sites associated with the annulae of the l3 cuticle and with the uterine wall of the adult female: a general, low density of labelling occurred in all developmental forms. western blotting confirmed the presence of the antigen throughout the life cycle and the exist ...19969223154
protective immunity induced by vaccination with onchocerca volvulus tropomyosin in rodents.a cdna clone of onchocerca volvulus, designated mov14, and encoding 136 amino-acid residues from the c-terminus of o. volvulus tropomyosin, was evaluated as a protective immunogen in two complimentary rodent models of onchocerciasis. vaccination of balb/c mice with the recombinant fusion of mov14 coupled to maltose-binding protein (mbp) induced significant reductions (48-62%) in the recovery of onchocerca lienalis microfilariae from the skin, compared to control groups immunized with mbp alone. ...19969229374
infection of the jird, meriones unguiculatus, with the filarial worm, dipetalonema viteae: central nervous system invasion and pathology. 19744856033
concomitant immunity in a rodent model of filariasis: the infection of meriones unguiculatus with acanthocheilonema an attempt to study the occurrence of concomitant immunity in filarial infections, jirds (meriones unguiculatus) were experimentally infected with acanthocheilonema viteae, and patent animals were superinfected with a defined dose of a. viteae stage 3 larvae (l3). infected animals harbored significantly less worms deriving from the superinfection than the control group (p < 0.05, 56.2%, and 63.4% protection), as shown by analysis of female worms 6 wk after superinfection on the basis of their ...200616629313
a nematode allergen elicits protection against challenge infection under specific conditions.we describe tropomyosin of the filarial nematode acanthocheilonema viteae as an allergen and study its protective potential in the natural rodent host meriones unguiculatus (jird). jirds immunized with recombinant e. coli-expressed a. viteae tropomyosin emulsified in alum were not protected, while immunization with recombinant a. viteae tropomyosin or with protein purified from worms together with the adjuvant stp led to reduction of adult worm burdens by 30%. vaccination with cdna induced prote ...200616504347
trans-species transfer of wolbachia: microinjection of wolbachia from litomosoides sigmodontis into acanthocheilonema viteae.intracellular bacteria of the genus wolbachia are found in most filarial nematodes, but are lacking in some species like acanthocheilonema viteae. due to their symbiotic nature and their role in the pathology of filarial infections they are considered to be potential targets for intervention against filarial infections in man. infection of a. viteae (a species which does not naturally carry wolbachia) with wolbachia bacteria could allow comparative studies on the effect of the endobacterium on t ...200312866789
anticancer agents suppressive for adult parasites of filariasis in mongolian jirds.eight chemical structures not previously reported to possess antifilarial activity have been identified. a total of 79 compounds with anticancer properties were evaluated for possible macrofilaricidal activity against brugia pahangi and acanthocheilonema viteae transplanted into male mongolian jirds (meriones unguiculatus). all eight active compounds were suppressive for the onchocerciasis type (acanthocheilonema viteae) of the disease. none was macrofilaricidal for the lymphatic form (brugia pa ...200010782046
parasitic localization and growth in mongolian gerbil (meriones ungulicutas) infected filarial dipetalonema viteae under different lighting conditions. 19826891006
immunocytochemical studies on several developmental stages of dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea).the binding of antibodies to infective larvae (l3), eggs, uterine contents and blood microfilariae was demonstrated by light microscopy employing the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) method. antigen-antibody reactions were located on the shell of filarial eggs as well as on the cuticle and the interior of l3 and microfilariae. using sera from meriones unguiculatus, mastomys natalensis and golden hamsters infected with d. viteae obtained at 7, 14, 21 and 28 weeks p.i. it was observed that the inte ...19836685362
transplanted dipetalonema viteae in the jird: effect of worm burden on parturition rates and microfilaremia.dipetalonema viteae was studied in the jird, meriones unguiculatus, to determine the mechanism controlling the level of peripheral microfilaremia. jirds killed 40 days after infection served as donors of female worms of known age and reproductive status. these worms were transplanted into uninfected jirds and the resultant microfilaremias were monitored. after approximately 100 days, the recipient jirds were killed and 58% of the transplanted worms were recovered alive but depleted of sperm and ...19854093807
[potential filaricides. suramin analogs].a series of suramin analogues has been synthesized in which the methyl groups of suramin have been replaced by hydrogen, alkyl, phenyl, and fluoro substituents, or which contain more than two methyl groups. the substances have been screened against dipetalonema viteae in meriones unguiculatus, litomosoides carinii in sigmodon hispidus and l. carinii in mastomys natalensis, respectively. small structural modifications have a marked influence on the antifilarial activity. there are marked differen ...19863778551
dipetalonema viteae infection in three species of rodents: species specific patterns of the antibody response.groups of jirds (meriones unguiculatus), multimammate rats (mastomys natalensis) and golden hamsters (mesocricetus auratus) were infected with third stage larvae (l3) of dipetaloneam viteae and the course of infection was followed until 20 weeks post infection. worm growth was best and microfilaraemia was high and long lasting in jirds and in multimammate rats, whereas golden hamsters were poor hosts as measured by these parameters. the igg and igm antibody responses of the species were compared ...19873550602
characterization of a monoclonal antibody against infective larvae of brugia malayi.monoclonal antibodies were produced following immunization of mice with live infective larvae of brugia malayi. one of these, 46.08.76, is an antibody that promotes adherence of mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood leucocytes to the infective larvae of b. malayi and wuchereria bancrofti, respectively, and kills them. fresh normal serum, as a source of complement, augments this effect. the same monoclonal antibody conferred 89% protection to jirds (meriones unguiculatus) agains ...19883384450
active release of surface proteins: a mechanism associated with the immune escape of acanthocheilonema viteae acanthocheilonema viteae microfilariae obtained from peripheral blood of parasitised meriones unguiculatus were surface-labelled with 125i. four major surface exposed proteins of approximately 14.50, 14.55, 17.5, 19 kda and one less abundant protein of 40 kda were identified. under non-reducing conditions the low-molecular-weight (lmw) proteins were isolated as multimers suggesting the presence of intermolecular disulphide linkages. in gels containing triton x-100 the labelled epicuticula ...19902090942
acanthocheilonema viteae: vaccination of jirds with irradiation-attenuated stage-3 larvae and with exported larval antigens.jirds (meriones unguiculatus) were immunized with irradiated (35 krad) stage-3 larvae (l3) of acanthocheilonema viteae. the induced resistance against homologous challenge infection and the antibody response of the animals were studied. immunization with 3, 2, or 1 dose of 50 irradiated l3 induced approximately 90% resistance. immunization with a single dose of only 5 irradiated l3 resulted in 60.8% protection while immunization with a single dose of 25 l3 induced 94.1% protection. the protectio ...19911889473
dipetalonema viteae: effects of hypo- and hyperthermic stress on microfilaremia in the mongolian jird, meriones unguiculatus. 1976985754
evidence for immunodepression of syrian hamsters and mongolian jirds by dipetalonema viteae infections. 1976557249
cryopreservation of third-stage larvae of brugia malayi and dipetalonema viteae.methods are described for the cryopreservation of third-stage larvae of brugia malayi. optimum conditions utilized larvae free from the mosquito host frozen at the rate of -1 degree or -0.8 degrees c per min in medium containing 9% dimethyl sulfoxide and 0.004 m polyvinylpyrrolidone. nonfrozen or thawed larvae were inoculated intraperitoneally into jirds (meriones unguiculatus), the thawed larvae after cryogenic storage for 5-378 days. in general, the percentage of adult worms recovered at necro ...19836683940
fecundity and localization of dipetalonema viteae (nematoda, filarioidea) in the jird meriones quantitatively infected meriones unguiculatus autopsied during prepatency, the embryonic development of fertilized eggs in the uteri of female dipetalonema viteae commenced 29-32 days p.i., and approximately 20 days later the first microfilariae were released. in host animals examined at the onset of patency 45-59 days p.i. the average adult recovery rate was 31%. the worms were localized in the subcutaneous tissue (65.3%), fasciae of muscles (26.9%) and body cavities (7.8%). female worms fro ...19873438295
changes in the surface composition after transmission of acanthocheilonema viteae third stage larvae into the jird.this study describes the dynamics and the biochemical nature of changes in the surface of the filarial nematode acanthocheilonema viteae after its transmission into the vertebrate host. vector-derived third-stage larvae (ml3) were inoculated into naive meriones unguiculatus and recovered from the tissues at different times post-infection until their moult to fourth-stage larvae (l4). surface-specific labelling with fluoresceinated lectins revealed that the larvae are covered by a carbohydrate en ...19921625708
protective immunity induced by irradiated third-stage larvae of the filaria acanthocheilonema viteae is directed against challenge third-stage larvae before molting.jirds (meriones unguiculatus) were vaccinated with irradiated l3 third-stage larvae (l3) of acanthocheilonema viteae, and the time required for killing of the challenge l3 was determined. the number of parasites recovered from vaccinated jirds was reduced to about 10% of the control values on the second day after challenge infection and later on. histological studies revealed an eosinophil-rich infiltrate containing macrophages, neutrophils, and mast cells in the vicinity of the l3 on day 2 afte ...200212053996
immunocytochemical and ultrastructural studies on dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea).the antigenic properties of adult male and female of dipetalonema viteae were studied by immunocytochemistry. using antisera of the rodents meriones unguiculatus and mastomys natalensis infected with d. viteae, the binding of antibodies to sections of filariae embedded in epon was assayed by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) technique and by electron microscopy. the optimal staining intensity was obtained with an antiserum dilution of 1:5000. control sera were obtained from sex and age matched ...19836348150
recovery, distribution, and development of acanthocheilonema viteae third- and early fourth-stage larvae in adult third- and fourth-stage larvae (l3 and l4) of acanthocheilonema viteae were recovered quantitatively from adult meriones unguiculatus within the first 10 days after subcutaneous inoculation of 60 arthropod-derived larvae (ml3). the average recovery of the inoculated larvae was about one third (28.5%), and the majority (87.7%) were found in muscular tissues. seventy-two hours after inoculation, larvae could be isolated from all body locations, although the majority still was found near the ...19911865266
polyamines: agents with macrofilaricidal activity.there is a need for effective macrofilaricidal drugs. the polyamine metabolism of filarial worms has been recognized as a possible target for effective drug action. in an attempt to identify agents that might provide leads in developing an effective macrofilaricide, 78 polyamine compounds were selected from among > 250,000 structures that have been amassed by the walter reed army institute of research, in the u.s.a. these thousands of agents have been chosen principally for drug-development prog ...199910715679
up-regulation of extracellular copper/zinc superoxide dismutase mrna after transmission of the filarial parasite acanthocheilonema viteae in the vertebrate host meriones unguiculatus.the gene encoding the cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (avsod1) from the filarial parasite acanthocheilonema viteae was isolated from a genomic dna library using a degenerate oligonucleotide probe. additionally, cdnas of the avsod1 and the secreted extracellular sod (avsod2) were both cloned by rt-pcr, and the avsod2 was expressed at high levels in e. coli. the amino acid sequence of the avsod1 is 89.5 and 87.5% identical to that of the corresponding enzymes of brugia pahangi and onc ...199910579430
protective immunity linked with a distinct developmental stage of a filarial parasite.repeated low dose infections of the jird meriones unguiculatus, with the filarial parasite acanthocheilonema viteae cause a substantial reduction of the total worm burden, suggesting a parasite-driven immune mechanism that controls super-infections. quantitative recovery of parasites from tissues of triple infected jirds reveals that the larvae derived from a subsequent challenge infection are inactivated or severely impaired several days after transmission, precisely during their molt from the ...19948283048
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