the effect of cowpox virus infection on fecundity in bank voles and wood mice.although epidemic infectious diseases are a recognized cause of changes in host population dynamics, there is little direct evidence for the effect of endemic infections on populations. cowpox virus is an orthopoxvirus which is endemic in bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus) and field voles (microtus agrestis) in great britain. it does not cause obvious signs of disease nor does it affect survival, but in this study we demonstrate experimentally that it can reduc ...19979364786
patterns of orthopox virus wild rodent hosts in south germany.although cowpox virus (cpxv) infections in a variety of dead-end hosts have been investigated in germany for more than 50 years, data on species and geographical distribution of cpxv in reservoir hosts are sparse. here we present the first comprehensive study of 825 rodents that have been collected in bavaria, southern germany. in summary, six different rodent species (apodemus flavicollis, myodes glareolus, microtus arvalis, apodemus sylvaticus, microtus agrestis, and arvicola amphibius) were t ...200919492947
transmission dynamics of a zoonotic pathogen within and between wildlife host species.the transmission dynamics of the cowpox virus infection have been quantified in two mixed populations of bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) and wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus), through analyses of detailed time-series of the numbers of susceptible, infectious and newly infected individuals. the cowpox virus is a zoonosis which circulates in these rodent hosts and has been shown to have an adverse effect on reproductive output. the transmission dynamics within species is best described as frequ ...199910584336
serological evidence for the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus in british wildlife.the reservoir host of cowpox virus in western europe is not known, but epidemiological evidence from human and feline infections indicates that the virus is probably endemic in small wild rodents. therefore, serum and tissue samples were collected from a variety of wild british mammals and some birds, and tested for evidence of orthopoxvirus infection. antibody reacting with cowpox virus was detected in 9/44 (20%) bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), 8/24 (33%) field voles (microtus agrestis), ...19957641833
cowpox: reservoir hosts and geographic is generally accepted that the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus are wild rodents, although direct evidence for this is lacking for much of the virus's geographic range. here, through a combination of serology and pcr, we demonstrate conclusively that the main hosts in great britain are bank voles, wood mice and short-tailed field voles. however, we also suggest that wood mice may not be able to maintain infection alone, explaining the absence of cowpox from ireland where voles are generally no ...199910459650
association between the dqa mhc class ii gene and puumala virus infection in myodes glareolus, the bank vole.puumala virus (puuv) is a hantavirus specifically harboured by the bank vole, myodes (earlier clethrionomys) glareolus. it causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in humans, called nephropathia epidemica (ne). the clinical severity of ne is variable among patients and depends on their major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genetic background. in this study we investigated the potential role of class ii mhc gene polymorphism in the susceptibility/resistance to puuv in t ...200817693139
inference of cowpox virus transmission rates between wild rodent host classes using space-time interaction.there have been virtually no studies of 'who acquires infection from whom' in wildlife populations, but patterns of transmission within and between different classes of host are likely to be reflected in the spatiotemporal distribution of infection among those host classes. here, we use a modified form of k-function analysis to test for space-time interaction among bank voles and wood mice infectious with cowpox virus. there was no evidence for transmission between the two host species, supporti ...200616618669
serologic survey of orthopoxvirus infection among rodents in a result of discontinuing vaccination against smallpox after the late 1970s, different orthopoxviruses (opvs), such as cowpox virus (cpxv), have become a re-emerging healthcare threat among zoonotic pathogens. in hungary, data on opv prevalence among its rodent host species have been absent. here, rodents belonging to four species, i.e., striped field mouse (apodemus agrarius), yellow-necked mouse (a. flavicollis), wood mouse (a. sylvaticus) and bank vole (myodes glareolus), were live trapped ...201525988441
a new permanent cell line derived from the bank vole (myodes glareolus) as cell culture model for zoonotic viruses.abstract:201121729307
cowpox in british voles and mice.serosurveys indicate that bank voles, field voles and woodmice are probably reservoir hosts of cowpox virus in western europe, although virus has not yet been isolated from these species. in this study, bank voles, field voles, woodmice and laboratory mice were shown to be susceptible to combined intradermal and subcutaneous inoculation with 3-20 plaque-forming units (pfu) of cowpox virus. bank and field voles, but not laboratory mice, were also susceptible to combined oral and nasal inoculation ...19979076598
naturally occurring orthopoxviruses: potential for recombination with vaccine vectors.orthopoxviruses are being increasingly used as live recombinant vectors for vaccination against numerous infectious diseases in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. for risk assessments and surveillance, information about the occurrence, distribution and ecology of orthopoxviruses in western europe is important but has mainly been based on serological investigations. we have examined kidneys, lungs, spleens, and livers of norwegian small rodents and common shrews (sorex araneus) for the prese ...19989705389
serological survey for orthopoxvirus infection of wild mammals in areas where a recombinant rabies virus is used to vaccinate foxes.several fox vaccination campaigns against rabies have been undertaken in belgium by using a vaccinia-rabies recombinant virus distributed in baits in the field. however, foxes and other wild animals that may ingest the baits could be infected at the same time by another orthopoxvirus, such as cowpox virus, which circulates in wildlife. recombination between the two viruses could therefore occur. a serological survey for antibodies to orthopoxvirus, and particularly to cowpox virus, was undertake ...19968734505
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