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rapid and sensitive detection of campylobacter spp. in chicken products by using the polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) after a short enrichment culture was used to detect campylobacter spp. in chicken products. after the 16s rrna gene sequence of campylobacter jejuni was determined and compared with known sequences from other enterobacteria, a primer and probe combination was selected from the region before v3 and the variable regions v3 and v5. with this primer set and probe, 426-bp fragments from c. jejuni, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter lari could be amplified. the d ...19921282312
[studies of outer membrane protein profiles by sds-page for campylobacter jejuni in an epidemiological investigation].the characteristics of outer membrane protein profiles of 41 strains of campylobacter jejuni from various sources by sds-page was studied. seven and nine omp patterns were differentiated respectively by the presence or absence of six outer membrane protein bands and by the number and size of the molecular weight of the major protein bands. comparing the omp patterns of the strains from human with those from animals, the authors inferred that chickens and other animals might be one of the sources ...19921298718
[result of the refinement of a technique for the isolation and identification of campylobacter from food commodities].campylobacter jejuni has been researched in raw milk, skin and excrement of chicken. all milk samples are negatives but 66% of chicken skin and 12% of chicken excrements are positives. an enrichment phase using brucella broth added with horse blood and antibiotics is necessary.19921309139
profiles of toxin production by thermophilic campylobacter of animal origin.seventy-five strains of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli, which were isolated from a variety of animal species, primarily poultry, were examined for production of toxin. polymyxin extracts were tested in in vitro assays using cho-ki, fcl (foetal calf lung), vero, hela and cef (chicken embryo fibroblast) cells. the toxic effects observed were cell rounding and death. extracts from almost all c. jejuni and c. coli strains were toxic to both cho-ki and fcl cells and 69.0% of c. jejuni isolates and ...19921313623
mannose-resistant haemagglutination by campylobacter jejuni--a preliminary communication.ten strains of c. jejuni each isolated respectively from patients with diarrhoea and from chicken intestine (10 strains from each source) were examined for presumptive colonization factor(s) by measuring their cell surface hydrophobicity and haemagglutination. none of the strains expressed cell surface hydrophobicity. however, 14 strains (7 from either source) showed variable haemagglutination pattern with human, sheep and rabbit erythrocytes in the presence of 0.5 per cent d-mannose. thus, mann ...19921398807
competitive exclusion of campylobacters from poultry with k-bacteria and broilact.the competitive exclusion (ce) product (broilact) which is effective against salmonellas, was found to be inactive against campylobacters. microecological concepts were applied in the search of a new competitive flora and two novel strains ('k-bacteria') were isolated. these strains resembled campylobacters but differed from them in morphology, enzyme profiles (api), cellular fatty acid profiles and when tested with a ribosomal rna hybridization probe (gene-trak). two-week laboratory trials on b ...19921419531
prevalence, biotypes, plasmid profile and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolated from wild and domestic animals from northeast portugal.the incidence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in wild and producing animals has been studied to evaluate their importance as potential reservoirs of campylobacter infection. these organisms were isolated from: 59 chicken (60.2%), 65 swine (59.1%), 31 black rats (57.4%), 61 sparrows (45.5%), 21 ducks (40.5%), 32 cows (19.5%) and 27 sheep (15.3%). biotypes, plasmid and resistance profiles were studied in order to characterize the isolates. biotypes i and ii of c. jejuni were predomi ...19921429305
reduction of campylobacter jejuni colonization of chicks by cecum-colonizing bacteria producing anti-c. jejuni metabolites.cecum-colonizing bacteria were isolated from campylobacter jejuni-free white leghorn (gallus domesticus) laying hens and screened for the ability to produce anti-c. jejuni metabolites. nine isolates were obtained that possessed this characteristic. the peroral administration of the nine isolates as a mixture (ca. 10(9) per chick) to 1-day-old chicks was followed 1 week later by peroral inoculation of campylobacter jejuni (ca. 10(9) per chick) to determine if the cecal isolates could protect chic ...19921610187
study on the epidemiology and control of campylobacter jejuni in poultry broiler flocks.broiler flocks are frequently infected with campylobacter jejuni. the origin of the infection is still unclear. the question of whether colonization of flocks results from transmission of c. jejuni from breeder flocks to progeny (vertical transmission) or from environmental sources (horizontal transmission) remains to be answered. therefore, in this study samples were taken from successive broiler flocks in two broiler houses (house a on farm a and house b1 on farm b) as well as from the environ ...19921622265
distribution and numbers of campylobacter in newly slaughtered broiler chickens and hens.if campylobacter is present in the intestinal tract, broiler carcasses become extensively contaminated during the slaughter process. to determine the distribution and numbers of campylobacter jejuni/coli in newly slaughtered broiler chickens and hens, a total of 100 birds from six campylobacter-positive flocks were sampled at three swedish processing plants. campylobacters were isolated in 89% of neck skins, 93% of peritoneal cavity swab samples and in 75% of subcutaneous samples. muscle samples ...19921622758
production of enterotoxin and cytotoxin in campylobacter jejuni strains isolated in costa rica.the production of toxins by 79 strains of campylobacter jejuni isolated in costa rica from children with campylobacter-induced diarrhoea (44 strains) and from chickens (35 strains) was studied. an enterotoxic effect giving a rounding of mouse adrenocortical tumour (y1) cells, which could be neutralised with antitoxin against escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, was detected in supernates from 16 (62%) of 26 strains from children with watery diarrhoea, in 5 (28%) of 18 strains from children ...19921625311
pathogenicity of campylobacter jejuni for turkeys and chickens.a campylobacter jejuni isolate obtained from a turkey liver, designated c101, and a c. jejuni isolate obtained from the feces of a chicken, designated c111, were used to inoculate their respective hosts. isolate c101 depressed weight gain by 20% when inoculated into newly hatched poults or 4-day-old poults. it also caused death, hepatic necrosis, and generalized hemorrhages in turkey embryos. the chicken-derived isolate, c111, did not reduce weight gain in newly hatched chicks, but it did induce ...19921627109
lack of colonization of 1 day old chicks by viable, non-culturable campylobacter jejuni.seven strains of campylobacter jejuni, isolated from various sources [human (n = 2), chicken (n = 3), water (n = 2)], were studied under starvation conditions in filter-sterilized and pasteurized surface water by acridine orange direct count (aodc), viable count (dvc) and culture methods. plate counts showed a rapid decline (2 log-units/day) for all strains under these conditions. only one of the seven strains (14%) showed a (prolonged) viable, non-culturable 'state'. the ability of these viable ...19921644708
potential sources of campylobacter species in the homes of farmworkers in zimbabwe.chicken faeces, houseflies, household stored drinking water, cooked or prepared foods and handwashings of people of all age groups and hands of children under 5 years old were examined as potential sources and transmission routes of campylobacter species in a farmworker community. campylobacter species were found to be common in chicken faeces collected from the homesteads of the farmworkers but were rarely isolated from houseflies or household stored drinking water. they were not isolated from ...19911758009
recovery of injured campylobacter jejuni cells after animal passage.sixteen freeze-thaw-injured nonculturable stocks of campylobacter jejuni were passed through rat gut, and seven were reisolated. these reisolated strains were converted to toxin producers, as they were before preservation, following consecutive passages through rat gut. this observation indicated the existence of an injured, viable, but nonresuscitated form of c. jejuni which can be resuscitated to a culturable and fully virulent form by passaging the organism through a susceptible host.19911781696
isolation of campylobacter from livers of broiler chickens with and without necrotic hepatitis lesions.injured and normal livers from broiler chickens sent to slaughter plants were collected for bacterial examination. a total of 223 macroscopically abnormal livers and 50 normal livers were received. forty-seven thermophilic campylobacter isolates were obtained from the livers with necrotic lesions; 39 isolates were identified as campylobacter jejuni and eight as c. coli. in normal livers, six c. jejuni isolates were obtained. c. jejuni biotype 2 was the most common isolate recovered from injured ...19911786003
phagocytosis and intracellular killing of campylobacter jejuni by elicited chicken peritoneal macrophages.in vitro phagocytosis and intracellular survival of campylobacter jejuni (strains b540 and clin 1) in chicken peritoneal macrophages were studied. macrophages were induced with sephadex g-50 and harvested 48 hr later by peritoneal lavage. the extent of phagocytosis over time was determined by enumerating the intracellular c. jejuni after removal of extracellular c. jejuni with gentamicin. pre-incubation of c. jejuni with antiserum generally enabled the macrophages to ingest greater numbers of ce ...19911786008
the effect of lactic acid sprays on campylobacter jejuni inoculated onto poultry carcasses.spraying poultry carcasses with 1% lactic acid 10 min after inoculation with campylobacter jejuni, resulted in a significant reduction in the number of the bacteria after 4 h at 4 degrees c. some of the inoculated cells, however, survived for at least 144 h. spraying 10 min after inoculation with 2% lactic acid, totally eliminated all inoculated c. jejuni within 24 h. on the other hand, spraying 24 h after inoculation, with either 1% or 2% lactic acid did not eliminate all the bacteria. inoculat ...19911818508
rates of detection of salmonella and campylobacter in meats in response to the sample size and the infection level of each species.pork, beef and chicken meat samples were collected from slaughter houses, poultry-processing plants and meat shops. rates of incidence of salmonella spp., campylobacter jejuni and c. coli with respect to the sample size were compared and the most probable number for these species were determined. salmonella spp. were detected in 69 (24.1%) of 286 chicken meat samples, in three (3.2%) of 94 pork samples, and in one (1.9%) of 52 beef samples. with chicken meat, the rates of detection were: 19.9% i ...19911863527
simultaneous colonization of campylobacter jejuni and salmonella typhimurium in day-old chicks.day-old chicks were challenged with campylobacter jejuni or salmonella typhimurium or both to assess the influence of these two bacteria upon the colonization of one another. median colonization dose (cd50), a measure indicating the number of organisms required to colonize one-half of the challenged chickens, was used to assess the influence of these organisms upon the colonization of one another. chicks were gavaged with serial dilutions of 1) c. jejuni, 2) s. typhimurium, 3) dilutions of c. je ...19911876560
comparison of preston agar and a blood-free selective medium for detection of campylobacter jejuni in food.the present collaborative study compares recovery of campylobacter jejuni from food in 2 agar media. six laboratories analyzed 8 samples each of chicken liver inoculated with campylobacter jejuni. samples were enriched in preston broth and isolation was carried out on preston agar (pa) and campylobacter blood-free selective medium (cbfs), a charcoal-based medium with cefoperazone and amphoteracin as antibiotic supplements. there was no difference in the recovery rate between the 2 agar media; ho ...19911917811
comparative study of colonizing and noncolonizing campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni a74/o and a74/c are congenic strains. an oral dose of 10(5) organisms of strain a74/c colonizes chicken intestines. strain a74/o, from which a74/c is derived, does not colonize the chicken intestines with an oral dose of 10(5) organisms. in this study, the congenic bacteria were compared to identify possible colonization mechanisms. differences were not observed in plasmid content or by hindiii, pst i, acc i, hincii, ava i, ava ii, xba i, and bamhi restriction enzyme digesti ...19911952344
restriction fragment length polymorphism for the identification of campylobacter jejuni-isolates.companion animals ("pets") are occasionally carriers of organisms pathogenic for man. in the present, study fecal samples of clinically inapparent animals with direct contact to 204 patients, suffering from campylobacter enteritis, were investigated for c. jejuni or c. coli (cjc). cjc positive animals were seen in the environment of only five patients (= 2.4%). by comparison of biotypes and serotypes of thermostable and thermolabile antigens from human and animal isolates no clear epidemiologica ...19901982490
virulence of campylobacter jejuni for chicken embryos is associated with decreased bloodstream clearance and resistance to phagocytosis.the 11-day-old chicken embryo has been shown to be a useful animal model for comparing the virulence of human isolates of campylobacter jejuni. virulence in this system is associated with the ability to invade the chorioallantoic membrane and to survive and proliferate in vivo. in this study, the survival and multiplication of c. jejuni in the embryonic host was investigated. it was possible to enhance the virulence of a relatively avirulent c. jejuni strain by passaging it intravenously through ...19912004823
the use of plasmid profiles and nucleic acid probes in epidemiologic investigations of foodborne, diarrheal diseases.the application of nucleic acid analyses to investigations of infectious disease outbreaks has resulted in useful molecular strain markers that distinguish the epidemic clone of a particular pathogen and help identify specific vehicles of infection. we have successfully used plasmid profile analysis, restriction endonuclease digestion of plasmid and whole-cell dnas, and nucleic acid hybridization to investigate recent outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illness. plasmid analysis has been important ...19912018708
identification of thermotolerant campylobacter species from poultry using an enzyme-labelled oligonucleotide dna probe.a commercially available enzyme-labelled dna probe for human campylobacter strains has been tested and also found to hybridize with dna from c. jejuni and c. coli isolates from poultry. dna from 11 enteric, non-campylobacter organisms, included in the test as negative controls, failed to hybridize with the probe indicating that the probe might be used for identification of campylobacter from poultry too.19912049289
chicken carcasses as a source of campylobacter jejuni in belo horizonte, brazil.the presence of campylobacter jejuni was investigated in stool specimens from chicken meat workers and in ready-for-market chicken carcasses from one industrial and nine non industrial slaughters in belo horizonte. in the latter c. jejuni was isolated from 19 (38.0%) of the 50 chicken carcasses and from 2 (13.3%) of the stool specimens obtained from 15 chicken meat workers. in the industrial slaughter it was found in only 1 (2.0%) of the 50 chicken carcasses and it was not isolated from any of t ...19902135487
isolation, characterization, and host-cell-binding properties of a cytotoxin from campylobacter jejuni.a 68,000-molecular-weight protein was isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the organism-free filtrate of a fully virulent clinical strain of campylobacter jejuni. the eluted protein was heat labile, was inactivated at either ph 3.0 or 9.0, was sensitive to trypsin, and was lethal for fertile chicken eggs. it also had toxic effects on chicken embryo fibroblast, chinese hamster ovary (cho), and intestinal 407 (int407) cells. a monoclonal antibody (cetpmab4) raised to this eluted tox ...19902199497
influence of campylobacter jejuni cecal colonization on immunoglobulin response in chickens.the immunoglobulin response of chickens to colonization by campylobacter jejuni isolates b-540 and clin-1 was monitored. chicken humoral igg and biliary secretory iga (siga) responses were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). samples were taken from 128 c. jejuni-colonized chickens and 104 uncolonized chickens housed in a controlled environment. an indirect elisa was performed using the homologous isolate of c. jejuni as the capture antigen and was developed with the specific g ...19902241685
influence of antibody treatment of campylobacter jejuni on the dose required to colonize chicks.this study was designed to clarify the role of antibodies in controlling chicken colonization by campylobacter jejuni. cecal colonization by c. jejuni was compared after the organism was exposed either to phosphate-buffered saline, normal rabbit serum, rabbit hyperimmune anti-c. jejuni serum, or anti-c. jejuni antibodies extracted from chicken bile. antibodies from chicken bile were extracted by affinity absorption against outer-membrane proteins from the challenge organism. sera were heated 1 h ...19902241686
influence of host lineage on cecal colonization by campylobacter jejuni in chickens.the resistance to cecal colonization by campylobacter jejuni was assessed by challenging three crossbred stocks of commercially available broiler chickens. these three stocks, designated a, b, and c, were related as follows: offspring from four pedigreed grandparent flocks were used as progenitors. stock b was derived by cross-breeding grandparent 1 with grandparent 3. stocks a and c were crossbreeds from grandparents 1 and 2 and grandparents 3 and 4, respectively. campylobacter jejuni were gava ...19902241687
[the pathogenicity of campylobacter jejuni as a monoinfection and as a mixed infection with escherichia coli 078:k80 in broilers].two week old broilers (n = 61) with a monoinfection with campylobacter jejuni (0.5 ml of suspension containing 10(5) cfu/ml per os) showed reduced increase in weight during week 3 after infection compared to the control group. an other group of chickens (n = 31) was additionally infected with a suspension of escherichia (e.) coli o78:k80 via drinking water from day 4 to 6 after the primary infection. this mixed infection provoked clinical signs of a disease and reduced increase in weight during ...19902241888
fecal contamination of shanty town toddlers in households with non-corralled poultry, lima, peru.we used direct observer techniques to measure the frequency with which toddler-aged children were contaminated by poultry feces in homes in a peri-urban shanty town in lima, peru. the mean number of fowl was 5.4 (sd 3.1), with 10.0 (sd 10.7) poultry defecations per 12 hours. toddlers' hand contact with poultry feces occurred a mean of 2.9 (sd 3.0) times/12 hours. a mean of 3.9 (sd 4.6) feces-to-mouth episodes per household/12 hours occurred both by direct hand-to-mouth contamination and indirect ...19902297055
production and characterisation of campylobacter jejuni enterotoxin in a synthetic medium and its assay in rat ileal loops.a synthetic medium for production of campylobacter jejuni enterotoxin was developed for the purposes of its purification by modifying syncase medium, replacing sucrose with glucose, and supplementing with 0.025% sodium pyruvate, 0.25% sodium metabisulphite, 0.001% ferric chloride and 0.1% l-cysteine, adjusted to ph 6.7. culture filtrates of a human diarrhoeal and a chicken isolate, grown in this medium caused fluid accumulation ranging between 0.50-0.70 ml/cm of rat ileal loop. the kinetics of t ...19902323551
a further study of the epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni infections.epidemiological data on notifications of campylobacter jejuni infections is given for the christchurch health district area. the number of notifications rose steadily to a peak of 883 cases in 1987 (rate 261 per 100,000 population). christchurch shows consistently higher rates than the rest of new zealand. peak incidence is in the 0-4 age group; there is a high incidence amongst males and in rural areas; peak incidences in spring/summer; occupational risks have not been identified; chicken consu ...19902342690
campylobacter jejuni in poultry giblets.a total of 200 poultry giblets, 50 each of chickens, ducks, squab and turkeys, were examined for the presence of campylobacter jejuni. in chicken giblets, c. jejuni was isolated from gizzards, hearts, livers and spleens with incidences of 28%, 10%, 40% and 16% respectively while 24%, 6%, 36% and 10% of duck gizzards, hearts, livers and spleens were positive for the organism, respectively. c. jejuni was detected in 6% of squab gizzards, in 10% of squab livers but failed to be detected in squab he ...19902346069
serogroups of campylobacter jejuni from man and animals.a total of 186 campylobacter strains from aborted calf and sheep fetuses, from scouring dogs, rabbits and man, and from retailed poultry were isolated and examined biochemically and serologically for heat stable antigens. immune sera were produced in rabbits against penner reference strains from 1 to 60, and against two field isolates. out of 186 biochemically tested strains 179 (96.2%) proved c. jejuni and only 6 (3.2%) c. coli. one strain has been identified as c. laridis. in cattle and sheep ...19902402970
[epidemiological aspects of enteritis due to campylobacter jejuni].from september 1986 through july 1987, all fecal specimens obtained from infants and children who visited the pediatric clinic of the shizuoka general hospital with complaints of abdominal pain or diarrhea were examined for thermophilic campylobacters. bacteriological and epidemiological studies were performed on household contacts. the mothers of the patients were compared with the mothers of age-matched control subjects. bacteriological examination of animals in 49 primary schools in shizuoka ...19892501423
[campylobacter infection and campylobacter excretion in turkeys].five turkey poults at an age of 27 days were infected with campylobacter jejuni strain. additional five poults were infected by contact. turkeys infected by contact and artificially were necropsied 1 and 3 months later, respectively. the histological examination of the liver revealed degenerative changes in contact birds and a proliferation of the connective tissue and bile-ducts in two of the oral infected poults. campylobacter spp. were excreted daily during the first two weeks and afterwards ...19892590155
better growth of campylobacter jejuni using simple fortner's principle & candle extinction jar.c. jejuni isolated from patients of childhood diarrhoea and chicken intestines were examined for better growth in both liquid and solid media under three different environments of candle extinction jar with or without an escherichia coli inoculated plate and three such plates in a sealed jar. better growth by one log in liquid media was obtained at 24 and 48 h with bacterial counts of about ca. 10(7) and ca. 10(9) respectively, and larger colony size at 24 h on solid medium by inclusion of a sin ...19892644169
campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in poultry reared under different management systems in nigeria.cloacal swabs from 487 live birds in 36 flocks and 70 poultry carcasses were cultured for campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. it was isolated from 12.3% of the birds in 19 flocks. chickens, turkeys, and guinea fowl differed from one another in isolation rates of the organism. management system affected its occurrence, and only 7.1% of eviscerated carcasses yielded it. it was concluded that bird species, management system, and immersing slaughtered poultry in boiling water before dressing affect r ...19892695052
serotyping studies of campylobacter from naturally colonized chickens.campylobacter jejuni/coli strains from 164 chickens were serotyped by the methods previously described by penner et al. and lior et al. the chickens were sampled during breeding from hatching to the age of 42 weeks. the birds were housed, in two separate groups, under different environmental conditions, (for comparison of the effect of hygienic precautions on the transmission of the bacteria during breeding). in the group where the hygienic conditions could be controlled to a greater extent, the ...19892703018
virulence of campylobacter jejuni for chicken embryos.the pathogenicity of campylobacter jejuni was examined in chicken embryos. in this system, mortality data and histopathological findings induced by organisms and by bacterium-free filtered broth were identical. the absence in chicken embryo tissues both of organisms and of an inflammatory infiltrate suggests a toxin etiology.19892754005
inhibition of campylobacter jejuni in vitro by broiler chicken caecal contents. 19892800258
raw beef, pork and chicken in japan contaminated with salmonella sp., campylobacter sp., yersinia enterocolitica, and clostridium perfringens--a comparative study.one hundred and twenty samples each of raw ground beef, pork and chicken from ten local grocery stores in shimane prefecture, japan, were examined for the presence of salmonella sp. (sal), campylobacter jejuni (cj), campylobacter coli (cc), yersinia enterocolitica (ye), and clostridium perfringens (cp) from april 1984 to march 1985. a total of 205 isolates of sal (112 strains), cj (64 strains), cc (one strain), ye (7 strains) and cp (21 strains) were recovered from 17 beef (14.2%), 31 pork (25.8 ...19872887078
influence of iron on growth, morphology, outer membrane protein composition, and synthesis of siderophores in campylobacter jejuni.three human isolates of campylobacter jejuni were grown in a biphasic culture medium with and without the addition of a synthetic chelator to induce iron limitation. cells grown in low-iron medium exhibited slower growth rates and altered cellular morphology. increased numbers of longer, more filamentous forms were seen in gram-stained smears. three proteins, with apparent mrs of 82,000, 76,000, and 74,000, were consistently present in the outer membrane of cells grown in low-iron medium. at lea ...19862944843
biochemical and serological characteristics of campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from chickens. 19862953191
the growth of potential food poisoning organisms on chicken and pork muscle surfaces.muscle surfaces of pork were inoculated with a mixture of yersinia enterocolitica and staphylococcus aureus, and chicken muscle with campylobacter jejuni or a mixture of salmonella typhimurium and staph. aureus. the surface growth at 20 degrees c was followed microscopically. organisms grew as discrete colonies bound together by a glycocalyx which differed between bacterial species. on prolonged incubation colonies spread peripherally and tended to coalesce, while still retaining their colony st ...19883072327
[campylobacter jejuni in poultry processed in slaughterhouses].the frequency of occurrence of campylobacter jejuni germs in dressed poultry was studied for a year. the samples--smears from the body cavities of chickens--were collected during the technological dressing of the chickens; 101 strains of campylobacter jejuni (i. e. 28.69%) were isolated from the 352 samples analyzed. the occurrence of the germs exhibited a considerable seasonal variance with peak rates in spring and summer. the use of a suitable culture medium, the technique of cultivation and t ...19873118554
[survey for the contamination of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli among raw meat and the environment of poultry processing plants]. 19883137280
incidence of campylobacter jejuni in processed egg products.egg samples were obtained from two commercial egg-processing facilities to determine if campylobacter jejuni could be isolated from the raw product or from further-processed egg products intended for human consumption. no c. jejuni were detected in any of the egg or egg-product samples or from water samples collected from the overflow of the egg washer. campylobacter jejuni was recovered from all control samples, which had been inoculated at the plants. these findings suggest that properly proce ...19883194336
paediatric campylobacter diarrhoea from household exposure to live chickens in lima, peru.although campylobacter jejuni is a frequent enteropathogen in cases of paediatric diarrhoea in developing countries, its route of transmission is not well understood. an age-matched, case-control study of children with c. jejuni diarrhoea was therefore carried out in lima, peru, from january 1983 to april 1986 to identify the risk factors and vehicles of transmissions. as cases, 104 children less than 3 years of age were selected and compared with controls of the same age with non-gastrointestin ...19883262442
the extent of surface contamination of retailed chickens with campylobacter jejuni serogroups.eighty-two chickens purchased at 11 retailers (supplied by 12 wholesalers) in the south of england were cultured for campylobacter jejuni by a method involving total immersion. the organism was isolated from 22 (48%) of 46 fresh birds, 12 of 12 uneviscerated (new york dressed) birds, but only 1 of 24 frozen birds. viable counts of up to 1.5 x 10(6)/chicken were obtained from fresh birds and 2.4 x 10(7)/chicken from uneviscerated birds. surface swabbing of breasts, thighs, wings and vents of fres ...19883338503
chemotactic behavior of campylobacter jejuni.the chemotactic behavior of campylobacter jejuni was determined in the presence of different amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and preparations and constituents of mucin and bile. l-fucose was the only carbohydrate and l-aspartate, l-cysteine, l-glutamate, and l-serine were the only amino acids producing a chemotactic (positive) response. several salts of organic acids, including pyruvate, succinate, fumarate, citrate, malate, and alpha-ketoglutarate, were also chemoattractants, as were ...19883372020
serovars and biovars of campylobacter strains isolated from humans and slaughterhouse animals in northern germany.a total of 318 campylobacter strains from sporadic cases of human enteritis (109 strains) and healthy slaughterhouse animals in northern germany (209 strains) were bio- and serotyped according to the lior typing schemes. three hundred strains were typable (94.3%) and 38 serovars were identified. among human strains 28 serovars were identified with 30% of them belonging to serovar 4. strains from pigs were associated with 25 serovars, the most frequent being serovar 20 (21.2%). fourteen serovars ...19883372398
enterotoxigenicity of chicken isolates of campylobacter jejuni in ligated ileal loops of rats.ligated ileal loops in rats of the charles-foster strain, weighing 200-250 g and aged 7-8 months, provided a sensitive and reproducible means of testing the enterotoxigenicity of campylobacter jejuni. all of 16 chicken isolates caused fluid accumulation comparable to that produced by toxigenic vibrio cholerae o1, strain 569b. however, 11 of the isolates required one to three consecutive passages through the rat gut before doing so. the amount of fluid produced increased after each passage. of th ...19883385766
intestinal colonization of campylobacter jejuni in chickens. 19883386104
colonization characteristics of campylobacter jejuni in chick ceca.we report our findings on several parameters influencing cecal colonization of chickens by campylobacter jejuni. thirty-five colony-forming units (cfu) of a composite culture of c. jejuni colonized the ceca of one-half of the newly hatched chicks challenged by oral gavage. a challenge dose of 3500 cfu/chick consistently colonized the ceca of all chicks challenged. challenge doses of approximately 10(5) cfu of c. jejuni per chick resulted in consistent cecal colonization, regardless of whether th ...19883401176
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni in eggs and poultry meat in new york state.the presence of campylobacter jejuni was tested for but not isolated from any of 276 eggs sampled from 23 egg farms in new york state. the presence of c. jejuni was evaluated in broilers, kosher broilers, spent layers, peking ducks, and turkeys. four of five poultry dressing plants tested showed positive growth of c. jejuni on the 25-carcass samples at various stages of processing. twenty to 100% of live birds sampled contained c. jejuni on the skin but 90 to 100% were contaminated after scaldin ...19873447135
[experimental animal studies with campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in chickens]. 19873566434
decontamination of campylobacter jejuni on chicken drumsticks using chemicals and radiation.a trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of four disinfectants and radiation to reduce the level of c. jejuni contamination on poultry meat. two levels of each treatment were applied to chicken drumsticks inoculated with a known concentration of a strain of campylobacter jejuni, biotype 1, isolated from a human patient with diarrhea. radiation using a cobalt-60 source at a level of 0.5 kgy effected a 99% surface reduction in c. jejuni. with a mean initial surface contamination level of 1.1 ...19873576968
[the epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in the fattening chicken]. 19873589638
serum agglutinin titers against somatic and flagellar antigens of campylobacter jejuni and isolation of campylobacter spp in chickens.from june 1983 to june 1984, two hundred twenty-five 3- to 30-month-old chickens (hens) on 10 different farms were examined for campylobacter spp. watering trays and fly vectors also were examined for campylobacter spp on 6 of the 10 farms. campylobacter jejuni was isolated from fecal specimens from 64 hens (28.4%), c coli was isolated from 6 hens (2.7%), and c laridis was isolated from 9 hens (4%). the isolation rate of c jejuni was 6.7% to 46.7% for 9 of the 10 farms. on 2 farms, agglutinin ti ...19873592379
campylobacter colitis in ranch mink in ontario.outbreaks of colitis, where campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were the only pathogens isolated occurred in weanling mink (mustella vision) on two commercial mink ranches in ontario. lesions were restricted to the proximal colon and were characterized by multiple 1 mm focal or 1 mm linear erosions/ulcers in the region 2 cm distal to the ileal-colonic junction. histological changes included thickening of the colonic mucosa, inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria and submucosa ...19863742356
the chicken embryo as a model for campylobacter invasion: comparative virulence of human isolates of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.eleven-day-old chicken embryos were used to compare the relative virulence of minimally passaged human isolates of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. graded doses of bacteria were inoculated onto the chorioallantoic membrane, and 50% lethal doses were calculated at 72 h postinfection. strains varied markedly in their ability to invade the chorioallantoic membrane and kill the embryos. the 50% lethal doses varied by about 6 logs for 25 strains of c. jejuni, and by 2 logs for 5 strains o ...19863759232
[isolation of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from intestinal contents and feces of chickens]. 19853925041
epidemiologic study of campylobacteriosis in iowa cattle and the possible role of unpasteurized milk as a vehicle of infection.bile samples were collected from 477 iowa dairy cows and were cultured for thermophilic campylobacters. the prevalence of thermophilic campylobacters in the bile was 15.5%. campylobacter jejuni and c coli from dairy cattle, chickens, pigs, sheep, and human beings were serotyped to develop host-species profiles. human and cattle serologic profiles were the most similar, and human and chicken profiles shared several similarities. epidemiologic data from 168 human cases of campylobacteriosis indica ...19863954200
serotyping of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter laridis from domestic and wild animals.by using 50 unabsorbed antisera, we were able to serotype 272 (65.7%) of 414 thermotolerant campylobacters from wild and domestic animals, on the basis of heat-stable antigens identified by means of passive hemagglutination. forty-two serotypes were recognized. the pattern of serotypes detected in the various animal species was compared to human clinical isolates by using the czekanowski index (proportional similarity index). the highest degree of similarity to the clinical isolates was observed ...19854015088
biotypes and serotypes of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains isolated from patients, pigs and chickens in the region of rotterdam.a comparison was made of the distribution of the bio-and serotypes of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from human patients (205 isolates), intestinal contents of pigs (163 isolates) and intestinal contents and livers of chickens (147 isolates). all strains were isolated in the region of rotterdam. campylobacter jejuni biotype 1 accounted for 86%, 1% and 82% of the human, pig and chicken isolates respectively; c. coli was present in 7%, 98% and 14% respectively. serotyping was ...19854031520
occurrence of plasmids and antibiotic resistance among campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from healthy and diarrheic animals.serologically defined strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from healthy and diarrheic animals were examined for the occurrence of plasmid dna in association with the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacterial host and the health status of the animal host. of all campylobacter organisms surveyed, 53% (116 of 200) contained plasmid dna. a plasmid occurrence rate of 73.8% was obtained for c. coli from healthy pigs, contrasted by lower plasmid occurrence rates for c. coli from diar ...19854044793
serotyping of campylobacter jejuni from an outbreak of enteritis implicating chicken.an outbreak of campylobacter enteritis involving 7 of 17 people over a period of 5 days followed a dinner at a restaurant. a chicken casserole dish was implicated with a food-specific attack rate of 58%. campylobacter jejuni penner serotype 18/21/29, resistant to metronidazole, was isolated from 3 of 4 symptomatic patients and from three raw fresh chicken samples closely associated with the implicated chicken. numbers of c. jejuni in the chicken ranged from 5.3 x 10(1) to 7.5 x 10(2) colony form ...19854056451
experimental gastroenteritis in newly-hatched chicks infected with campylobacter jejuni.the susceptibility of chicks to enteritis caused by campylobacter jejuni was studied. three-day-old chicks did not develop enteritis after oral infection but chicks infected within 12 h of hatching developed gastroenteritis. the incubation period correlated with the inoculum size. initially, infected chicks developed blood- and mucus-containing stools, although watery diarrhoea often occurred late in the course of the disease. recurrences of the enteric manifestations were common but only two ou ...19846492120
epidemiological investigations on campylobacter jejuni in households with a primary infection.fifty-four rotterdam patients in which a primary infection with campylobacter jejuni had been detected (index patients) were compared with 54 control subjects with regard to the consumption and preparation of foods 7 days before onset of illness and the keeping of pet animals. significantly more index patients than controls had eaten chicken meat (47 v. 29; p = 0.0002), particularly at barbecues (14 v. 2; p = 0.0015). marginally more index patients had eaten pork (47 v. 39; p = 0.048) or inadequ ...19846501878
selected enrichment broths for recovery of campylobacter jejuni from foods.we attempted to shorten the required time for enrichment broth culture for the isolation of campylobacter jejuni. enrichment broths described by doyle and roman and park and stankiewicz and one developed during this study were compared for ability to isolate c. jejuni from raw chicken carcasses. our medium was a modification of that of doyle and roman with the addition of filter-sterilized fbp (0.2% ferrous sulfate, 0.025% sodium metabisulfite, 0.05% sodium pyruvate), 0.1% sodium lauryl sulfate, ...19846476833
campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli serotypes isolated from chickens, cattle, and pigs.a total of 191 campylobacter jejuni and 125 campylobacter coli were isolated from the intestinal content of 398 chickens, 421 cattle, and 203 pigs. all 108 chicken isolates and 73 of 80 cattle isolates were c. jejuni, but 115 of the 118 pig isolates were c. coli. a total of 84% of the c. jejuni and 64% of the c. coli isolates were typed on the basis of thermostable antigens with 20 antisera prepared against frequently occurring serotypes in campylobacter enteritis in man (15 c. jejuni, 6 c. coli ...19836630466
intestinal carriage of campylobacter jejuni and salmonella by chicken flocks at slaughter.campylobacter jejuni were isolated in large numbers from the majority of birds sampled in colonic swabs from 28 of 60 flocks at slaughter. by contrast only small numbers of birds from 11 of the same 60 flocks yielded salmonella enteritidis serotypes. three c. jejuni isolates from each flock were serotyped on the basis of their heat-stable antigens, using antisera prepared against 16 serotypes common in campylobacter diarrhea in man. the majority (72 of 83) of the chicken isolates could be seroty ...19846383579
isolation of campylobacter jejuni from market chickens: effect of temperature and time of incubation.during a 4-month period, starting in june 1983, campylobacter jejuni was isolated at 42% from a total of 115 samples of market chickens. the effects of the temperature and duration of incubation on the isolation of c. jejuni were evaluated. the samples were massaged in polyethylene plastic bags, filtered through cheesecloth, centrifuged, and the sediment was plated on a selective medium. isolation of c. jejuni was increased by incubating at 42 degrees c during 48 h as opposed to 35 degrees c for ...19854096141
pathogenicity of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains in the pregnant guinea pig model.pathogenicity of 17 campylobacter isolates for pregnant guinea pigs was investigated. of 14 isolates, 12 (86%) produced rates of abortion ranging from 13% to 87%. two isolates did not produce abortion. reference strains of c fetus subsp venerealis produced abortion in 60% to 87% and c fetus subsp fetus produced abortion in 60% of the guinea pigs. inoculated organisms were recovered from uterus, blood, liver, kidney, spleen, and gallbladder of the guinea pigs at rates as high as 83% for 2 ovine i ...19836650962
serotyping of and hippurate hydrolysis by campylobacter jejuni isolates from human patients, poultry and pigs in the netherlands.three hundred strains of campylobacter jejuni, isolated from human patients, poultry and pigs were serotyped according to the penner-lauwers system and furthermore tested for hippurate hydrolysis. serotyping showed a close relationship between human and chicken strains, whereas there was little relationship between human and pig strains. a similar conclusion was drawn from the results of the hippurate hydrolysis test: 86% of human and 94% of poultry strains were positive, whereas 91% of pig stra ...19854004203
the role of poultry and meats in the etiology of campylobacter jejuni/coli enteritis.to determine the role of meats as possible sources of infection leading to campylobacter jejuni/coli (cjc) enteritis, 218 cases and 526 controls were selected from the king county group health cooperative (ghc) population from april 1982 through september 1983. all subjects were interviewed regarding food consumption one week prior to case onset. consumption of chicken and cornish game hen were both associated with more than a doubling of the risk of cjc enteritis: for chicken (relative risk = 2 ...19863953917
a survey of campylobacter and other bacterial contaminants of pre-market chicken and retail poultry and meats, king county, washington.as part of a larger study to determine the flow of campylobacter and salmonella from food animals to humans during 1982-83, 1,936 swabs were collected for bacteriologic study from pre-market chickens, retail poultry, and other retail meats as well as from equipment and work surfaces used to process such foods. of the 297 samples collected in a poultry processing plant, 56.6 per cent were positive for campylobacter jejuni/coli (cjc), as were 23.1 per cent of the 862 retail chicken, and 17.2 per c ...19863953916
[occurrence and transmission of campylobacter jejuni/coli in young poultry fattening production. 1]. 19853910389
campylobacter jejuni contamination of eggs.contamination of commercial table eggs with a fecal suspension containing 4.4 x 10(6) cfu/g campylobacter jejuni resulted in shell penetration in 3/70 eggs and recovery of the organism from homogenized egg contents in 1/70 eggs. viability of c. jejuni on the shell surface was retained for only 16 hours, attributed to desiccation of the fecal suspension. a field survey of three commercial laying farms and their associated egg-packing plants showed that hens demonstrated to be fecal shedders of c. ...19863798738
a study of the spread of campylobacter jejuni in four large kitchens.campylobacters were sought in swabs taken from work surfaces, sinks and floors of four kitchens-i.e. hospital, university, cook-freeze and commercial, processing frozen or fresh chickens. each kitchen was visited on four occasions. in the large commercial kitchen environmental contamination was found on each visit, whereas campylobacters were isolated on six of the twelve visits to the other kitchens. the hands of operatives were contaminated with campylobacters on only two of the 45 swabs taken ...19846736643
the viability of campylobacter jejuni on refrigerated chicken drumsticks.radappertized chicken drumsticks were experimentally contaminated with suspensions of campylobacter jejuni in two trials. qualitative analysis on drumsticks with an initial level of contamination of 4.8 x 10(3) cfu/cm2 showed that viability was retained for at least 10 days of storage at either 9 degrees or -12 degrees c. in a second quantitative trial, the level of contamination declined from 9.9 x 10(2) cfu/cm2 to 4.5 x 10(1) cfu/cm2 after 7 days at -20 degrees c. thereafter, c. jejuni persist ...19863798737
isolation of campylobacter jejuni from intestinal contents of chickens in mexico city. 19863738283
efficacy of some methods and media for detecting and enumerating campylobacter jejuni in frozen chicken meat.four of five strains of campylobacter jejuni survived in chicken meat stored at -18 degrees c for 12 months. direct plating of samples was superior to the most probable number technique for enumerating c. jejuni. enrichment culture using the doyle & roman enrichment method resulted in the highest rates of detection. packaging under an atmosphere of co2 did not substantially influence survival.19873597202
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni in two california chicken processing plants.two federally inspected california chicken processing plants participated in campylobacter jejuni prevalence studies. twelve sampling sites were included in each of four groups. groups were based on bird age, scald water temperature, and plant sampled. scald water temperatures of 60 degrees c (140 degrees f) did not contribute to a lower prevalence of c. jejuni in edible parts, as did temperatures of 53 degrees c (127 degrees f) and 49 degrees c (120 degrees f). the feather picker and chilling t ...19836830212
house flies (musca domestica) as possible vectors of campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.a total of 161 strains of campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni were isolated from house flies (musca domestica). the carrier rates detected were 50.7% in flies captured on a chicken farm and 43.2% in flies from a piggery. the relative prevalences of campylobacter coli, c. jejuni, and nalidixic acid-resistant thermophilic campylobacters were 90.1, 6.2, and 3.7%, respectively. the results indicate that flies may play a linking role in the epidemiology of campylobacter infection in humans by transmitt ...19836830213
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni in chicken wings.campylobacter jejuni was found in 82.9% of 94 chicken wing packages analyzed on the day of arrival at supermarkets and in 15.5% of 45 packages obtained from the supermarket shelves a few days later. the number of bacterial cells ranged from 10(2) to 10(3.9) per wing. the prevalence of c. jejuni in the wings varied with the brand, the day of sampling, and the age of the product.19836847181
[isolation of campylobacter jejuni from chicken feces and their survival period in minced chicken]. 19836421960
enteropathogenic bacteria in frozen chicken.eighty-two samples of frozen chicken from retail stores were examined for the presence of campylobacter, yersinia enterocolitica, and salmonellae. aerobic plate counts and numbers of coliform bacteria at 37 degrees c were determined. campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni was found in 22% of the samples, y. enterocolitica was found in 24.5% and salmonella typhimurium was found in one sample (1.2%). the isolated strains of y. enterocolitica belonged to serotypes 4, 5b, 6, and 8. aerobic plate counts a ...19817020597
efficacy of media and methods for detecting and enumerating campylobacter jejuni in refrigerated chicken meat.a study was undertaken to compare several enrichment and direct isolation media for their suitability to detect and enumerate five strains of campylobacter jejuni in refrigerated (5 degrees c) chicken meat. the influence of co2 on survival at 5 degrees c was also investigated. selective enrichment media evaluated included preston broth (pb), selective semisolid brucella medium (ssbm), campylobacter enrichment broth (ceb), vtp brucella-fbp broth (vtp), rosef and kapperud campylobacter enrichment ...19854083888
[bacteriological and serological evidence for the presence of campylobacter jejuni in poultry, animals and man (1982-1983)]. 19854070879
recovery of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from inoculated foods by selective enrichment.a direct enrichment procedure was developed to selectively recover small numbers of campylobacter jejuni, c. coli, and nalidixic acid-resistant thermophilic campylobacter from foods. the procedure includes an enrichment medium composed of brucella broth, 7% lysed horse blood, 0.3% sodium succinate, 0.01% cysteine hydrochloride, vancomycin (15 micrograms/ml), trimethoprim (5 micrograms/ml), polymyxin b (20 iu/ml), and cycloheximide (50 micrograms/ml) that is inoculated with 10 or 25 g of food and ...19827103488
pathogenicity of campylobacter jejuni isolates from animals and humans.fourteen isolates of campylobacter jejuni of different serotypes and one campylobacter coli isolate, from various human and animal sources, were tested for potential pathogenic mechanisms. enterotoxin production was not detected in the infant mouse test or by calf and piglet ligated intestinal loop studies. isolates were not invasive by the sereny test. all isolates associated with and penetrated hela cells, although both actions occurred generally in a minor way under the conditions of our stud ...19827141696
role of litter in the transmission of campylobacter jejuni.autoclaved or non-autoclaved used broiler litter that was experimentally contaminated with campylobacter jejuni was capable of infecting specific-pathogen-free chicks maintained in modified horsfall isolators. artificially infected chicks became fecal shedders of c. jejuni, resulting in contamination of both autoclaved and non-autoclaved used broiler litter. fecal shedding of c. jejuni by litter-reared, artificially infected chicks persisted for at least 63 days after chicks were transferred to ...19854026733
transmission of campylobacter jejuni by the housefly (musca domestica).houseflies (musca domestica) were infected with campylobacter jejuni after being confined for 5 days in a horsfall isolator containing 25-day-old chickens known to be fecal excretors of the organism. contaminated flies, when subsequently transferred to a second unit, transmitted c. jejuni to specific-pathogen-free chickens. allowing a sample of 32 houseflies to ingest c. jejuni in a liquid suspension resulted in recovery rates of 20% from the feet and ventral surface of the body and 70% from the ...19854026732
laboratory infection of chicken eggs with campylobacter jejuni by using temperature or pressure differentials.fertile chicken eggs were infected in our laboratory with campylobacter jejuni suspensions by using temperature or pressure differential methods of inoculation. after 2 days of incubation, over 90% of the eggs carried c. jejuni when iron was present in the inoculum. this percentage declined rapidly until by day 8, less than 10% of the eggs were detectably infected. however, up to 11% of hatched, healthy chicks carried c. jejuni in their intestinal tracts. the isolated organisms were of the same ...19854015086
the effect of carbon dioxide packaging on detection of campylobacter jejuni from chicken carcasses.commercially-processed broilers were held at 4 c in carbon dioxide(co2)-flushed bags or in natural atmosphere for nine days prior to determining the most probable number of campylobacter jejuni on individual carcasses. fifty broilers were evaluated. the co2-enriched atmosphere packaging of broilers had no detectable effect on the c. jejuni populations.19853923461
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