vasculitis with hepatitis b antigenemia: long-term observation in nine patients.the development of generalized necrotizing vasculitis in association with hepatitis b antigenemia is the first example in man of a chronic rheumatic disease presumably caused by a viral infection. this report reviews the experience in nine biopsy-proven cases of hepatitis b-associated necrotizing vasculitis followed for up to six years. the natural history of the disease is emphasized and the manifestations of patients with vasculitis who carry hepatitis b antigen are compared with those of vasc ...19761628
immunochemical and morphological studies of hepatitis b core antigen isolated from the nuclei of hepatocytes.immunochemical and morphological properties of hepatitis b core antigen (hbc ag) were studied in intranuclear particles isolated from human liver. immunochemical integrity of the purified particles was indicated in the production by guinea pigs of antibody to hbc ag (anti-hbc) that was immunochemically identical to human anti-hbc. the hbc ag particles were 27-30 nm in diameter, displayed apparent icosahedral symmetry, and consisted of distinct subunits. the susceptibility of hbc ag particles to ...197715037
hepatitis-b immunoglobulin in prevention of hbs antigenaemia in haemodialysis a double-blind study, hepatitis-b immunoglobulin significantly protected patients in a haemodialysis unit against the development of hbs antigenaemia, compared to control patients receiving normal human immunoglobulin (p less than 0-01). injections were given at the beginning and after 6 months, and observations extended over 16 months. analysis of antihbc and anti-hbs antibodies suggested that neutralisation of the virus inoculum, as well as modification of infection, may be implicated in th ...197551188
evidence against breast-feeding as a mechanism for vertical transmission of hepatitis b.a follow-up study of 147 babies born to mothers known to be carriers of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) revealed no evidence for a relationship between breast-feeding and the subsequent development of antigenaemia in the babies. all babies were tested at three or more months of age, and the mean age at last follow-up was eleven months with a mean of three serum specimens per baby (not counting cord-blood specimens). the frequency of acquisition of hbsag and anti-hbs was almost identical amon ...197552772
hepatitis b surface antigen and human serum proteins.the purification of hbs ag is briefly discussed with emphasis on the immunochemical characterization of the resulting preparations. results of experimental work in various laboratories aimed at establishing presence or absence of human serum proteins as integral parts of (highly purified) hbs ag particles do not yet allow definite conclusions.197553009
clinical and serological analysis of transfusion-associated hepatitis.of 108 prospectively followed, multiply transfused, open-heart-surgery patients, 12 (11%) developed hepatitis. patients received only volunteer donor blood tested for hepatitis-b surface antigen (hbsag) prior to transfusion by counterelectrophoresis (c.e.p.). 4 of the 12 patients developed hepatitis-b-virus infection. subsequent testing of donor serums by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (r.i.a.) revealed that an r.i.a.-positive, c.e.p.-negative blood unit was transfused to 3 of the 4 type-b hepatit ...197553329
detection of surface and core antigens of hepatitis b virus in the liver of 164 human subjects. a study by immunoperoxidase and orcein staining.the surface (hbsag) and core (hbcag) antigens of hepatitis b virus (hbv) have been searched by optic microscopy in the liver specimens from patients hospitalized for various conditions and from 38 hgsag chronic carriers. the study was done blindly using shikata et al.'s orcein staining on fixed and frozen material and direct immunoperoxidase on frozen material with antisera specific for surface (anti-hbs) and core (anti-hbc) antigens of hbv. no liver staining could be found in the 98 hbsag seron ...197658802
administration of human fibroblast interferon in chronic hepatitis-b patient with hepatitis-b surface antigen (hbsag)-positive chronic aggressive hepatitis, and two chimpanzee carriers of hbsag, were each given seven doses of 10(7) i.u. of human fibroblast interferon over two weeks. the main differnce observed after treatment was a depression of the nucleocapsid hepatitis-0 core antigen in the liver, indicating that hepatitis-b virus infection is sensitive to interferon. except for a short febrile reaction, no undesirable effects were seen after the administr ...197660513
[hepatitis: an international problem (author's transl)].three kinds of virus hepatitis are recognized today: hepatitis a, b, and "non a-nonb". hepatitis a is transmitted mainly by the anal-oral route, hepatitis b and probably also the third form of hepatitis principally by direct inoculation or close physical contact. normal human immune serum globulin protects against hepatitis a, but only gives limited protection against hepatitis b and "non a-non b" hepatitis. special immune serum globulin provides better protection but it is only available in sma ...197660698
the prevention of viral hepatitis.studies with heat-inactivated ms-2 serum have indicated that active immunization against hepatitis b infection can be achieved even though the virus has not been cultivated in tissue culture. the development of new biophysical, biochemical and immunological techniques has increased knowledge of the hepatitis b virus and its associated antigens. in the wake of these recent developments the accumulating evidence indicates that active immunization could be achieved by the use of purified hepatitis ...197663266
coincident hepatitis b surface antigen and antibodies of different subtypes in human serum.three patients with simultaneously detectable hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) and antibody (anti-hbs) in their sera were studied for subtypes of hbsag and anti-hbs. in each case anti-hbs was found to be directed to a different subtype than that of the circulating hbsag, indicating that reinfection (or simultaneous infection) with a second subtype occurred.197763520
viral hepatitis research leading towards control by vaccination. 197664239
non-a, non-b post-transfusion clarify the role of hepatitis-a virus (h.a.v.) in the aetiology of post-transfusion hepatitis unrelated to hepatitis-b virus, we have tested and titred pre-transfusion and convalescent serum samples from 32 patients for antibody to hepatitis-a antigen (anti-ha) by quantitative immune adherence haemagglutination. 12 patients had no detectable anti-ha in either pre-transfusion or late convalescent serum; the other 20 had anti-ha in pretransfusion serum and no significant chance in titre during ...197765657
correlation of e antigen, dna polymerase activity, and dane particles in chronic benign and chronic active type b hepatitis infections.the e determinant of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbs ag) was found in 23 of 42 patients with chronic hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection. presence of e antigen was associated with increases in dna polymerase activity and in the number of circulating dane particles. in the group with detectable e antigen, the average dna polymerase activity was 367+/-78 counts per minute (cpm; mean+/-standard error [se]), and the average number of dane particles counted in electron micrographs was 4.4% of the tota ...197768088
hepatitis-b virus in bedbugs (cimex hemipterus) from senegal.bedbugs of the species cimex hemipterus (f) were collected on four separate occasions from the bedding in the huts of village dwellers in senegal, west africa. hepatitis-b surface antigen (hbsag) was detected in unengorged nymph and adult bedbugs in each of the first three collections. 3 of 28 such specimens were hbsag(+) in the first collection and 3 of 17 specimens were positive in the second collection. in the third, 6 of 9 were hbsag(+) when the bed occupant was known to be hbsag(+). 2 of th ...197769829
early lesions and development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in man--association with hepatitis b viral is well known that primary hepatocellular carcinoma could be derived from chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis in epidemiologic studies. however, it is still not clear what kinds of hepatocyte are premalignant cells. recently we have focused on liver cell dysplasia as a possible premalignant cell, and showed localization of alpha-fetoprotein in the cytoplasma of these cells. although the dysplastic cells were often seen in the liver of chronic active hepatitis, hepatitis b virus associated d ...197770387
continuous lymphoblastoid suspension cultures from cells of haematopoietic organs of baboons with malignant lymphoma. report iii: immunological studies.lymphoblastoid cultures established from haematopoietic organs of baboons with lymphoma belong to the b-cell type. cytoplasmic antigen is revealed in 2--6% of suspension culture cells established from lymphomatous baboons by indirect immunofluorescence reaction using serum from human burkitt's lymphoma patients with antibody titer to capsid antigen of epstein-barr virus 1: 320. there is a correlation between the number of antigen-containing cells in these cultures and the number of cells in whic ...197771245
association of human hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis with hepatitis b virus surface and core antigens in the liver. 197772736
[new aspects of therapy and prophylaxis of virus hepatitis (author's transl)].the etiology of viral hepatitis is well known, since the hepatitis a virus and the hepatitis b virus were detected. there is, however, no specific treatment of the disease. steroids should not be used, since a therapeutical value in viral hepatitis is not definitely proven and since they may contribute to the development of chronic hepatitis. the application of hepatitis b immunoglobulin (hbig), interferon or interferon inducers in hepatitis b infections has yielded some interesting results, whi ...197773114
transmission of non-a, non-b hepatitis from man to chimpanzee.non-a, non-b hepatitis was transmitted to four colony-born chimpanzees by intravenous inoculation of human sera. two chimpanzees were inoculated with serum from a patient with a clinical and serological diagnosis of chronic non-a, non-b hepatitis whose blood appeared to transmit this disease to a nurse following accidental needle-stick, and the other two chimpanzees were inoculated with serum from either of two former blood-donors whose hbsag-negative blood appeared to transmit clinically recogn ...197876018
some properties of hepatitis b core antigen isolated from serum of infected humans.the nucleocapsid of dane particles (= hepatitis b core antigen; hbcag) was isolated from human sera either positive or negative for e-antigen (hbeag)--an apparent marker for the level of infectious hepatitis b virus in serum. hbcag from the hbeag-positive serum pool consisted of two distinct populations of particles, one with a buoyant density (d) of 1.358 g/ml and a sedimentation coefficient (s20, w) of approximately 110, and another with d = 1.25 to 1.30 g/ml and s20, w approximately 70. only ...197876670
the three type of human viral hepatitis.infections with hepatitis a and b viruses are common in all parts of the world and constitute a major public health problem. the identification of specific antigenic markers of these viruses has led to the development of sensitive laboratory tests. these, in turn, have resulted in a better understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunology, and the nature of these common infections. in the case of hepatitis type b, laboratory tests revealed a persistent carrier state of the surface anti ...197878770
hepatitis b outbreak among chimpanzees at the london zoo.persistent carriage of hepatitis b virus in extremely high titre was identified in 5 out of 9 chimpanzees kept at the london zoo. antibody to this virus was present in the other 4 chimpanzees. serological survey of the other primates in the regent's park collection did not reveal the presence of the surface antigen in 2 gorillas, 11 orang-utans, and 2 gibbons, although surface antibody was present in the serum of 1 gorilla and 2 orang-utans. 3 of the carrier chimpanzees were born at the zoo and ...197880578
prophylaxis and prevention of viral hepatitis. 197986636
non-a non-b hepatitis associated with chronic liver disease in a haemodialysis clarify the aetiology of an outbreak of hbsag-negative acute hepatitis in the renal unit at fulham hospital in 1968--70, serological tests for antibody to hepatitis-a virus (anti-h.a.v.) were done retrospectively on serum samples obtained at the time of the outbreak. 7 patients had had two previous episodes of clinical hbsag-negative hepatitis. serum samples were available from 24 of the 29 infected patients, and these were paired in 12 instances. there was a slight increase in the titre of a ...197987618
[studies on human immunoglobulin preparations: i. viral antibody profiles (author's transl)].a study was undertaken to assess the viral antibody spectrum in human immunoglobulin preparations from four different manufacturers for intravenous and/or intramuscular application. studies of the kind seem to be reasonable for calculating the expected therapeutic effect of the administered immunoglobulin. the investigated 16 gammaglobulin batches showed almost the same variety of viral antibodies and only slightly differring antibody titers. it is interesting to note, that antibodies to vaccini ...197989620
relationship of hepatitis b surface antigen to serum alpha-fetoprotein in nonmalignant diseases of the liver.serum alpha-fetoprotein (afp) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 89 healthy adult chinese, 170 patients with histologically verified non-malignant liver diseases, and 14 hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) carriers with normal liver histology. in 97% of the healthy adults, afp levels were under 20 ng/ml, which is then regarded as the normal upper limit. cases with supranormally elevated afp levels ranged from 15-51% in chronic hepatic disorders and were 33% in acute hepatitis. none of t ...197989892
the hepatitis b virus and its dna polymerase: the prototype three-d virus.the hepatitis b virus (hbv), the causal agent of serum hepatitis, has a diameter of 42 nm and is comprised of an outer surface coat and a 27 nm core. a unique dna-dependent dna polymerase is associated with the core of the virus. the core also houses a circular dna that contains both double-stranded and single-stranded regions. in the endogenous reaction, the dna polymerase repairs the single-stranded gaps of the viral dna. the surface protein of the virus, called hepatitis b surface antigen, co ...197991092
antigen-specific detection of hbsag-containing immune complexes in the course of hepatitis b virus recent studies extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis have been recognized as immune complex diseases. hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) has been successfully identified in immune complexes, but the pathogenic role of hbsag-containing immune complexes (ic) remains questionable. the subject of the present study was the antigen-specific determination of ic in the course of hepatitis b virus infection using a new hbsag-specific ic test (pernice & sedlacek, 1978). this test is based on ...197991465
problems with particle-associated dna polymerase assays in the diagnosis of plasma-suspended viruses.the in vitro reaction results of virus-associated dna polymerases for the demonstration of plasma-suspended particles of avian leukemia virus (amv) and of hepatitis type b virus (hbv) were compared. amv particles could be identified by the transcription of the templates poly mc(dg)12-18, poly rat10, and poly d(at) using standardized reaction mixtures. with comparable test conditions, no dna polymerase activity was found in human plasma containing hbv. these findings and the results of a systemat ...197992114
polypeptides of hepatitis b virus surface antigen produced by a hepatoma cell line.the plc/prf/5 cell line derived from a human hepatoma produces hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) in 22-nm particles of the same buoyant density as those found in the serum of infected patients. the hbsag particles from this cell line were labeled with [35s]methionine and purified, and the polypeptides were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with those of serum-derived particles. the two major polypeptides of serum-derived hbsag particles (p20 and p23) were fo ...197992575
detection of virus-associated antigen in serum and liver of patients with non-a non-b a search for serological markers of non-a non-b(nanb) hepatitis, sera from repeatedly transfused and convalescent patients were assayed by immunodiffusion against sera from 12 patients with early acute nanb hepatitis. a new antigen/antibody system distinct from hbsag was demonstrated in 8 cases. to assess the specificity of the test, serial sera from 17 patients with acute hepatitis of known aetiology (10 due to hepatitis-b virus, 4 to hepatitis-a virus, 3 to drugs) were tested twice a month, ...197993182
hepatitis b virus antigens in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma tissues.the presence of hepatitis b virus (hbv) antigens was examined in specimens of liver tissue obtained at necropsy from black senegalese patients suffering from primary hepatocellular carcinoma (phc). the results were correlated with markers of hepatitis b infection in serum. hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) and core antigen (hbcag) were sought for in 15 liver extracts. hbsag was found in the liver in 10 of 12 cases with hbsag-positive serum. hbcag was detected in three livers. the hbsag was det ...197993579
serological relationship of woodchuck hepatitis virus to human hepatitis b virus.two antigenic systems of the woodchuck hepatitis virus have been identified. the relationship between viral antigens of the woodchuck hepatitis virus and the human hepatitis b virus was determined by using immunoprecipitation, hemagglutination, and immune electron microscopy techniques. antigens found on the cores of the two viruses were cross-reactive. lack of cross-reactivity between the surface antigens of the two viruses in immunodiffusion experiments suggested that the major antigenic deter ...197994359
omge--study on prevalence of hepatitis b surface antigen in different liver diseases.the prevalence of hepatitis b viral infection has been evaluated by means of a questionnaire. contributions were made by 160 institutions from 39 countries and involved more than 400 collaborators. hbsag was identified by a variety of test kits which were available at the time of the questionnaire. data are presented for the prevalence of hbsag in acute viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver and primary liver cancer. wide variations in antigenaemia were identified in differen ...197994455
current concepts in viral hepatitis. 197994994
hepatitis b vaccines. on the threshold.experimental hepatitis b vaccines have recently been developed and are undergoing preliminary evaluation. these vaccines are unique in that they are prepared from viral antigen purified from the plasmas of human chronic carriers because hepatitis b virus has not been cultivated in vitro. they appear to be safe and antigenic, but care must be exercised in their evaluation because of the potential risks inherent in all vaccines.197899023
a receptor for polymerized human and chimpanzee albumins on hepatitis b virus particles co-occurring with hbeag.a receptor for polymerized human serum albumin was demonstrated on dane particles as well as on 20-nm hepatitis b surface antigen particles, isolated from asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis b virus who were positive for hbeag. in contrast, such receptor was not born by 20-nm hepatitis b surface antigen particles obtained from carriers positive for antibody to hbeag. hepatitis b surface antigen particles with the receptor were heavier than those without, and when treated with pronase, they became ...1979103774
radioimmunoassay of hepatitis b e-antigen (hbeag): identification of hbeag not associated with immunoglobulins.a radioimmunoassay for hepatitis b e-antigen (hbeag) is described. polystyrene beads coated with igg prepared from a human serum containing antibodies to hbeag (anti-hbe) and anti-hbe igg labelled with 125i-p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid n-hydroxysuccinimide ester were used in the test. the radioimmunoassay was approximately 1,000-fold more sensitive than immunodiffusion. at least a transient presence of hbeag in serum appears to be a common feature of infections by hepatitis b virus. the radioim ...1979107272
[identification of a virus similar to hepatitis b virus in non-a non-b hepatitis].hepatitis b virus-like particles (including dane particles) with dna polymerase activity but negative for hbs ag have been identified in non-a, non-b hepatitis sera positive for hc ag. although specifically associated with the particles, hc ag is not a surface antigen of the hepatitis c virus identified here for the first time. the relationship of this agent with hbv seems obvious, and deserves further study.1979120782
immunodeficiency in down's syndrome: relationship between presence of human thyroglobulin antibodies and hbsag carrier status.the relationship between the presence of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) and antibodies to human thyroglobulin (htgab) has been studied in 110 subjects with down's syndrome (ds) from 4 months to 50 years of age and in 122 controls carefully matched for sex, age and socio-environmental conditions. the overall percentage of hbsag carriers was 22.7 in ds and 6.6 in controls and that of htgab-positive subjects was 41.8 in ds and 19.7 in controls. in ds the frequency of htgab-positive subjects wa ...1977144056
physical, chemical and morphologic dimensions of human hepatitis a virus strain cr326 (38578).cr326 human hepatitis a virus purified by isopycnic banding from infected marmoset sera was shown to consist of 27 nm spherical particles on electron microscopic examination. the particles were identified as hepatitis a virus by tests for infectivity and by specific neutralization of infectivity with convalescent human hepatitis a serum. also, indentical 27 nm viruses in liver extracts gave specific reactions with hepatitis a antisera when tested by immune electron microscopy. the bouyant den ...1975164674
a specific complement-fixation test for human hepatitis a employing cr326 virus antigen. diagnosis and epidemiology.a specific diagnostic complement-fixation test for hepatitis a antibody in human serum was described employing livers of marmosets infected with cr326 strain human hepatitis a virus. persons with hepatitis a, but not hepatitis b, developed hepatitis a cf antibody shortly after the onset of illness and this persisted thereafter. good agreement was noted in the development of cf and neutralizing antibodies in hepatitis a cases. hepatitis a was shown to occur in a person with hepatitis b antigenemi ...1975165548
clinical aspects of viral infections in kidney-graft recipients. 1975170042
biophysical and biochemical properties of cr326 human hepatitis a virus.cr326 human hepatitis a virus purified by isopycnic banding from infected marmoset sera was shown to consist of 27 mmu spherical particles on electron microscopic examination. the particles were identified as hepatitis a virus by tests by infectivity and by specific neutralization of infectivity with convalescent human hepatitis a serum. also, identical 27 mmu viruses in liver extracts gave specific reactions with hepatitis a antisera when tested by immune electron microscopy. the buoyant densit ...1975171955
etiological spectrum of post-transfusion hepatitis.frequent occurrence of post-transfusion hepatitis continues despite screening for australia antigen in blood before transfusion and elimination of commercial donor sources. the majority of these cases appears unrelated to hepatitis b virus. preoperative, acute, and convalescent serra were screened for evidence of hepatitis b, hepatitis a, epstein-barr, and cytomegalovirus exposure in 34 cardiac surgery patients developing post-transfusion hepatitis postoperatively. four patients showed evidence ...1975172400
infectivity studies of hepatitis a and b in non-human primates.we have induced hepatitis a in marmosets of the subspecies saguinus mystax following primary inoculation with human serum containing the ms-1 strain of hepatitis a virus (hav) and in 3 further marmoset subpassages using infective marmoset serum from each preceding passage. in each passage acquisition of serum antibody against 17 nm virus-like particles recovered from acute illness stools of human volunteers who developed hepatitis following inoculation with the ms-1 strain of hav, as well as fro ...1975173599
characterization of cr326 human hepatitis a virus, a probable enterovirus.cr326 human hepatitis a virus purified by isopycnic banding from infected marmoset sera was shown to consist of 27 mmu spherical particles on electron microscopic examination. the particles were identified as hepatitis a virus by tests for infectivity and by specific neutralization of infectivity with convalescent human hepatitis a serum. also, identical 27 mmu viruses in liver extracts gave specific reactions with hepatitis a antisera when tested by immune electron microscopy. the buoyant densi ...1975173603
intranuclear virus-like particles in hbsag- and ihxag-negative acute hepatitis (type c?) (preliminary report).virus-like particles, acute hepatitis, hepatitis type c. intranuclear virus-like particles were found by electron microscopy in liver cells of a woman suffering from mild hbsag- and ihxag negative acute hepatitis. the particles encountered were morphologically different from those found in hepatitis b and hepatitis a respectively. futher studies are required to clarify whether the structures represent an incidental finding of a new human (passenger) virus or they may be related to the aetiologic ...1975180761
hepatitis a antigen isolated from liver and stool: immunologic comparison of antisera prepared in guinea pigs.morphologically similar hepatitis a antigen particles (ha ag)3 have been detected in the stools of patients with type a hepatitis and in the livers of marmosets experimentally infected with hepatitis a virus. to investigate the humoral antibody responses to these antigens and to compare the immunologic properties of ha ag from these two sources, we immunized guinea pigs with either marmoset liver-derived ha ag or with human stool-derived ha ag in complete freund's adjuvant and measured their ant ...1976182882
[development of cellular immunity in patients with viral hepatitis].the development of cell-mediated immunity (cmi) to the surface antigen of hepatitis b virus (hbsag) and botevgrad antigen (ba) was traced in 50 hepatitis patients. migration inhibition test (mit) was performed with purified hbsg and ab. blood samples from every hepatitis patient were obtained at the beginning of the icteric phase, 10 days later and during convalescence. there was correlation between the two types of viral hepatitis and the type of cellular immune response. the development of cmi ...1976185810
mutliple hepatitis viruses in multiple attacks of acute viral hepatitis.we evaluated the causes of 30 episodes of acute viral hepatitis in 13 patients who had multiple attacks. two (seven per cent) of 30 bouts were caused by hepatitis a virus, and 12 (40%) by hepatitis b virus. no patient, however, had more than one attack with the serologic characteristics of type a or type b disease. thus, there were 16 bouts (53 per cent) not attributable to either of the two recognized hepatitis viruses. none of these "non-a, non-b" episodes, evaluated for infectious mononucleos ...1977186710
hepatitis b virus, cirrhosis and primary carcinoma of the liver. an electron microscopic study.the core and coat of hepatitis b virus were found by electron microscopy in parenchymal cells of a liver biopsy from a 61 year old man with chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver. laparoscopy, 35 days after liver biopsy, and autopsy 42 days later confirmed the cirrhosis and showed in addition a well differentiated hepatoma. the possibility of a viral aetiology for the cirrhosis and primary carcinoma of the liver is considered.1976188267
a prospective study of acute viral hepatitis with particular reference to hepatitis order to investigate the relationship of hepatitis a antigen to viral hepatitis, a prospective study was carried out on 97 patients admitted to fairfield hospital, melbourne, with suspected viral hepatitis, and 3 of their family contacts. evidence of infection with hepatitis a virus was obtained by detecting hepatitis a antigen in stools, and/or antibody to it in sera, by immune electron microscopy. infection with hepatitis b virus was determined by testing for hepatitis b surface antigen and ...1976191207
viral hepatitis: some thoughts and a summary. 1975192078
acute viral hepatitis: modern knowledge. 1977193084
advances in viral hepatitis. report of the who expert committee on viral hepatitis. 1977193307
transmission of non-a, non-b studies conducted in the early 1950s, sera from six asymptomatic blood donors, implicated in the transmission of viral hepatitis, were inoculated into 10 to 20 volunteers each. five of these "implicated" donor sera transmitted clinically apparent hepatitis to the recipients. the stored serum samples from these studies have been reanalyzed using serologic markers for hepatitis b virus and hepatitis a virus infection. two of the donor sera were hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag)-positive, and ...1977195505
parenterally transmitted non-a, non-b hepatitis: an epidemic 1972 a nonsocomial outbreak of parenterally transmitted hepatitis affected both marrow transplant patients and normal platelet donors in an oncology unit. because of the characteristics of the clinical illness, the incubation period of 27 days, and the effect of immune serum globulin on the clinical illness, the outbreak was attributed to hepatitis a; there was no serologic evidence of either hepatitis b virus or cytomegalovirus infection. stored serums from this outbreak were re-examined by ...1977195506
geographical distribution of the subtype of hepatitis b surface antigen in chinese.using the much more sensitive hemagglutination inhibition assay for subtyping of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag), we examined the determinants a, d, w and r in 192 from 228 hbsag positive adults who had been found after screening with reversed passive hemagglutination method. sixty-four subtypable cases were asymptomatic carriers and the remaining 128 were liver disease patients. among them there was no significant difference of the subtypes, invariably with adw as the main subtype. geograph ...1977196971
viral hepatitis: enzyme assays and serologic procedures in the study of an epidemic of viral hepatitis beginning in late 1975 in a residence for multiply handicapped children, recognized very early in its course, was investigated prospectively to permit comparison of enzymatic and serologic tests. thirty-three residents of the institution and 46 full- and part-time employees were studied by the immune adherence hemagglutination procedure for antibody (anti-hav) to hepatitis a virus (hav). of these, 31 residents and 37 staff members were susceptible at the beginning ...1977201170
failure to transmit human viral hepatitis types a and b to the congenitally athymic nude mouse. 1977202797
viral hepatitis. 1978205734
acute viral is now possible to define two forms of acute viral hepatitis by means of specific serological tests and at least one other form by exclusion. these diseases are known as hepatitis a, hepatitis b and non a non b hepatitis respectively. major features of the virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology, mode of spread and control of each disease are briefly reviewed.1978208497
human studies following models of tumorigenesis by dna tumor viruses in animals.the discovery of virus-specific messenger rna in virus-induced animal tumors has led to the search for messenger rna in human tumors that can be hybridized with the dna of known oncogenic viruses. attention has focused on the adenoviruses, which have produced cancer in laboratory animals and are widespread in man, and on three papovaviruses that have been isolated in human disease and which are oncogenic in hamsters. in other research, the association between human infection with herpesivurs typ ...1978208690
[nature of type a and type b hepatitis viruses and their diagnosis and control]. 1978209504
transfusion-related short-incubation hepatitis in hemophilic patients.nine episodes of a unique short-incubation form of hepatitis were observed during five years in six hemophilic children after infusion with commercial factor viii concentrate prepared by two different manufacturers. five patients with a single episode had no previous infusion for 14 months to 14 years. one patient with several episodes had no previous infusion for at least seven months preceding each episode. the illness was mild and self-limited. no seroconversions to cytomegalovirus, epstein-b ...1978210302
non-a, non-b hepatitis. 1978210303
clustering of different subtypes of hepatitis b surface antigen in families of patients with chronic liver diseases.clustering of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) with both subtypes adr and adw in three families of patients with chronic liver diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma was demonstrated in taiwan where adw is the main subtype. the subtype in the children was similar to that in their mothers, suggesting maternal transmission. in all the family units clustered with different subtypes, the same pattern occurred, invariably with fathers carrying hbsag/adr and the children carrying hbsag/adw. the subty ...1978210659
viral hepatitis--a triumphant triennial. 1978210661
a virus similar to human hepatitis b virus associated with hepatitis and hepatoma in woodchucks.particles with properties similar to those associated with human hepatitis b were found in serum from woodchucks with chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. it is suggested that woodchuck hepatitis virus is a second member of a novel class of viruses represented by the human hepatitis b virus.1978212758
prospects of vaccines against cancer in man.preventive immunization is the cheapest and most effective approach to the management of epidemic disease. certain forms of cancer, including burkitt's lymphoma, carcinoma of the cervix, primary liver cancer, acute leukaemia and breast cancer show many characteristics of epidemic disease, and the possibility of producing preventive vaccine against these conditions merits serious consideration.1978212839
[virus and human cancers]. 1978214215
hbsag-negative chronic active hepatitis related to hepatitis b virus.numerous cases of chronic hepatitis have been shown to be closely associated with persistent infection with hepatitis b virus (hbv). a group of 100 patients suffering from chronic active hepatitis (cah) was investigated for hbv serologic markers. of these, 35 patients were hbsag-positive; in 26 hbsag-negative subjects, anti-hbc were detected using counterimmune electrophoresis and complement-fixation tests. these data suggest that chronic liver disease in patients who were only anti-hbc-positive ...1978214684
developments in viral hepatitis.viral hepatitis is a major public health problem occurring endemically in all parts of the world. the general term viral hepatitis refers to infections caused by hepatitis virus type a, type b and a more recently identified infection referred to as "non-a: non-b" hepatitis. these clinically and pathologically similar forms of hepatitis have been studied intensively following the discovery of a specific antigen, australia antigen, one of the markers of infection with hepatitis b virus.1978215717
hepatocellular carcinoma (an approach to the study of risk factors in human cancer).risk factors can be used to formulate hypotheses on the aetiology and pathogenesis of site specific cancers. persistent infection with hepatitis b virus (hbv), chronic liver disease, and maleness are associated with a greatly increased risk of developing primary hepatocellular carcinoma (phc). a model for the pathogenesis of this tumour is proposed that does not involve integration of the hbv genome into the tumour cell. if chronic infection with hbv is necessary for the development of chronic l ...1978216070
antibody to hepatitis b surface antigen is not cytotoxic to antigen-secreting hepatocytes.a continuously growing cell line which produces hepatitis b surface antigen was grown in the presence of antibody to the surface antigen. antibody from animal and human sources was used. neither growth rate nor cell morphology was affected and the cells did not inactivate the antibody over a 4-day incubation period. the surface antigen produced was specifically neutralized. these results suggest that hepatic injury occurring in response to hepatitis b virus infection is not mediated by humoral i ...1978218315
[viral hepatitis]. 1979218401
demonstration of hepatitis b virus surface component in human hepatocellular cancer cells. 1979218886
[blood transfusion and viral diseases. recent acquisitions concerning viral hepatitis viruses, cytomegaloviruses and epstein-barr virus].in recent years, an increasingly clear picture has been formed of the virus-induced syndromes that may follow a blood transfusion or the use of blood derivatives. up to about 10 years ago, post-infusion infection was predominantly due to serum hepatitis. blumberg's discovery of hbsag (formerly known as australia antigen) has made it possible to check and prevent viral hepatitis, type b, and to recognise such distinct forms as the mononucleosis-like syndrome caused by cytomegalic virus, infectiou ...1979219399
viral serology (hepatitis b virus, cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus) and abnormal liver function tests in transfused patients with hereditary hemorrhagic diseases. 1979219564
the viral hepatitides.vaccines and chemotherapy may soon strengthen the armamentarium for control of type b hepatitis. the incidence of type a is still declining in the u.s., and now that type non-a, non-b has been transmitted to animals, a marker for it is being widely sought.1978221316
viral exposure and abnormal liver function in haemophilia.several studies have recently documented the presence of persistently abnormal liver function tests in asymptomatic haemophiliacs. while the aetiology is unknown it is possible that repeated exposure to agents transmitted in blood products may be important. this study has attempted to determine the prevalence of viral exposure and its relationship to liver function in this multitransfused group of individuals. the prevalence of viral antibodies with the exception of antibody to hepatitis b surfa ...1979221550
polypeptide profile of hbsag excreted by a human hepatoma cell line. 1979223321
viral hepatitis and its effect on pregnancy. 1979223787
immunofluorescence studies for hepatitis a virus and hepatitis b surface and core antigen in liver biopsies from patients with acute viral hepatitis.immunofluorescence studies for hepatitis a virus and hepatitis b surface and core antigen were performed on liver biopsies from 48 patients with acute viral hepatitis. hepatitis a virus was detected in 11 out of 17 patients with type a hepatitis and was not found in patients with type b or non-a non-b hepatitis. hepatitis b surface and core antigens were detected in 2, hepatitis b core antigen alone in 1, and hepatitis b surface antigen alone in 4 out of 24 patients with type b hepatitis. neithe ...1979223938
the growth of knowledge about a disease: hepatitis. 1979224700
etiology of liver disease in renal-transplant patients.the etiology of 72 episodes of liver disease that developed in 62 of 162 renal-transplant recipients was evaluated. infection with hepatitis b virus was a minor problem, and none of our patients had evidence of infection with hepatitis a. cytomegalovirus infection was ubiquitous in the population and probably accounted for many episodes of acute liver disease. this agent's role in causing chronic hepatitis is less secure. infections with other viruses including epstein-barr virus, adenovirus, an ...1979224742
[discovery of hepatitis virus]. 1979225395
viral vaccines under development: a third summary then, my purpose has been two-fold: on the one hand, i have tried to highlight the kinds of basic science advances in both cellular and virologic research that can (and should) be focussed both on vaccines under development and, retrospectively, on those whose origins were strictly empiric. on the other hand, i have attempted a partial survey of some of the prominent members of a potential new generation of vaccines to point out areas where these advances can and should contribute eit ...1979227237
[new data on the epidemiology of viral hepatitis (literature review)]. 1979229643
epstein-barr virus infection in polytransfused patients with homozygous beta-thalassaemia.the frequency of epstein-barr virus (ebv) and hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection has been studied in 149 polytransfused thalassaemic patients and in healthy controls. evidence for ebv infection was based on the detection of antibodies to viral capsid antigen (anti-vca) and for hbv infection on the detection of either hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) or hepatitis b surface antibody (anti-hbs). the frequency of anti-vca was not significantly higher in the patients (16.4%) compared to the control ...1979230639
the transmission and outcome of hepatitis a, b, and non-a, non-b: a review. 1979232876
controlled synthesis of hbsag in a differentiated human liver carcinoma-derived cell line.a significant aspect of primary hepatic carcinoma in man is the high positive correlation of hepatocellular carcinoma with infection with hepatitis b virus (hbv)1. analysis of the relationship between hbv infection and oncogenesis is difficult because natural infection with hbv is limited to man and experimental infection has been achieved only in chimpanzees and gibbons. furthermore, because hbv has not been successfully propagated in cell culture, basic study of virus-cell interaction of the a ...1979233137
[hepatitis b virus surface antigen (hbsag) in human hepatocellular carcinoma and its surrounding tissues of liver (author's transl)]. 1979233358
hepatic infections. part ii. the effect of acute and chronic hepatitis b antigenaemia on the reaction to antibodies to sheep red cells (microbial antigens) and human t-activated cells (exposed autologous tissue antigens).using the agglutination of sheep red cells by human antibodies as an indicator of microbial antibody activity, a highly significant association was found between the response to the e antigen of the hepatitis b virus and the formation of strong antibody levels to microbial substances (chi 2(1) = 33). this kind of association was not found among chronic carriers of the hepatitis b virus who do not produce antibodies to the e antigen (chi 2(1) = 3,7). in the presence of e antigen activity, patient ...1979315618
acute and chronic hepatitis: multisystemic involvement related to immunologic disease. 1977320847
vertical transmission of hepatitis-b surface antigen.transmission of hepatitis b virus from mother to infant can cause a severe type of neonatal hepatitis. comparing chronic carrier mothers with mothers who have acute hepatitis in pregnancy we find that the latter group present the greater risk to their infants. differences in the presence of hepatitis b core and hepatitis b e antigen and antibody in the acute case and in the carrier state may expoain the differences observed in the transmission rates of two groups. in countries where the prevalen ...1977324529
antibodies to hepatitis b core antigen in hepatitis b surface antigen-positive and -negative chronic hepatitis.antibody to hepatitis b core antigen (anti-hbc) is a sensitive indicator of hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection. however, anti-hbc has been found in only a few patients with chronic hepatitis. therefore, we tested for anti-hbc in 124 sera from 67 patients with histologically proven chronic hepatitis by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. all patients, except for one with chronic hepatitis who was seropositive for hepatitis b surface antigen (hbs ag), had anti-hbc that persisted throughout ...1977325149
hepatitis viruses. 1978340799
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