effect of bilirubin on the fungicidal capacity of human neutrophils.the effect of unconjugated bilirubin on the fungicidal capacity of human neutrophils was examined. per cent torulopsis glabrata killed in the presence of 1 x 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-5) m bilirubin was 72.7 +/- 2.5 and 40.9 +/- 7.2 respectively, compared to 81.4 +/- 4.1 in control (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001), respectively). this effect was not due to a concomitant inhibition of phagocytosis. the results suggest that jaundiced neonates may be more susceptible to fungal infections.1979575578
reactivity of cryptococcus neoformans & candida species with concanavalin a & blood grouping sera.forty strains of cryptococcus neoformans, 30 of candida albicans, 24 of c. parapsilosis and 10 strains each of c. tropicalis and c. (torulopsis) glabrata were examined. a 0.2 per cent solution of concanavalin a (con a) in phosphate buffered saline and commercial anti-a and anti-b blood grouping sera were used in the whole cell slide agglutination test. all the isolates of candida species strongly reacted with con a and over 90 per cent were agglutinated by anti-a and -b blood grouping sera. in c ...19902269512
in-vitro effects of cilofungin (ly121019), amphotericin b and amphotericin b-deoxycholate on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes.the in-vitro influence of cilofungin (ly121019) and amphotericin b on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (pmns) was studied by a multifunctional approach. cilofungin at high concentration (greater than or equal to 20 mg/l) increased adherence to plastic and ingestion of staphylococcus aureus by pmns in suspension and candida albicans by adherent pmns, and slightly decreased mtt reduction and superoxide generation. amphotericin b and amphotericin b-deoxycholate decreased adherence to plastic (ic5 ...19892557318
diffuse intestinal ulceration after marrow transplantation: a clinicopathologic study of 13 patients.the cases of 13 allogeneic marrow transplant recipients who had undergone laparotomy for manifestations of severe enteritis were reviewed to determine the causes of the severe intestinal disease and to assess the relation between clinical, histologic, and microbiologic findings. laparotomies were performed a median of 63 days (range, 11 to 273 days) after transplantation for suspected peritonitis, intestinal obstruction, or bleeding. intestinal tissue was available from small bowel resections in ...19863011641
hepatic abscesses and fungemia from torulopsis glabrata. successful treatment with percutaneous drainage and amphotericin b.a 39-year-old man with severe diabetes mellitus, chronic pancreatic insufficiency, intrapancreatic choledochal stricture, and secondary biliary cirrhosis developed postsurgical fungemia and large hepatic abscesses due to torulopsis glabrata. these were treated successfully with a combination of amphotericin b and percutaneous drainage of the liver abscesses. we believe this is the first reported case of such infection due to this normally saprophytic agent.19873443738
detection of fungemia obscured by concomitant bacteremia: in vitro and in vivo studies.our recent clinical experience suggested that bacteremia may interfere with the detection of concomitant fungemia when standard blood culture methods are used. to determine the extent to which bacteria may interfere with fungal isolation from blood cultures, an in vitro model simulating blood cultures taken during concomitant fungemia and bacteremia was created. each of six bacteria (staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumonia ...19826186687
comparative ocular pathogenicity of cryptococcus neoformans, candida glabrata, and aspergillus fumigatus in the a previous study, 88% of rabbits with disseminated infection caused by candida albicans developed ophthalmoscopically visible, hematogenous endophthalmitis (chorioretinitis) over a 2 week period. to determine the incidence of this ocular complication in disseminated infection caused by cryptococcus neoformans, candida glabrata, and aspergillus fumigatus compared with that caused by c. albicans, the first three species of fungi were injected intravenously (between 10(5) and 10(9) organisms per ...19827037676
the in vitro proteolytic and saccharolytic activity of candida species cultured in human saliva.the proteolytic and saccharolytic activity of 4 candida species was investigated in batch cultures of pooled, human mixed saliva supplemented with glucose. all the candida species investigated (candida albicans, candida tropicalis, candida glabrata and candida krusei) demonstrated a marked growth in saliva with a concomitant reduction in ph from about 7.5 to 3.3, within 72 h. isotachophoretic analysis of the culture supernatant revealed the presence of a variety of acid anions of which pyruvate ...19947478763
torulopsis glabrata study the sociodemographic risk factors and clinical features of torulopsis glabrata vaginal infection.19957770272
differences in oxidant release by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes produced by stimulation with different phases of coccidioides immitis.human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmnl) inhibit growth of arthroconidia and young spherules but not mature spherules of coccidioides immitis. to evaluate these differences, oxidants were measured when pmnl were exposed to c. immitis or other particulate stimuli. concentrations of arthroconidia, young spherules, mature spherules, and candida glabrata were adjusted to result in equivalent superoxide release. hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid were stimulated by arthroconidia or young spheru ...19957797911
torulopsis glabrata: azole susceptibilities by microdilution colorimetric and macrodilution broth assays.fluconazole and itraconazole mics were determined by both the standard macrodilution method of the national committee for clinical laboratory standards and a colorimetric broth microdilution method for 140 isolates of torulopsis (candida) glabrata obtained over a 15-year period. using the method of the national committee for clinical laboratory standards the mics at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (mic50) for all isolates were 32 and 1.6 micrograms/ml for fluconazole and itraconazole, respec ...19958567892
new and emerging yeast pathogens.the most common yeast species that act as agents of human disease are candida albicans, candida tropicalis, candida glabrata, candida parapsilosis, and cryptococcus neoformans. the incidence of infections by other yeasts has increased during the past decade. the most evident emerging pathogens are malassezia furfur, trichosporon beigelii, rhodotorula species, hansenula anomala, candida lusitaniae, and candida krusei. organisms once considered environmental contaminants or only industrially impor ...19958665465
experimental evidences for a role of subinhibitory concentrations of rilopirox, nystatin and fluconazole on adherence of candida spp. to vaginal epithelial cells.candidiasis is frequently localized in the mucosal epithelium which covers the vaginal and oral cavity. the pathogenicity of candida is correlated with its ability to adhere to epithelial cells and this is the resultant of both fungal and host cell properties and their physicochemical interactions. this study was performed to investigate the ability of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-mics) of rilopirox, a new antimycotic drug, to interfere with the adhesion of candida albicans, candida tropica ...19968804793
immune compromise and prevalence of candida vulvovaginitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected investigate the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection on vaginal yeast colonization and symptomatic vulvovaginitis and to explore the effects of immune compromise on these conditions in hiv-positive women.19979241304
synthetic histatin analogues with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity.histatins are salivary histidine-rich cationic peptides, ranging from 7 to 38 amino acid residues in length, that exert a potent killing effect in vitro on candida albicans. starting from the c-terminal fungicidal domain of histatin 5 (residues 11-24, called dh-5) a number of substitution analogues were chemically synthesized to study the effect of amphipathicity of the peptide in helix conformation on candidacidal activity. single substitutions in dh-5 at several positions did not have any effe ...19979337848
utility of fungal blood cultures for patients with aids.this study was designed to define the clinical utility of fungal blood cultures for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals. a retrospective chart review was performed for all patients admitted to an inpatient aids unit who had evidence of an invasive fungal infection. during a 25-month period, 1,162 fungal blood cultures were performed for 322 patients. these cultures, along with bacterial blood cultures, resulted in the isolation of fungi from 26 patients; 15 of these isolates ...19979431376
fulminant hepatitis complicated by small intestine infection and massive hemorrhage.a 34-year-old man diagnosed with fulminant hepatitis, caused by hepatitis b virus, and acute renal failure was referred to our hospital. after admission to the intensive care unit, the liver and renal failure were ameliorated. melena requiring transfusion occurred during the course of his illness. endoscopic examination demonstrated pseudomembranes, erosions, ulcers, and hemorrhage in the duodenum, the upper jejunum, and the terminal ileum, suggesting widespread lesions throughout the small inte ...19989658323
in vitro activity of rilopirox against fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant candida isolates from patients with hiv infection.the in vitro antifungal activity of the new hydroxypyridone antimycotic rilopirox has been evaluated against 38 fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant clinical isolates of candida albicans together with other candida species isolated from patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection and oropharyngeal candidosis. minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of both rilopirox and fluconazole were measured by a microdilution method using high-resolution medium supplemented with asparagine ...199910394849
in vitro assessment of antifungal therapeutic potential of salivary histatin-5, two variants of histatin-5, and salivary mucin (muc7) domain 1.human salivary histatin-5 (hsn-5) is a 24-residue peptide that possesses potent antifungal activity in vitro. the muc7 gene encodes human salivary low-molecular-weight mucin (mg2). the candidacidal activity of muc7 domain 1 (muc7 d1, the n-terminal 51 amino acid residues of muc7) in vitro has also been demonstrated. in this study, we have investigated the antifungal therapeutic potential of hsn-5, its two variants, r12i/k17n and r12i/h21l, and muc7 d1. first, these peptides were tested for activ ...200010817697
in vitro activities of terbinafine in combination with fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole against clinical isolates of candida glabrata with decreased susceptibility to azoles.a checkerboard microdilution method, performed according to the recommendations of the national committee for clinical laboratory standards, was used to study the in vitro interaction of terbinafine (trb) with fluconazole (flu), itraconazole (itra), voriconazole (vrc), and posaconazole (psz) in 24 isolates of candida glabrata with decreased susceptibility to azoles isolated from the oral cavities of human immunodeficiency virus patients. synergy, defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration ...200211980970
cancer prevention and therapy with kiwifruit in chinese folklore medicine: a study of kiwifruit gold fruits were extracted successively with hexane, acetone, methanol and 70% methanol, and further fractionated by silica gel and ods column chromatographies for the assays of various biological activities. five fractions h1, h2 (hexane extract), al, a2 (acetone extract) and m2 (methanol extract) showed selective cytotoxic activity against human oral tumor cell lines, which was more sensitive than human gingival fibroblasts. more hydrophilic fractions [70m3, 70m4, 70m5] of 70% methanol ex ...200212127237
single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) in human beta-defensin 1: high-throughput snp assays and association with candida carriage in type i diabetics and nondiabetic controls.beta-defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides expressed in epithelia. they exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. defensins are a component of the innate immune response, and it has been proposed that they have a protective role in the oral cavity. previous studies have shown that human beta-defensin 1 (hbd-1) is constitutively expressed in oral epithelial cells but that expression varies between individuals. we tested the hypothesis that genetic variations in defensin ...200312517831
multiple patterns of resistance to fluconazole in candida glabrata isolates from a patient with oropharyngeal candidiasis receiving head and neck radiation.candida glabrata has emerged in recent years as a significant cause of systemic fungal infection. we have previously reported on the first three patients receiving radiation for head and neck cancer to develop oropharyngeal candidiasis due to c. glabrata. the goal of this study was to track the development of increased fluconazole resistance in c. glabrata isolates and to evaluate previously described genetic mechanisms associated with this resistance from one of these three patients. the patien ...200312574256
torulopsis glabrata infection in man. 196514270963
in vitro antimycotic activity of some plant extracts towards yeast and yeast-like part of screening aimed at the selection of novel antimycotic compounds of vegetable origin, leaf extracts of camellia sinensis l., cupressus sempervirens l. and pistacia lentiscus l. and the seed extract of glycine soja sieb. et zucc. were tested against yeast and yeast-like species implicated in human mycoses. of the extracts only those of c. sinensis (obtained from a commercial preparation of green tea) exhibited broad activity towards candida glabrata, clavispora lusitatiae, cryptococcus ...200515798996
sterol uptake in candida glabrata: rescue of sterol auxotrophic strains.candida glabrata is emerging as a more common and important human pathogen. it is less susceptible to azole antifungals than candida albicans, thus, posing some unique treatment challenges. previously undetected c. glabrata isolates were identified from clinical specimens by adding bile to the growth medium. cholesterol was found to be the responsible ingredient in bile. six bile-dependent isolates were characterized and were found to exhibit wild-type equivalent growth when provided human or bo ...200515893902
malassezia and candida colonisation on glans penis of circumcised men.the malassezia yeast are members of the normal human cutaneous flora in adults. they also are reported as part of the microflora of the male genital region in mostly uncircumcised males. it has been reported that malassezia sympodialis and malassezia globosa are the most frequent yeast belonging to the resident microflora of the penis as in other human skin areas. the aim was to evaluate the prevalence of malassezia and candida yeast colonisation on the glans penis of circumcised males. impressi ...200516115108
candida glabrata prosthetic valve endocarditis treated successfully with fluconazole plus caspofungin without surgery: a case report and literature review.reported here is the case of a 72-year-old man who was diagnosed with candida glabrata prosthetic mitral valve endocarditis and treated successfully with fluconazole plus caspofungin after he refused and was determined unfit for surgery. initial treatment with intravenous amphotericin b resulted in acute renal impairment. despite 8 days of intravenous fluconazole therapy, he remained fungemic. caspofungin was added to the treatment regimen with subsequent sterilisation of blood culture. the pati ...200516283214
[a man with candida pyopneumopericarditis and cardiac tamponade in conjunction with gastric tube infection].a 55-year-old man who had undergone oesophagectomy with retrosternal gastric tube reconstruction for oesophageal carcinoma several years before, presented with retrosternal pain, fever and chills. he appeared to have candida glabratarelated pyopneumopericarditis and a fungal infection in the gastric tube. because of cardiac tamponade, the pericardium was surgically drained. the patient was given antibiotics and fluconazole. he left the hospital after one month in relatively good condition. two m ...200516304890
late-onset donor-to-host transmission of candida glabrata following corneal demonstrate the potential value of obtaining routine fungal cultures of donor rims at the time of corneal transplantation and instituting prophylactic therapy in culture-positive cases, even in the absence of clinical evidence of established microbial keratitis or endophthalmitis.200616331055
roles of cellular respiration, cgcdr1, and cgcdr2 in candida glabrata resistance to histatin 5.histatin 5, a human salivary protein with broad-spectrum antifungal activity, is remarkably ineffective against candida glabrata. fluconazole resistance in this fungus is due in most cases to upregulation of cgcdr efflux pumps. we investigated whether the distinct resistance of c. glabrata to histatin 5 is related to similar mechanisms.200616495279
infectious complications following 72 consecutive enteric-drained pancreas immunosuppressive protocols and advanced surgical technique resulted in an improved outcome of pancreatic transplantation (ptx) with infection remaining the most common complication. seventy-two enteric-drained whole ptxs performed at the innsbruck university hospital between september 2002 and october 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. prophylactic immunosuppression consisted of either the standard protocol consisting of single bolus antithymocyteglobulin (atg) (thymoglobulin, sangstat or ...200616764633
atropurosides a-g, new steroidal saponins from smilacina atropurpurea.atropurosides a-g (1-7), seven new steroidal saponins, which possess new polyhydroxylated aglycones, were isolated from the rhizomes of smilacina atropurpurea (convallariaceae), together with a known saponin, dioscin (8). their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1d and 2d nmr techniques and chemical methods. antifungal testing of the eight compounds indicated that atropurosides b (2) and f (6) were fungicidal against candida albicans, candida gl ...200616766007
antifungal effect of voriconazole on intracellular candida glabrata, candida krusei and candida parapsilosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages.infections caused by candida species other than candida albicans are increasingly common, and decreased susceptibility to azoles has made them more difficult to treat. since phagocytic killing is important in elimination of candida infections, intracellular killing of fluconazole-resistant candida glabrata, candida krusei and candida parapsilosis (four strains each) by voriconazole was investigated in human monocyte-derived macrophages (mdms). mdms were infected with candida, and voriconazole wa ...200616772413
[pathogenic fungi with increasing proliferation].this paper compared occurrence and intenseness of growth c. glabrata, s. capsularis and t. beigelii isolated from sputum, material's bronchoscopic, oral cavity, skin and catheters during 10 years observation (1991 - 2000). all investigated fungi from 1997 years have been characteristic very distinct rise expansiveness appeared in more intenseness of growth and growing rate of replace new ontocenoses. most likely is this consequence successive of decrease immunity of man organism about infections ...200116886398
five-hour diagnosis of dermatophyte nail infections with specific detection of trichophyton rubrum.a rapid two-step dna extraction method and a multiplex pcr for the detection of dermatophytes in general and trichophyton rubrum specifically were developed and evaluated with dna extracted from pure cultures and from clinically diseased nails. dna from the following dermatophytes was used: epidermophyton floccosum, microsporum audouinii, microsporum canis, microsporum gypseum, microsporum nanum, trichophyton mentagrophytes, trichophyton rubrum, trichophyton schoenleinii, trichophyton soudanense ...200717267633
pneumonia caused by candida krusei and candida glabrata in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia receiving imatinib mesylate this report we describe a patient suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia (cml), who was treated for 4.5 years with imatinib and developed pneumonia caused by two candida species, i.e., c. krusei and c. glabrata. the patient was in complete hematologic remission and molecular analyses did not display the presence of tlr2-r752q, tlr4-d299g and tlr4-t399i polymorphisms that may predispose individuals to fungal infections. this case report indicates that in some patients, as previously observed, ...200817885950
epidemiological investigation and typing of candida glabrata clinical isolates by ftir spectroscopy.candida glabrata has emerged as one of the leading agents of fungal infections and strain typing is essential for epidemiological investigation that is generally achieved by molecular techniques. in this work, we studied twenty-nine c. glabrata strains isolated from different patients, using a phenotypic approach based on fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectroscopy, which has been in a previous study successfully applied as a rapid typing method for candida albicans. a two-step procedure was ...200718022718
a nuclear receptor-like pathway regulating multidrug resistance in fungi.multidrug resistance (mdr) is a serious complication during treatment of opportunistic fungal infections that frequently afflict immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. improved knowledge of the molecular pathways controlling mdr in pathogenic fungi should facilitate the development of novel therapies to combat these intransigent infections. mdr is often caused by upregulation of drug efflux pumps by members of the funga ...200818385733
activities and ultrastructural effects of antifungal combinations against simulated candida endocardial vitro pharmacodynamic model (pdm) simulation of serum antifungal concentrations may predict the value of combination antifungal regimens against candida sp. endocarditis. we investigated the effects of combinations of flucytosine (5fc), micafungin (mica), and voriconazole (vor) against candida-infected human platelet-fibrin clots, used as simulated endocardial vegetations (sevs). single clinical bloodstream isolates of candida albicans, candida glabrata, candida parapsilosis, and candida trop ...200818426896
an investigation on the anticandidal activity of some traditional medicinal plants in turkey.methanol and chloroform extracts obtained from eight plant species belonging to six families, which were selected depending on their use in turkish folk medicine, including mentha longifolia l. (labiatae), mentha piperita l. hudson (labiatae), prongos ferulaceae (umbelliferae), galium verum l. (rubiaceae), salvia limbata c. a meyer (labiatae), artemisia austriaca jacq. (artemiceae), plantago lanceolata l. (plantaginaceae) and urtica dioica l. (urticaceae) were evaluated for their in vitro antica ...200918522697
high incidence of antifungal drug resistance in candida tropicalis.drug resistance among yeasts is an increasing problem. isolates of candida krusei and candida glabrata are recognized as having reduced susceptibility to fluconazole and resistance to this drug has also arisen in candida albicans isolated from aids patients on long term azole therapy. candida tropicalis (ct) is being increasingly isolated from human disease and is associated with invasive infection, however, data regarding this organism's drug susceptibility is limited. we report our findings on ...199618611762
[at the limits of the host--the cell wall of human pathogenic yeasts]. 200818782241
synthesis and biological activities of new hydrazide derivatives.the synthesis of a new series of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid arylidene-hydrazides is described. the chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by ir, (1)h-nmr, fab(+)-ms spectral data. their biological activity against various bacteria, fungi species, and mycobacterium tuberculosis was investigated. antibacterial activity was measured against escherichia coli (nrrl b-3704), staphylococcus aureus (nrrl b-767), salmonella typhimurium (nrrl b-4420), proteus vulgaris (nrll b-1 ...200918825530
treatment of a critically ill child with disseminated candida glabrata with a recombinant human antibody specific for fungal heat shock protein 90 and liposomal amphotericin b, caspofungin, and report a case of fungal sepsis treated prospectively with liposomal amphotericin, caspofungin, and a novel monoclonal antibody specific for candidal heat shock protein 90 (mycograb, neutec pharma, manchester, uk).200818843247
one-pot synthesis of 5-phenylimino, 5-thieno or 5-oxo-1,2,3-dithiazoles and evaluation of their antimicrobial and antitumor activity.we here report the synthesis and biological evaluation of rare 4-substituted-5-phenylimino, 5-thieno- and 5-oxo-1,2,3-dithiazoles. dithiazoles were selectively obtained in moderate to high yields (25-73%) via a one-pot reaction from various ethanoneoximes with sulfur monochloride, pyridine in acetonitrile followed by treatment by corresponding nucleophiles (aniline, thioacetamide and formic acid). all the synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial (against bacteria escherichia c ...200919036587
genomic polymorphism in the population of candida glabrata: gene copy-number variation and chromosomal translocations.the genomic sequence of the type strain of the opportunist human pathogen candida glabrata (cbs138, atcc 2001) is available since 2004. this allows the analysis of genomic structure of other strains by comparative genomic hybridization. we present here the molecular analysis of a collection of 183 c. glabrata strains isolated from patients hospitalized in france and around the world. we show that the mechanisms of microevolution within this asexual species include rare reciprocal chromosomal tra ...200919084610
[two cases of advanced gastric cancer with postoperative severe complications after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy].we report two cases of advanced gastric cancer with severe postoperative complications after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (nac). the first case is a 60-year-old man who was diagnosed as a type 2 advanced gastric cancer with paraaortic lymph node metastases and the elevation of serum ca19-9 level. nac was started, but no reductions were noted after 3 courses. palliative total gastrectomy with distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, cholecystectomy, and partial hepatectomy for t4 gastric cancer exhibitin ...200819106528
mutations in the cgpdr1 and cgerg11 genes in azole-resistant candida glabrata clinical isolates from slovakia.candida glabrata is an important human pathogen that is naturally less susceptible to antimycotics compared with candida albicans. ten unmatched c. glabrata clinical isolates were selected from a collection of isolates exhibiting decreased susceptibilities to azole antifungals. overexpression of the cgpdr1 gene, encoding the main multidrug resistance transcription factor, and its target genes cgcdr1 and cgcdr2, coding for drug efflux transporters, was observed in six fluconazole-resistant isolat ...200919196495
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling and in vitro simulation of dynamic voriconazole-candida interactions.using dynamic time-kill experiments with changing voriconazole concentrations, it was demonstrated that candida albicans atcc 90029 as well as candida glabrata and candida parapsilosis clinical isolates (two each) were significantly inhibited by starting concentrations of 4x and 16x the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) but not 1x mic. time-kill data were accurately fitted using a sigmoidal e(max) model. pharmacokinetic (pk) parameters from human data sets were used in the model to simulate ...200919339162
expression of candida glabrata adhesins after exposure to chemical preservatives.adherence of candida glabrata, an opportunistic yeast pathogen, to host cells is mediated in part by the epa family of adhesins, which are encoded largely at subtelomeric loci, where they are subject to transcriptional silencing. in analyzing the regulation of the subtelomeric epa6 gene, we found that its transcription is highly induced after exposure to methylparaben, propylparaben, or sorbate. these weak acid-related chemicals are widely used as antifungal preservatives in many consumer goods, ...200919426114
laminin-511 and fibronectin degradation with candida yeast.the invasion mechanism of candida yeast is still partly unknown. in this study, we tested the ability of different commensal candida yeast to degrade two basement membrane and extracellular matrix proteins: laminin-511 (lm-511) and plasma fibronectin.200919486268
architectural analysis, viability assessment and growth kinetics of candida albicans and candida glabrata biofilms.the human fungal pathogen candida is able to form biofilms in almost all the medical devices in current use. indeed, biofilm formation is a major virulence attribute of microorganisms and account for a majority of human infections. therefore, understanding processes appertaining to biofilm development is an important prerequisite for devising new strategies to prevent or eradicate biofilm-related infections. in the present study we used an array of both conventional and novel analytical tools to ...200919712926
a real-time pcr assay for the differentiation of candida species.we established a real-time pcr assay for the detection and strain identification of candida species and demonstrated the ability to differentiate between candida albicans the most common species, and also candida parapsilosis, candida glabrata, candida tropicalis and candida dubliniensis by lightcycler pcr and melting curve analysis.201020456528
from saccharomyces cerevisiae to candida glabratain a few easy steps: important adaptations for an opportunistic pathogen.the opportunistic human fungal pathogen candida glabrata is closely related to saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet it has evolved to survive within mammalian hosts. which traits help c. glabrata to adapt to this different environment? which specific responses are crucial for its survival in the host? the main differences seem to include an extended repertoire of adhesin genes, high drug resistance, an enhanced ability to sustain prolonged starvation and adaptations of the transcriptional wiring of key ...201120846362
isolation of culturable microorganisms from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) from the southeastern united states.reports of diseases in marine mammals are increasing worldwide, however our understanding of the microorganisms associated with marine mammals is still limited. in this study, we cultured bacteria and fungi isolated from the upper respiratory tract (blowhole), gastric fluid and anus of 180 wild bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) from two estuarine locations along the southeastern atlantic coast of the united states. a total of 339 and 491 isolates from charleston, sc (chs) and indian river ...201020888150
glutathione biosynthesis in the yeast pathogens candida glabrata and candida albicans: essential in c. glabrata, and essential for virulence in c. albicans.redox pathways play a key role in pathogenesis. glutathione, a central molecule in redox homeostasis in yeasts, is an essential metabolite, but its requirements can be met either from endogenous biosynthesis or from the extracellular milieu. in this report we have examined the importance of glutathione biosynthesis in two major human opportunistic fungal pathogens, candida albicans and candida glabrata. as the genome sequence of c. glabrata had suggested the absence of glutathione transporters, ...201020966090
characterization of candida species from different populations in taiwan.the opportunistic candida species existing as part of commensal microbiota in humans are usually the etiological agents causing infections. we investigated whether isolates collected from different age groups, hospital units, and sources have distinct characteristics. a total of 913 isolates comprising 395 candida albicans, 230 candida tropicalis, 202 candida glabrata, 62 candida parapsilosis, 13 candida krusei, and 11 of other six species were analyzed. urine was the most common source (41.2%), ...201121369746
fungalrv: adhesin prediction and immunoinformatics portal for human fungal pathogens.abstract:201121496229
in vivo activity of sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal candida species.abstract:201121542936
candida glabrata pwp7p and aed1p are required for adherence to human endothelial cells.candida glabrata owes its success as a pathogen, in part, to a large repertoire of adhesins present on the cell surface. our current knowledge of c. glabrata adhesins and their role in the interaction between host and pathogen is limited to work with only a single family of epithelial adhesins (epa proteins). here, we report on the identification and characterization of a family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell wall proteins in c. glabrata. these proteins are absent in both saccharo ...201121726406
species of candida isolated from anatomically distinct sites in military personnel in cuiabá, mato grosso, brazil.some fungi are natural inhabitants of the human body but may result in disease when conditions are conducive to their development. yeast infections are common and often occur in the skin and mucous membranes; however emerging species have changed this epidemiological profile. the ability to colonize different anatomical sites has been associated with the pathogenicity of candida when environmental conditions are particularly favorable. in the case of hot, humid climates, the attrition suffered b ...201121987132
saliva promotes survival and even proliferation of candida species in tap water.candida yeasts colonize the human oral cavity as commensals or opportunistic pathogens. they may be isolated from water circulating in dental unit waterlines mixed with traces of saliva mainly because of the dysfunction of antiretraction valves. this study deals with the growth ability of candida albicans, candida glabrata and candida parapsilosis in tap water with saliva (0-20% v/v). results show that c. glabrata is the most susceptible species in tap water. furthermore, saliva promotes both su ...201122092759
proanthocyanidin-rich extracts from cranberry fruit ( vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) selectively inhibit the growth of human pathogenic fungi candida spp. and cryptococcus neoformans.cranberry ( vaccinium macrocarpon ) has been shown in clinical studies to reduce infections caused by escherichia coli and other bacteria, and proanthocyanidins are believed to play a role. the ability of cranberry to inhibit the growth of opportunistic human fungal pathogens that cause oral, skin, respiratory, and systemic infections has not been well-studied. fractions from whole cranberry fruit were screened for inhibition of five candida species and cryptococcus neoformans , a causative ...201122066866
modular domain structure in the candida glabrata adhesin epa1p, a beta1,6 glucan-cross-linked cell wall protein.the yeast pathogen candida glabrata adheres avidly to cultured human epithelial cells. this interaction depends on the expression of epa1, which encodes a lectin belonging to a large family of gpi-anchored glucan-cross-linked cell wall proteins (gpi-cwps) found in diverse fungal species. to understand the relationship between different domains of epa1 and its function, we have mapped functional domains of epa1p and analysed their contribution to epa1p function. we found that the n-terminal third ...200212406223
cloning of a centromere binding factor 3d (cbf3d) gene from candida glabrata.the gene encoding centromere binding factor 3d (cbf3d) of the human pathogenic yeast candida glabrata has been isolated by hybridization of saccharomyces cerevisiae cbf3d (sccbf3d) dna to a c. glabrata partial genomic library. sequence analysis revealed a 540 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 179 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 20.9 kda. the amino acid sequence is highly homologous (78.6% identity) to sccbf3d and 48.3% identical to the human homologue p19 (skp1). southe ...199910398347
candida glabrata: review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical disease with comparison to c. albicans.until recently, candida glabrata was considered a relatively nonpathogenic commensal fungal organism of human mucosal tissues. however, with the increased use of immunosuppressive agents, mucosal and systemic infections caused by c. glabrata have increased significantly, especially in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected population. a major obstacle in c. glabrata infections is their innate resistance to azole antimycotic therapy, which is very effective in treating infections caused by oth ...19999880475
a new method of antibiotyping yeasts for subspecies discrimination and distribution in human clinical specimens.a study of the antibiotypes of 764 isolates of the genera candida and torulopsis from different clinical specimens is reported. the typing method was based on the susceptibility results obtained by the standardized and partially automated kit atb-fungus (api-biomérieux), giving to each strain a code of six figures, according to these criteria: susceptibility to 5-fluorocytosine, amphotericin b, nystatin, miconazole, econazole, and ketoconazole. candida albicans serotypes were determined by the c ...19968817179
functional aspects of a second mechanism of candidacidal activity by human neutrophils.we tested the ability of human neutrophils to kill five candida species and the yeast torulopsis glabrata. c. parapsilosis and c. pseudotropicalis were found to be killed readily by normal and myeloperoxidase-deficient neutrophils and were selected to probe the myeloperoxidase-independent fungicidal mechanisms of the neutrophil. these organisms were killed with relatively normal (c. parapsilosis) or moderately reduced (c. pseudotropicalis) effectiveness by neutrophils from two boys with x-linked ...19725066510
clotrimazole (bay b 5097): in vitro and clinical pharmacological studies.clotrimazole (bay b 5097) is a new synthetic antifungal drug with in vitro activity against candida spp., torulopsis glabrata, and saccharomyces spp. pharmacological studies in man after the oral administration of 1.5 and 3 g of clotrimazole produced mean peak concentrations in the serum of 1.16 and 1.29 mug/ml, respectively, 2 hr after administration. in six patients taking 1.5 g of clotrimazole every 6 hr, there was a progressive decline in the serum concentrations after administration of a do ...19724677595
effects of adenylate cyclase toxin from bordetella pertussis on human neutrophil interactions with coccidioides immitis and staphylococcus aureus.bordetella pertussis extract that contained adenylate cyclase toxin produced large increases in human neutrophil cyclic amp levels and inhibited their oxidative burst, as reflected by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence and superoxide release. the adenylate cyclase toxin-containing extract blocked neutrophil-mediated inhibition of n-acetylglucosamine incorporation by arthroconidia of coccidioides immitis in a dose-dependent fashion but had no effect on neutrophil phagocytosis of candida glabrata ...19882894360
killing of coccidioides immitis by hypochlorous acid or identify possible explanations for the resistance of coccidioides immitis to killing by human neutrophils, its susceptibility to typical oxidants generated during the neutrophil respiratory burst was compared to the sensitivity of other microbes. when microbial suspensions were exposed to hypochlorous acid, arthroconidia or spherules of c. immitis were killed more slowly than yeast cells of candida (torulopsis) glabrata or staphylococcus aureus. in contrast, exposure to the more lipophilic ox ...19902166156
[the first isolation of torulopsis glabrata (anderson) lodder from dental granulomas].three torulopsis have been isolated from two hundred or so dental granulomas. torulopsis glabrata has been observed in cases of ophthalmopathy, infections of the oral cavity, lung infections, endocarditis and septicaemia. apical lesions due to torulopsis glabrata are not typical of mycosis but are generic of dental granulomas. the histological granulomatous character prevails. experimental infections have been obtained from this fungus. human infections by torulopsis glabrata have been described ...19921293491
further studies on the intracellular behavior of torulopsis glabrata.the growth of torulopsis glabrata was inhibited in glucose-peptone broth containing 10 to 20% normal human serum. addition of iron to the medium diminshed the fungistatic effect. the intracellular growth of t. glabrata was remarkably restricted within mouse macrophages maintained in vitro, but this growth restriction was not caused by the limitation of iron imposed by the serum in the medium. the intracellular growth of t. glabrata within a very small percentage of the macrophages was not obviou ...1976987021
the antimicrobial peptide histatin-5 causes a spatially restricted disruption on the candida albicans surface, allowing rapid entry of the peptide into the cytoplasm.antimicrobial peptides play an important role in host defense against microbial pathogens. their high cationic charge and strong amphipathic structure allow them to bind to the anionic microbial cell membrane and disrupt the membrane bilayer by forming pores or channels. in contrast to the classical pore-forming peptides, studies on histatin-5 (hst-5) have suggested that the peptide is transported into the cytoplasm of candida albicans in a non-lytic manner, and cytoplasmic hst-5 exerts its cand ...200818974864
studies of the mechanism of human salivary histatin-5 candidacidal activity with histatin-5 variants and azole-sensitive and -resistant candida species.histatins are a group of small, cationic, antifungal peptides present in human saliva. a previous molecular modeling analysis suggested structural similarity between the phe14-his15 and his18-his19 dipeptide sequences in histatin-5 (hsn-5; a 24-amino-acid polypeptide) and the sequence of miconazole (one of the azole-based antifungal therapeutic agents), implying that the mechanisms of killing of candida albicans by these two molecules may be similar. to further elaborate on this observation, we ...19979333052
biological consequences of petite mutations in candida define the pathogenicity of respiration-deficient mutants of candida glabrata, which present a reduced susceptibility to azoles, that are easily induced in vitro by exposure to these drugs or to ethidium bromide and that may be selected in vivo in patients receiving fluconazole.200515958498
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