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attempts to serologically classify feline caliciviruses on a national and an international basis.a serological classification of five feline calicivirus (fcv) strains of swiss origin and 13 isolates of austrian origin was attempted. the antisera used had been prepared in rabbits against the five swiss strains and in goats against six american strains. homologous and heterologous neutralization tests were made in tube cultures using sera at dilutions that contained 20 antibody units, in unabsorbed sera at low dilution, and in sera after subjection to three consecutive absorptions with lyophi ...1976992873
induction of immunity to feline caliciviral disease.six specific-pathogen-free cats were exposed by aerosol to a feline calicivirus of low virulence (f-9 virus). homotypic (anti-f-9) seroconversion occurred in all cats by postexposure day 14. the serum of one cat on postexposure day 14 and four of six cats on postexposure day 35 neutralized feline picornavirus isolate no. 225 (fpv-255), a virulent feline calicivirus. homologous antiviral activity was detected before the appearance of heterologous (anti-fpv-255) activity and always was present in ...19751123251
cross-protection among feline caliciviruses.each of five groups of specific-pathogen-free and conventionally reared cats was infected with a different strain of feline calicivirus. two of the strains were pathogenic, producing characteristically fever, depression, loss of appetite, buccal ulceration, and occasionally increased ocular and nasal secretion. two of the other strains were midly pathogenic and associated with fever or buccal ulceration or both; the fifth strain was nonpathogenic. the two pathogenic strains plus three others sho ...19751173064
effect of primary-stage feline immunodeficiency virus infection on subsequent feline calicivirus vaccination and challenge in cats.the effect of experimental primary-stage feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection on feline calicivirus (fcv) vaccination and challenge in cats was studied. clinical signs of acute fcv disease were more widespread in the cats which were infected with fiv than in those which were not. fiv infection also prolonged shedding of fcv, with more of the fiv-infected cats becoming chronic carriers. although vaccination induced protection against acute fcv disease, this was to a lesser degree in fiv- ...19911652980
isolation of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus from domestic cats 1980 to 1989.isolation rates of feline herpesvirus (fhv) and feline calicivirus (fcv) from oropharyngeal swabs, taken from 6866 cats in 1980 to 1989 were studied retrospectively. fcv was isolated from 1364 (19.9 per cent) and fhv from 285 (4.2 per cent). the ratio of fcv:fhv isolations varied from 1.3:1 to 15:1 in individual years with an overall ratio of 4.8:1. isolation of both viruses was fairly uniform for each year and there was no breed or sex disposition to either virus. of 872 cats shedding fcv and 2 ...19911850183
sequence analysis of the 3'-end of feline calicivirus genome.the nucleotide sequence of the 3'-end of the japanese f4 strain of feline calicivirus (fcv) rna was determined from a cloned cdna of 3.5 kbp. we found three open reading frames (orfs). the largest orf encoded a 668-amino acid protein of 73,588 da, which was presumably the capsid precursor protein of fcv and had significant amino acid sequence homology with the vp3 of picornaviruses. a small orf at the extreme 3'-end was compared with that of the f9 strain of fcv, a vaccine strain originally from ...19911853578
immunohistochemical detection of feline calicivirus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens.an immunohistochemical technique was developed for detection of feline calicivirus (fcv) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cultured cells and tissues. initial trials with cultured cells indicated that the indirect immunoperoxidase method using rabbit antiserum to fcv strain 255, and horseradish peroxidase-labelled antibodies to rabbit immunoglobulin g lacked sensitivity and showed excessive diffuse background staining despite trypsin digestion of sections before staining. an amplified indirec ...19892766153
feline calicivirus subunit vaccine--a prototype.a vaccine was prepared from a subunit component, antigenically similar to the whole feline calicivirus (fcv) particles. despite the limited number of animals available for this study we were able to demonstrate that the vaccine protected cats when challenged with a virulent strain of the virus while the non-vaccinates kept as controls developed clinical and histopathological symptoms of the calicivirus disease.19852994563
the effect of deae-dextran on the infectivity of a feline calicivirus and its rna. 19734716969
jaundice in a siamese cat with in utero feline calicivirus infection. 19816282244
the pathway of feline calicivirus entry.the requirement for a low ph-dependent step during feline calicivirus (fcv) entry into crandell-reese feline kidney cells was investigated. chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent that prevents acidification of intracellular vesicles, inhibited the production of infectious virus when present during adsorption and the initial stages of fcv replication, but had little effect when added after 2 h post infection. the effect of chloroquine was reversible, allowing the virus growth curve to proceed when r ...19957754675
feline bordetellosis: challenge and vaccine studies.four eight-week-old cats, shown to be free from feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus and chlamydia psittaci were challenged with an aerosol of bordetella bronchiseptica. within five days the cats developed signs of respiratory disease, characterised by nasal discharge, sneezing, spontaneous or induced coughing and dry or wet rales at auscultation. these signs were present for about 10 days, after which they began to resolve. to test the protective capacity of an experimental fimbrial antigen-b ...19938236648
delayed hypersensitivity testing as a clinical measure of cell-mediated immunity in the cat.the purposes of this study were to examine the cell-mediated immune response of the normal cat to the modified live feline viral rhinitis, calicivirus, and parvovirus (fvrcp) vaccine (felocell cvr, norden, lincoln, ne), and to evaluate the intradermal skin test as a clinical measure of the immune response of cats. vaccine and diluent were injected intradermally on the dorsal pinna of 34 normal adult cats. skin thickness measurements, lymphocyte counts, and concanavalin a mitogenesis indices were ...19938256439
parasite prevalence in free-ranging farm cats, felis silvestris catus.no animals tested were positive for feline leukemia virus antigen and chlamydia psittaci antibodies, but all were positive for antibodies to feline calicivirus (fcv), feline herpesvirus 1 (fhv1) and rotavirus. they had antibodies to feline parvovirus (96%), feline coronavirus (84% and cowpox virus (2%). antibody to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) was found in 53% of animals, which were less likely to be infected with haemobartonella felis, and had higher fhv antibody titres than cats without ...19968620914
viral infections of the feline urinary tract.the exact cause of hematuria, dysuria, and urethral obstruction remains unknown in a large percentage of naturally occurring cases of feline lower urinary tract disease (flutd). one attractive hypothesis implicates viruses as the cause of some idiopathic forms of flutd; supporting this hypothesis is the fact that a gamma herpesvirus, a calicivirus, and a retrovirus have been isolated from urine and tissues obtained from cats with this type of disease. although the clinical course and laboratory ...19968711863
sequence analysis of the capsid gene of feline calicivirus strain f65. 19968878958
detection and strain differentiation of feline calicivirus in conjunctival swabs by rt-pcr of the hypervariable region of the capsid protein gene.reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was used to direct the amplification of a 670 to 680 base pair segment that included the hypervariable regions of the capsid protein gene of feline calicivirus (fcv). the segment was amplified from 13/13 cultivated fcv strains including 12 field isolates collected over 18 years. the sensitivities of culture and this rt-pcr for the detection of fcv in conjunctival swabs over the course of infection were then compared and correlated with cli ...19989722877
feline viruses in wildcats from scotland.few data are available on the prevalence of feline viruses in european wildcats (felis silvestris). previous surveys have indicated that wildcats may be infected with the common viruses of domestic cats, apart from feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). in the present study, 50 wildcats trapped throughout scotland (uk) between august 1992 and january 1997 were tested for evidence of viral infection. all were negative for fiv by several serological or virological methods. by contrast, 10% of the ca ...199910073361
characterisation of a potentially abortigenic strain of feline calicivirus isolated from a domestic cat.feline calicivirus (fcv) was isolated from one of four dead fetuses delivered by ovariohysterectomy from a queen with an acute fcv infection. the most prominent lesions in the fetuses were petechial haemorrhages in the skin. the virus isolated was characterised as fcv by antigenic analysis and cdna sequence analysis. this is the second report of abortion associated with acute fcv infection.199910399245
feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection leads to increased incidence of feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (forl).feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (forl), previously known as 'neck lesions,' are commonly known in domestic, but also in non-domestic cats. they are characterized by odontoclastic resorptive processes, which take place at the dental root and at the periodontium. chronic inflammation of gingiva and periodontium is believed to be an important etiological factor in the development of forl. in this context, various feline viruses have been discussed to play a relevant role in the pathogenesis ...19989839881
removal of viruses from human intravenous immune globulin by 35 nm nanofiltration.viral safety is an important prerequisite for clinical immunoglobulin preparations. a common manufacturing practice is to utilize several virus removal/inactivation process steps to ensure the safety of human intravenous immunoglobulin (ivig). in this regard, we examined the use of planova 35 nm filters to reduce potential loads of both non-enveloped and enveloped viruses prior to end-stage solvent detergent treatment. the nanofiltration process was validated for removal of a variety of envelope ...199810403036
questions efficacy of vaccinating cats at 3-year intervals. 199910451196
prevalence of antibodies to feline parvovirus, calicivirus, herpesvirus, coronavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline leukemia virus antigen and the interrelationship of these viral infections in free-ranging lions in east africa.while viral infections and their impact are well studied in domestic cats, only limited information is available on their occurrence in free-ranging lions. the goals of the present study were (i) to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to feline calicivirus (fcv), herpesvirus (fhv), coronavirus (fcov), parvovirus (fpv), and immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and of feline leukemia virus (felv) antigen in 311 serum samples collected between 1984 and 1991 from lions inhabiting tanzania's national pa ...19968877134
tissue distribution of virus replication in cats experimentally infected with distinct feline calicivirus isolates.four specific pathogen-free (spf) cats were each inoculated with one of two genetically and antigenically well characterized feline caliciviruses originally isolated from cats with acute respiratory disease (fcv-ks100/2), or with chronic stomatitis (fcv-ks20). two cats of each group were euthanized at day 10 post infection and two cats at day 28. no clear differences between the clinical disease induced by the two isolates could be observed, and no apparent differences in the tissue spectrum wer ...199910507186
investigation of vaccine reactions and breakdowns after feline calicivirus vaccination.the clinical and epidemiological features of feline calicivirus associated vaccine reactions and breakdowns were investigated. twenty per cent of 123 vaccine reactions were associated with acute oral/respiratory disease alone, and 80 per cent were associated with lameness either alone or in association with other clinical signs. feline calicivirus was isolated from oropharyngeal swabs from 69 per cent of the vaccine reaction cases. twenty-four of 31 vaccine breakdowns were associated with acute ...19938387712
comparison of prevalence of feline herpesvirus type 1, calicivirus and parvovirus infections in domestic and leopard cats in vietnam.a serosurvey of feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1), feline calicivirus (fcv), and feline parvovirus (fpv) in cats from ho chi minh city area in southern vietnam was conducted in december 1998, and we compared the results with our previous results in northern vietnam (hanoi area). the positive rate of fhv and fcv in domestic cats were 44% and 74%, respectively. they were rather higher than those in hanoi area, while the seropositivity of fpv (44%) was similar to that in hanoi area. in leopard cats ...199910651052
serologic survey and serum biochemical reference ranges of the free-ranging mountain lion (felis concolor) in california.serum samples from 58 mountain lions (felis concolor) in california (usa) were collected between april 1987 and february 1990. nineteen serum samples were used for serum biochemistry determinations; the ranges were similar to reference values in domestic cats, captive exotic felidae and free-ranging mountain lions. a serological survey was conducted to determine whether antibodies were present against selected infectious agents. fifty-four (93%) of 58 sera had antibodies against feline panleukop ...19948028105
naturally occurring picornavirus infection of domestic mink.the isolation and preliminary characterization of a virus from domestic mink- are reported. the virus was tentatively classified as a member of the family picornaviridae on the basis of its physicochemical properties. the mink virus was not neutralized by antiserum to some known members of the calicivirus genus, which included the nine serotypes of vesicular exanthema of swine virus, ten serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus and feline calicivirus. seroepidemiological studies indicated that the ...19806256041
feline upper respiratory tract disease. 200010907225
[virus carriers: analysis of states of equilibrium between the virus and its host].the various mechanisms of virus persistence are described. four kinds of virus persistence are presented, depending on their epidemiological significance, persistence associated with continuous multiplication and transmission (feline calicivirus, calf rotavirus); persistence associated with continuous multiplication but discontinuous transmission (equine infectious anemia retrovirus); persistence with continuous multiplication associated with immunotolerance (feline leukaemia retrovirus; mucosal ...19873122626
detection of feline calicivirus antigens in the joints of infected cats.twelve specific pathogen free cats were used to investigate the role of calicivirus in causing lameness. these were divided into two groups each of six cats; one group of cats had previously been vaccinated, the other had not. three cats in each group were given live vaccine virus (f9 related) by the subcutaneous route and two in each group were challenged intranasally with field virus (a4), either four or seven days before euthanasia. the other two cats were controls. virus was isolated from th ...19892541528
pathogenicity of a strain of feline calicivirus for domestic kittens.a strain of feline calicivirus, isolated from a cheetah exhibiting ulcerative glossitis and conjunctivitis, was administered by aerosol to 4 domestic cats and by contact to a fifth cat. despite the limited number of animals available for the experiment, the pathogenicity of the virus strain for domestic cats was established. in aerosol-infected animals, clinical signs were referable to infection of both upper and lower respiratory tracts. the virus produced an interstitial pneumonia which, early ...19751222003
the pathology and sites of persistence associated with three different strains of feline calicivirus.the pathology and sites of multiplication associated with three different strains of feline caliciviruses are described. the main pathological lesions were found in the tongue, soft palate and lungs and like the clinical signs were of mild nature. virus multiplication was associated mainly with the tissues of the mouth and tonsils and in asymptomatic carrier animals the tonsil appeared to be preferred organ of viral persistence.1977905648
diseases produced by feline caliciviruses when administered to cats by aerosol or intranasal instillation.specific pathogen free cats were infected by two feline calicivirus isolates of different plaque type, an extra-large plaque (ep) former and a minute plaque (mp) former. a comparison was made of the disease produced when these isolates were administered by either aerosol or direct intranasal instillation. with both isolates, aerosol infection produced lesions and gave rise to virus replication throughout the respiratory tract. the effects of intranasal infection were more confined to the upper r ...1979433113
genetic characterization of 2 novel feline caliciviruses isolated from cats with idiopathic lower urinary tract disease.feline caliciviruses (fcvs) are potential etiologic agents in feline idiopathic lower urinary tract disease (i-lutd). by means of a modified virus isolation method, we examined urine obtained from 28 male and female cats with nonobstructive i-lutd, 12 male cats with obstructive i-lutd, and 18 clinically healthy male and female cats. all cats had been routinely vaccinated for fcv. two fcvs were isolated; i (fcv-u1) from a female cat with nonobstructive i-lutd, and another (fcv-u2) from a male cat ...200212041660
phylogenetic analysis of field isolates of feline calcivirus (fcv) in japan by sequencing part of its capsid gene.the molecular epidemiology of the infectious disease caused by feline calcivirus (fcv) in japan was investigated by analysing the phylogenetic relationship among 21 japanese field isolates, including the f4 strain, and 30 global isolates. parts of the capsid gene (b-f) of the isolates were amplified by rt-pcr, and the amino acid sequences were compared with those from the global isolates. thirty-seven and 14 out of a total of 51 isolates were clustered into two distinct genogroups, i and ii resp ...200212090292
sequence variation within the capsid protein of australian isolates of feline calicivirus.the capsid protein of australian feline calicivirus (fcv) isolates is demonstrably different from the prototype strain f9. five australian isolates of fcv, dating from 1970 to 1989, were analysed by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. varying reactivity to a panel of f9 specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was observed. dna sequencing of rt-pcr generated clones supported the observation of variation between capsid proteins. predicted amino acid sequences varied by 11 to 17.5% across the w ...199910501167
phenotypic and genotypic variation of feline calicivirus during persistent infection of cats.amino acid sequence of the capsid protein hypervariable region of nine feline calicivirus (fcv) isolates recovered from cats persistently infected after inoculation with the fcv strain 255 parent virus is reported. capsid proteins from all the isolates were highly cross reactive by western blot analysis using polyclonal antisera to fcv. reverse-transcription pcr was used to obtain sequence information of the fcv capsid protein highly variable e region. amino acid substitutions occurred between r ...19989549862
mapping of antigenic sites involved in neutralization on the capsid protein of feline calicivirus.in order to locate amino acid residues involved in the formation of feline calicivirus (fcv) neutralizing epitopes, we analysed the capsid protein gene of monoclonal antibody neutralization-resistant variants of fcv. amino acid substitutions in the variants were identified in the two hypervariable regions of the capsid protein. four linear and two conformational epitopes were located in the regions from residues 426 to 460 and 490 to 520, respectively. the relative positions of individual epitop ...19979018050
caspase-mediated cleavage of the feline calicivirus capsid protein.feline calicivirus (fcv) is responsible for an acute upper respiratory tract disease in cats. the fcv capsid protein is synthesized as a precursor (76 kda) that is post-translationally processed into the mature 62 kda capsid protein by removal of the n-terminal 124 amino acids. our previous studies have also detected a 40 kda protein, related to the fcv capsid protein, produced during infection. here we demonstrate that cleavage of the fcv capsid protein, during infection of cells in culture, wa ...200312692289
application of chimeric feline foamy virus-based retroviral vectors for the induction of antiviral immunity in cats.in order to define the potential and applicability of replication-competent foamy virus-based vaccine vectors, recombinant feline foamy virus (ffv) vectors encoding defined segments of the feline calicivirus (fcv) capsid protein e domain were constructed. in cell cultures, these ffv-fcv vectors efficiently transduced and expressed a hybrid fusion protein consisting of the essential ffv bet protein and the attached fcv e domains. the stability of the vectors in vitro was inversely correlated to t ...200312829823
detection of the orf3 polypeptide of feline calicivirus in infected cells and evidence for its expression from a single, functionally bicistronic, subgenomic mrna.feline calicivirus (fcv) is a small positive-stranded rna virus within the family caliciviridae. its genome is 7690 nucleotides in length and encodes three open reading frames (orfs). the smallest, orf3, is located at the extreme 3' end of the genome and can potentially encode a polypeptide of approximately 12 kda. in this paper, we report the identification of an orf3-encoded polypeptide in fcv-infected cells using an antiserum raised against a bacterially-expressed bacteriophage t7 gene 10-orf ...19968558120
reaction rate in cats vaccinated with a new controlled-titer feline panleukopenia-rhinotracheitis-calicivirus-chlamydia psittaci vaccine.the safety profile of a new controlled-titer feline panleukopenia-rhinotracheitis-calicivirus-chlamydia psittaci vaccine was compared to that of a currently-marketed vaccine. of particular interest were delayed reactions (previously unreported in the literature in felines) occurring 7 to 21 days after vaccination, and the effect of concurrent vaccinations and cat age on the delayed reaction rate. nineteen hundred twenty-four doses of the new vaccine and 364 doses of the comparison vaccine were a ...19938306654
a serologic survey of wild felids from central west saudi arabia.forty-five wildcats (felis silvestris), 17 sand cats (felis margarita), and 17 feral domestic cats were captured in central west saudi arabia, between may 1998 and april 2000, with the aim to assess their exposure to feline immunodeficiency virus/puma lentivirus (fiv/plv), feline leukaemia virus (felv), feline herpesvirus (fhv-1), feline calicivirus (fcv), feline coronavirus (fcov), and feline panleukopenia virus (fplv). serologic prevalence in wildcats, sand cats, and feral domestic cats were r ...200314567233
analysis of capsid protein gene variation among divergent isolates of feline calicivirus.genomic variability within the capsid protein gene of feline calicivirus (fcv) was evaluated among different isolates using hybridization analysis and enzymatic viral nucleic acid amplification. total infected cell rna was first hybridized with cdna clones generated to the capsid gene of the fcv isolates cfi/68, 255, llk, nadc and kcd. field isolates of fcv were categorized by hybridization with capsid gene cdna from the reference strains. isolates that did not hybridize were positive by western ...19947941699
an outbreak of virulent systemic feline calicivirus disease.to describe clinical and epidemiologic features of an outbreak of feline calicivirus (fcv) infection caused by a unique strain of fcv and associated with a high mortality rate and systemic signs of disease, including edema of the face or limbs.200414736069
inhibitory effects of recombinant feline interferon on the replication of feline enteropathogenic viruses in vitro.antiviral activities of a recombinant feline interferon (rfeifn) kt-80 were evaluated against feline enteropathogenic viruses in feline and canine cell lines. sensitivity to antiviral activities of the rfeifn varied with cell types; felis catus whole fetus (fcwf-4) cells were more sensitive than crandell feline kidney cells, but no sensitivity was found for madin-darby canine kidney cells when vesicular stomatitis virus was used as a challenge virus. reductions were generally ifn dose-dependent ...19947515537
detection of feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus 1 and chlamydia psittaci mucosal swabs by multiplex rt-pcr/pcr.a single tube, multiplex reverse transcription (rt)-polymerase chain reaction (pcr)/pcr assay was developed for detection of feline herpesvirus 1 (fhv1), chlamydia psittaci and feline calicivirus (fcv) in cats with upper respiratory tract disease (urtd), incorporating a simple, rapid extraction procedure capable of extracting both dna and rna. the assay was found to be as sensitive in vitro as simplex assays that have previously been shown to be as sensitive as, or more sensitive than, culture f ...200111376956
variable sensitivity of a feline embryo cell line and of three kitten kidney cell cultures to feline herpes- and caliciviruses.the number of plaques produced in a feline embryo (femb) cell line and in three independently derived kitten kidney (kk) cell cultures varied in a consistent and reproducible manner when each was inoculated with the same number of feline herpesvirus 1 (fhv1) plaque forming units (pfu); the three kk cells produced 2-9 times more plaques than femb cells. one of the three kk cells produced fhv1 plaques that were smaller in diameter than those femb cells. each of the three kk cell cultures inoculate ...19863705445
sequence analysis of feline caliciviruses isolated from the oral cavity of clinically normal domestic cats (felis catus) in florida.four isolates (7.3 per cent) of feline calicivirus (fcv), from oropharyngeal swabs taken from 55 unvaccinated apparently healthy cats, were identified by electron microscopy and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). a 671-bp fragment, comprising part of region b, all of regions c, d, and e and part of region f of the fcv capsid protein gene, was amplified from each isolate by rt-pcr and cloned for sequence analysis. amino acid sequence comparison of these regions revealed sig ...200111798299
human norovirus infection and the lessons from animal caliciviruses.human noroviruses are a major cause of infectious intestinal disease, particularly in the health sector, with considerable knock-on effects on care provision through ward closures and staff sickness. this review will describe recent advances in our understanding of human noroviruses. in addition, we will consider related nonhuman caliciviruses to highlight some potential difficulties in the control of caliciviral disease.200415353967
persistent viral infection. the carrier state.a persistent viral infection is one in which the virus in a replicating or non-replicating form persists in the host beyond the normal recovery and elimination period for that particular viral infection. the clinical significance and mechanisms of persistence, when known, are discussed for the important viral infections of dogs and cats. particular emphasis is given to feline viral rhinotracheitis, feline calicivirus, canine distemper, and feline leukemia.19863097907
[the effectiveness of paramunization for the control of feline coryza].20 cats in a cat home were treated prophylactically and therapeutically with baypamun hk. the animals were allocated into three groups as described. 7 freshly admitted clinically healthy cats were treated prophylactically on day 1, 2 and 9 with 1 ml baypamun hk (group i). 7 cats, who already were allocated for one year in the home and were sick of the feline respiratory disease complex were treated as described for group i (group ii). 6 further cats, who also showed symptoms of the feline respir ...19921524577
epidemiologic evaluation of multiple respiratory pathogens in cats in animal shelters.upper respiratory tract infection (uri) propagates readily within cats in shelters and often results in euthanasia of affected cats. in a case-control evaluation of 573 cats in eight shelters in california in 2001 and 2002, the prevalence of feline calicivirus (fcv) was from 13 to 36%, feline herpesvirus (fhv) was from 3 to 38%, and prevalence of bordetella bronchiseptica, chlamydophila felis, and mycoplasma species was from 2 to 14%. cats with uri tended to be housed in isolation, dehydrated, a ...200515771947
investigation of the induction of antibodies against crandell-rees feline kidney cell lysates and feline renal cell lysates after parenteral administration of vaccines against feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia in cats.to determine whether administration of crandell-rees feline kidney (crfk) cell lysates or vaccines against feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia (fvrcp vaccines) that likely contain crfk cell proteins induces antibodies against crfk cell or feline renal cell (frc) lysates in cats.200515822597
acute and chronic faucitis of domestic cats. a feline calicivirus-induced disease.the lesions of acute feline calicivirus infection are of a transient vesiculo-ulcerative nature and involve, to varying degrees, the palate, tongue, gingiva, lips, nasal philtrum, and oral fauces. chronic ulceroproliferative faucitis is a specific but uncommon sequelae to persistent feline calicivirus oral carriage.19921333664
inactivation of enteric adenovirus and feline calicivirus by ozone.little information is available regarding the effectiveness of ozone on the inactivation of caliciviruses and enteric adenoviruses. inactivation experiments were conducted with feline calicivirus (fcv), closely related to the human caliciviruses based on nucleic acid organization and capsid architecture, and adenovirus type 40 (ad40). experiments were carried out in buffered disinfectant demand free water at ph 7 and 5 degrees c. ct values; concentration of ozone multiplied by contact time with ...200516061270
feline caliciviral disease: experimental immunoprophylaxis.an attenuated feline calicivirus (fcv) was administered intramuscularly to specific-pathogen-free cats. vaccination did not cause signs of illness. oropharyngeal replication of attenuated fcv was not detected, nor was there evidence of virus transmission to contact-control cats. antiviral neutralizing antibody was present in the serum of all vaccinated cats 7 days after they were given the 2nd intramuscular dose of immunogen. vaccinated and control cats were challenge exposed to aerosols of a vi ...19761259224
immunization against feline calicivirus infection.forty-three cats (experiments 1 and 2) were vaccinated (2 doses, 27 and 30 days between doses) with the f-9 strain of feline calicivirus by the intramuscular route. there was no untoward response in any of the cats to the administration of the vaccinal virus nor was there spread of the virus from 20 vaccinated cats to nonvaccinated cats held in contact during the next 6 months (experiment 2). the vaccinated cats developed serum-neutralizing antibodies that were increased further after the 2nd va ...19761259223
elaboration of chemotactic substances by alveolar cells: possible mechanisms for the initial neutrophilic response in feline caliciviral pneumonia.in vitro experiments established that the interaction of feline calicivirus (fcv) with alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes results in the generation of chemotactic factors that produce directed migration of neutrophils in boyden chambers. factors were produced independent of immune mechanisms and of discernible serum factors. lysates of noninfected alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes did not possess chemotactic activity, indicating that chemotactic factors were not preformed in these cells. no ...1979464355
long-term analysis of feline calicivirus prevalence and viral shedding patterns in naturally infected colonies of domestic cats.feline calicivirus (fcv) is a highly infectious respiratory pathogen of domestic cats. the prevalence of fcv in the general cat population is high, particularly in multi-cat households, largely because many clinically recovered cats remain persistently infected carriers. in order to assess how fcv circulates in such groups and to assess the contribution that each individual animal makes to the epidemiology of the disease, we have carried out the first detailed analysis of long-term shedding patt ...200616911860
mapping of the feline calicivirus proteinase responsible for autocatalytic processing of the nonstructural polyprotein and identification of a stable proteinase-polymerase precursor protein.expression of the region of the feline calicivirus (fcv) orf1 encoded by nucleotides 3233 to 4054 in an in vitro rabbit reticulocyte system resulted in synthesis of an active proteinase that specifically processes the viral nonstructural polyprotein. site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine (cys1193) residue in the putative active site of the proteinase abolished autocatalytic cleavage as well as cleavage of the viral capsid precursor, suggesting that this "3c-like" proteinase plays an importan ...199910400760
expression and processing of the canine calicivirus capsid precursor.the orf2 product of canine calicivirus (cacv) was identified and its processing in mammalian cells was analysed. immunoblot analysis revealed the presence of the 75 kda capsid precursor in addition to a 57 kda capsid protein and a 22 kda n-terminal polypeptide in cacv-infected cells treated at an elevated temperature. when the cacv orf2 was expressed in a transient mammalian expression system, only the 75 kda precursor was detected in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that no post-translational pr ...200010640558
an isolated epizootic of hemorrhagic-like fever in cats caused by a novel and highly virulent strain of feline calicivirus.an isolated epizootic of a highly fatal feline calicivirus (fcv) infection, manifested in its severest form by a systemic hemorrhagic-like fever, occurred over a 1-month period among six cats owned by two different employees and a client of a private veterinary practice. the infection may have started with an unowned shelter kitten that was hospitalized during this same period for a severe atypical upper respiratory infection. the causative agent was isolated from blood and nasal swabs from two ...200010781727
the effect of bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin b on the ability of feline calicivirus (a norovirus surrogate) and poliovirus to infect cell cultures.to characterize the effect of bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin b against feline calicivirus (fcv), a norovirus surrogate and poliovirus (pv), as models for enteric viruses.200314633031
safety and efficacy of a recombinant felv vaccine combined with a live feline rhinotracheitis, calicivirus and panleukopenia vaccine. 200010803986
characterization of the subunit particles of feline calicivirus.in the culture fluid from cells infected with feline calicivirus (fcv) f4 strain, the infectious and smaller non-infectious subunit particles were detected by complement fixation (cf) test after sucrose gradient centrifugation. the results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analyses confirmed the existence of the subunit particles of fcv, and showed that the infectious and subunit particles were mainly composed of 65k capsid protein. the subunit particles ...19902280505
virucidal efficacy of four new disinfectants.virucidal efficacy was evaluated for four recently available disinfectants: chlorine dioxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate, a quaternary ammonium compound, and citricidal (grapefruit extract). sodium hypochlorite (3%) and tap water were used as positive and negative controls respectively. feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, and feline parvovirus were exposed to the manufacturers' recommended dilutions of the evaluated disinfectants. both chlorine dioxide and potassium peroxymonosulfate comple ...200212022408
etiological investigation of multiple respiratory infections in cats.in order to evaluate the relevance of multiple infections in domestic cats with upper respiratory tract disease (urtd) one hundred animals with clinical signs were investigated for detection of feline herpesvirus type-1 (fhv-1), chlamydophila felis, feline calicivirus (fcv) and bordetella bronchiseptica from mucosal swabs. forty-seven cats were positive for fcv, 42 cats for fhv-1, 26 for b. bronchiseptica and 8 for c. felis. dual or multiple infections were found in 33 of examined animals. our r ...200718080682
a kinetic study of histopathological changes in the subcutis of cats injected with non-adjuvanted and adjuvanted multi-component vaccines.the aim of this study was to investigate the subcutaneous tissue response to administration of a single dose of multi-component vaccine in the cat. three groups of 15 cats were injected with one of three vaccine products with saline as a negative control. cats in group a received non-adjuvanted vaccine; cats in group b received vaccine with a lipid-based adjuvant; whilst those in group c were vaccinated with a product adjuvanted with an alum-quil a mixture. the vaccine and saline injection sites ...200717403558
temperature inactivation of feline calicivirus vaccine strain fcv f-9 in comparison with human noroviruses using an rna exposure assay and reverse transcribed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-a novel method for predicting virus infectivity.a one-step reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-qpcr) method in combination with rnase treatment and low copy number samples was developed in order to examine the effect of temperature on the ability of virus capsids to protect their rna content. the method was applied to a non-cultivable virus (gii.4 norovirus) and feline calicivirus vaccine strain f-9 (fcv) which is often used as a norovirus surrogate. results demonstrated that fcv rna is exposed maximally ...200919028524
characterization of a continuous feline mammary epithelial cell line susceptible to feline epitheliotropic viruses.mucosal epithelial cells are the primary targets for many common viral pathogens of cats. viral infection of epithelia can damage or disrupt the epithelial barrier that protects underlying tissues. in vitro cell culture systems are an effective means to study how viruses infect and disrupt epithelial barriers, however no true continuous or immortalized feline epithelial cell culture lines are available. a continuous cell culture of feline mammary epithelial cells (fmec ucd-04-2) that forms tight ...200919103225
a feline kidney cell line-based plaque assay for feline calicivirus, a surrogate for norwalk virus.feline calicivirus (fcv) has been used by researchers as a surrogate for norwalk virus (nv), since they share a similar genomic organization, physicochemical characteristics, and are grouped in the same family, caliciviridae. unlike nv, however, fcv can grow in established cell lines and produce a syncytial form of cytopathic effect. in this report, we describe the development and standardization of a plaque assay for fcv using monolayers of an established line of feline kidney (crfk) cells in 1 ...200312505630
inactivation of feline calicivirus and adenovirus type 40 by uv radiation.little information regarding the effectiveness of uv radiation on the inactivation of caliciviruses and enteric adenoviruses is available. analysis of human calicivirus resistance to disinfectants is hampered by the lack of animal or cell culture methods that can determine the viruses' infectivity. the inactivation kinetics of enteric adenovirus type 40 (ad40), coliphage ms-2, and feline calicivirus (fcv), closely related to the human caliciviruses based on nucleic acid organization and capsid a ...200312514044
update on feline calicivirus: new trends.in addition to being important upper respiratory tract pathogens of cats, fcvs are increasingly reported as a cause of a highly contagious febrile hemorrhagic syndrome. strains causing this syndrome are genetically different from the vaccine strain and other nonhemorrhagic fcv isolates. they apparently differ from one outbreak to another. the syndrome is characterized variably by fever; cutaneous edema and ulcerative dermatitis; upper respiratory tract signs; anorexia; occasionally icterus, vomi ...200312910742
effects of dietary lysine supplementation on upper respiratory and ocular disease and detection of infectious organisms in cats within an animal shelter.to determine within a cat shelter effects of dietary lysine supplementation on nasal and ocular disease and detection of nucleic acids of chlamydophila felis, feline calicivirus (fcv), and feline herpesvirus (fhv-1).200919878022
alternative early life vaccination programs for companion animals.an experimental challenge study of multicomponent vaccination of kittens is reported. seven-to-nine week old, specific pathogen-free kittens received two injections (4 weeks apart) of non-adjuvanted, multicomponent vaccine formulated at the minimum protective dose. kittens were challenged at 4 weeks or 1 year post-vaccination with individual infectious agents. vaccination induced complete protection against challenge from feline parvovirus on both occasions, but at 1 year, the protection against ...200717560595
high genetic diversity of the immunodominant region of the feline calicivirus capsid gene in endemically infected cat colonies.feline calicivirus (fcv) is an important pathogen of domestic cats. in this study, we have determined the genetic diversity of fcv within four geographically separate colonies of endemically infected cats by sequencing the immunodominant and variable region e of the capsid gene. comparison of isolates between colonies and between unrelated published sequences gave nucleotide distance values of 26-35% and 22-40%, respectively and suggested each colony was infected with a distinct virus strain. co ...200314501192
comparison of the sensitivities of noroviruses and feline calicivirus to chemical disinfection under field-like conditions.noroviruses (nv), in the family caliciviridae, are an important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. measures for prevention and control of nv dissemination are therefore necessary to ensure public safety. the abilities of an organic acid (venno vet 1 super), an aldehyde (venno ff super), a halogen compound (sodium hypochlorite solution), and a peroxide (oxystrong fg) to inactivate feline calicivirus (fcv), a cultivable virus surrogate for nv, were studied. molecular protocols were then ...200717616619
conformational changes in the capsid of a calicivirus upon interaction with its functional receptor.nonenveloped viral capsids are metastable structures that undergo conformational changes during virus entry that lead to interactions of the capsid or capsid fragments with the cell membrane. for members of the caliciviridae, neither the nature of these structural changes in the capsid nor the factor(s) responsible for inducing these changes is known. feline junctional adhesion molecule a (fjam-a) mediates the attachment and infectious viral entry of feline calicivirus (fcv). here, we show that ...201020357100
evaluation of the association of bartonella species, feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus with chronic feline gingivostomatitis.gingivostomatitis (gs) is a significant condition in cats because of oral discomfort and associated periodontal disease. several infectious agents have been associated with the presence of gs, but a causal relationship is unclear. the cats in this study were housed together, had a history of flea exposure, and were vaccinated with a modified live fvrcp product. there were nine cats with active gs and 36 unaffected cats at the time of sample collection. serum was tested for feline leukemia virus ...200817766156
the mechanism of an exceptional case of reinitiation after translation of a long orf reveals why such events do not generally occur in mammalian mrna translation.the subgenomic mrna of feline caliciviruses is bicistronic with the two cistrons overlapping by four nucleotides, ..auga. the upstream cistron encodes a 75-kda major capsid protein precursor (pre-vp1), and the downstream cistron a 10-kda minor capsid protein. the kinetics of translation in reticulocyte lysates show that the downstream cistron is translated by a termination-reinitiation process, which is unusual in not requiring eif4g or the eif4f complex. reinitiation requires the 3'-terminal 87 ...200718056426
evaluation of a p30 gene-based real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of feline caliciviruses.this report describes a feline calicivirus (fcv) p30 gene-based real-time sybr green i reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay that is capable of detecting low virus concentrations and a broad range of fcv isolates. the assay consisted of a 1-step rt-pcr reaction with primers delineating a 126-base-pair (bp) region of the fcv p30 gene. sensitivity of the rt-pcr assay was determined to be equivalent to a fcv titer of 1.2 x 10(1) to 1.2 x 10(2) tcid50/ml. the assay was linea ...200414765747
exposure to feline and canine pathogens in bobcats and gray foxes in urban and rural zones of a national park in california.exposure of bobcats (lynx rufus) and gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) to a range of common canine and feline pathogens was assessed in urban and rural zones of golden gate national recreation area, a national park in the san francisco bay area, (california, usa) from 1992 to 1995. testing included serology for canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus (cpv), canine adenovirus, leptospira interrogans, feline calicivirus (fcv), feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus, feline enteric co ...200415137484
serosurvey of viral infections in free-ranging namibian cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus).cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) in captivity have unusually high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, a trait that could be an outcome of population homogeneity or the immunomodulating effects of chronic stress. free-ranging namibian cheetahs share ancestry with captive cheetahs, but their susceptibility to infectious diseases has not been investigated. the largest remaining population of free-ranging cheetahs resides on namibian farmlands, where they share habitat with domestic dogs an ...200415137485
calicivirus inactivation by nonionizing (253.7-nanometer-wavelength [uv]) and ionizing (gamma) radiation.noroviruses (previously norwalk-like viruses) are the most common viral agents associated with food- and waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis. in the absence of culture methods for noroviruses, animal caliciviruses were used as model viruses to study inactivation by nonionizing (253.7-nm-wavelength [uv]) and ionizing (gamma) radiation. here, we studied the respiratory feline calicivirus (fecv) and the presumed enteric canine calicivirus (cacv) and compared them with the well-studied bacteriop ...200415345386
bioluminescence technologies to detect calicivirus protease activity in cell-free system and in infected cells.feline calicivirus (fcv) is an important veterinary pathogen and causes respiratory disease in cats. because it grows well in cell culture, fcv is often used as a model virus of non-culturable caliciviruses. in this study, a cell-free and two cell culture-based biosensor assay systems were established to detect fcv protease activity. the assays utilize luciferase sensor technology or second-generation bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (bret2). a luciferase sensor was designed to contain ...201121316392
results of molecular diagnostic assays targeting feline herpesvirus-1 and feline calicivirus in adult cats administered modified live vaccines.in this pilot study, 12 adult, gang-housed cats that were known to be previously exposed (n=12) to feline herpesvirus-1 (fhv-1) and/or vaccinated against (n=2) feline calicivirus (fcv) and fhv-1 were randomly assigned to one of two groups of six cats each. nasal and pharyngeal samples were collected from each cat on days -7, -3, and 0 prior to vaccination and on days 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, and 28 after vaccination with an fhv-1, fcv, and panleukopenia (fvrcp) vaccine developed for intranasal (six ...201121439879
comparative efficacy of a recombinant feline interferon omega in refractory cases of calicivirus-positive cats with caudal stomatitis: a randomised, multi-centre, controlled, double-blind study in 39 cats.chronic caudal stomatitis with alveolar/buccal mucositis in calicivirus-positive cats is the most severe presentation of feline chronic gingivostomatitis. refractory cases are helped by antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatments often including glucocorticoids. in order to evaluate the comparative efficacy of oromucosal administration of recombinant feline interferon omega (rfeifn-?) versus oral administration of glucocorticoids, a randomised, multi-centre, controlled, double-blind study was pe ...201121802033
properties of a calicivirus isolated from cats dying in an agitated state.in june 1993, two of five pet cats kept in yokohama city in japan suddenly became agitated and died. feline calicivirus (fcv) was isolated from them. one strain (fcv-s) was isolated from the spinal cord, lung and tonsil of cat 1, another (fcv-b) from the ileum, medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord of cat 2, and a third (fcv-sakura) from the oral cavity of one of the three surviving cats which showed no clinical signs. these three strains were equally resistant to ph 3.0 and serologically s ...200415651548
feline calicivirus vp2 is essential for the production of infectious virions.the third open reading frame (orf3) located at the 3' end of the genomic rna of feline calicivirus (fcv) encodes a small (12.2-kda) minor structural protein of 106 amino acids designated vp2. point mutations and deletions were introduced into an infectious fcv cdna clone in order to evaluate the functional importance of orf3 and its encoded protein, vp2. deletion of the entire orf3 sequence was lethal for the virus, and evidence was found for strong selective pressure to produce the vp2 protein. ...200515767403
mapping neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes on the capsid protein of feline calicivirus.neutralizing epitopes on feline calicivirus (fcv) capsid protein were mapped using chimeric capsid proteins recombinant between two fcv isolates that do not show any cross-neutralization. the three chimeric proteins examined were expressed in murine l929 cells employing an mva/t7 vaccinia virus expression system and inoculated into major histocompatibility complex haplotype-matched c3/hn mice. based on the neutralizing antibody titre the neutralizing epitope(s) could be mapped to the 5' hypervar ...200211911594
evaluation of murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, poliovirus, and ms2 as surrogates for human norovirus in a model of viral persistence in surface water and groundwater.human noroviruses (novs) are a significant cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with contaminated drinking water a potential transmission route. the absence of a cell culture infectivity model for nov necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate models amenable to cell culture to predict nov inactivation. the nov surrogates murine nov (mnv), feline calicivirus (fcv), poliovirus (pv), and male-specific coliphage ms2, in conjunction with norwalk virus (nv), were spi ...200818065626
in vitro comparison of rna preparation methods for detection of feline calicivirus in urine of cats by use of a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay.to compare 5 methods of preparation of rna from feline urine samples for use in a feline calicivirus (fcv), p30 gene-based, real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay.200515934622
real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to detect a broad range of feline calicivirus isolates.this report describes a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay with sybr green targeting the vp2 (orf 3) of feline caliciviruses. all of the 44 feline calicivirus isolates tested were detected, whereas neither feline herpesvirus, feline panleukopenia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus nor other calicivirus like rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and a canine calicivirus isolate showed specific amplification products. the sensitivity of ...200616266755
pustular calicivirus dermatitis on the abdomen of two cats following routine ovariectomy.an unusual form of calicivirus dermatitis is described in two cats. two fully vaccinated cats were re-admitted for anorexia and depression following routine ovariectomy. signs of upper respiratory disease were not present. one cat subsequently showed painful necrosis of the incision wound, the other one developed dyspnoea with pleural effusion and discrete tongue ulcers. intact pustular lesions confined to the surgically prepared abdomen appeared in both cats, respectively, on days 11 and 9. the ...200516359307
duration of immunity for canine and feline vaccines: a review.in our studies aimed at assessing the minimum duration of vaccinal immunity (doi), approximately 1000 dogs have been vaccinated with products from all the major us veterinary biological companies. the doi for the various products is determined by antibody titers for all dogs and, by challenge studies in selected groups of dogs. recently, all major companies that make canine vaccines for the u.s. market have completed their own studies; published data show a 3 years or longer minimum doi for the ...200616707236
an etiological investigation of domestic cats with conjunctivitis and upper respiratory tract disease in japan.chlamydophila felis (c. felis), feline herpesvirus-1 (fhv-1) and feline calicivirus (fcv) were detected in 39 (59.1%), 11 (16.7%) and 14 (21.2%) cats respectively, from 66 domestic cats presented with conjunctivitis and upper respiratory tract disease (urtd) in 9 prefectures of japan. dual and multiple infections were found in 7 (10.6%) cats with both c. felis and fhv-1, 10 (15.2%) cats with both c. felis and fcv, and 1 (1.5%) cat with all three agents. c. felis was isolated from 11 (28.2%) of 3 ...200211999440
effects of anesthesia and surgery on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens.to determine the effects of anesthesia and surgery on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens.200818593319
melting curve analysis of feline calicivirus isolates detected by real-time reverse transcription pcr.a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to detect feline calicivirus infection in cats. using sybr green i melting curve analysis, isolates could be distinguished by their melting temperature. the assay is sensitive, linear over a wide range of template concentrations and allows accurate quantitation of viral load.200212393155
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