three groups of babesia canis distinguished and a proposal for nomenclature.two stocks of large babesia from dogs originating in france, transmitted by dermacentor reticulatus, two from north africa, having rhipicephalus sanguineus as vector, and one from south africa, transmitted by haemaphysalis leachi, were compared in cross-immunity tests in dogs and in the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). the french and north african stocks did not immunise against the south african one, while the north african stocks did not protect against a french one. the south africa ...19892655263
[babesiosis of dogs in germany: epidemiologic case analysis].between january 1987 and february 1990 babesia infections were detected in 320 dogs in germany by means of microscopical and/or serological methods. it was found, that 316 dogs were infected with babesia canis and 4 animals with babesia gibsoni. of the babesia-canis-positive dogs 184 were abroad up to 4 months before diagnosis, mainly in france, spain and italy, but also in hungary, greece, jugoslavia, portugal, morocco, togo, pakistan, sri lanka, malaysia, turkey, romania, austria and the nethe ...19912068714
electron microscopical studies on the development of babesia canis (sporozoa) in the salivary glands of the vector tick dermacentor reticulatus.the formation of sporozoites of babesia canis was studied by light- and electron microscopy in the salivary gland cells of adult female ticks from the 2nd day after attachment until 1 day after detachment. it was found that this process was initiated by the binary division of kinetes that had already entered or entered during the period examined. during division the kinetes (15 x 2.5 microns) lost their typical organelles, reduced their three-layered pellicle to a single membrane and became sphe ...197943086
development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for rapid diagnosis of babesia canis infections.vector-borne diseases are rising in interest due to global warming, which is believed to impact on the distribution of vectors into new areas thus influencing the occurrence and epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens. babesia canis belongs to the piroplasmidae and there are three described subspecies, namely b. canis canis, b. canis rossi and b. canis vogeli. they are each transmitted by a different tick-species, dermacentor reticulatus, haemaphysalis leachi and rhipicephalus sanguineus, respect ...201020537107
pathogens in ticks collected from dogs in berlin/brandenburg, germany.tick-borne diseases are a major health risk for humans and dogs. in addition to collection and analysis of questing ticks, analysis of host-associated ticks for the presence of pathogens is a valuable method to gain insight into transmission patterns of tick-borne diseases.201425441762
new localities of dermacentor reticulatus tick (vector of babesia canis canis) in central and eastern poland.dermacentor reticulatus tick is a vector and final host of babesia canis canis, protozoan parasite of the dog. in poland and other european countries, endemic regions for canine babesiosis caused by b. canis canis are the same as endemic regions for d. reticulatus. in many of these regions, canine babesiosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in dogs. in europe, increasing range of geographical distribution of d. reticulatus is observed. a consequence of this fact may be increasing range o ...200920169932
babesia canis and other tick-borne infections in dogs in central poland.vector-borne infections constitute increasing health problem in dogs worldwide, including sled dogs, dramatically decreasing the fitness of working dogs and even leading to death. in the period 2006-2008 eighty-two blood samples were collected from eight sled dog kennels in central poland. the prevalence of four vector-borne infections (babesia canis, bartonella sp., anaplasma/ehrlichia and borrelia burgdorferi) was estimated in 82 sled dogs using pcr and nested pcr for diagnosis and the same me ...200919837515
prevalence of babesia canis, borrelia afzelii, and anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in hard ticks removed from dogs in warsaw (central poland).the purposes of this study were to specify the occurrence and prevalence of babesia canis, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks removed from dogs in warsaw, and to determine the borrelia species occurring in ixodes ricinus ticks. among 590 collected ticks, 209 were identified as i. ricinus, and 381 as dermacentor reticulatus. dna of b. canis was detected in 11% of d. reticulatus ticks. we found that 6.2% of i. ricinus ticks harbored b. burgdorferi s.l. specific ...200818328630
[a descriptive epidemiological study on canine babesiosis in the lake geneva region].a descriptive study was carried out in the district of the lake geneva between march 1, 2005 and august 31,2006 to assess the incidence and prevalence of canine babesiosis, to genotype the babesia species occurring, to assess the most frequently clinical signs found and to address the potential of autochthonous transmission. this included a data assessment on the different tick-populations occurring in the area and on the prevalence of babesia-dna in these ticks. a total of 56 veterinary practic ...200717983018
occurrence of hard ticks in dogs from warsaw area.ticks are known as a vector of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and protozoan infections of dogs. the threat with particular tick-transmitted disease depends very much on the tick species which feeds on the dog. in this paper we present results of research designed to identify tick species which attack dogs in the warsaw area. ticks were collected from dogs presented for medical examination in veterinary clinics in different parts of warsaw. all of 590 tick specimens found on dogs belonged to ...200617196014
[dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794)--distribution, biology and vector for babesia canis in germany].this work deals with occurrence, distribution as well as biology and vectorial capacity of the ornate dog tick (dermacentor (d.) reticulatus). until 30 years ago this tick has only been described in a few natural foci in southern germany. its distribution has however expanded in the course of the last years. with the exception of northern germany it is now covering large areas of germany. this is particularly the case in the upper rhine valley, saarland and the mark brandenburg. however, it is e ...200617009718
evidence for an increased geographical distribution of dermacentor reticulatus in germany and detection of rickettsia sp. rpa4.two studies were performed to elucidate the current distribution of the tick dermacentor reticulatus in germany. in the first one in 2003, a total of 365 dogs from 171 sites in the states of berlin and brandenburg was screened for ticks, and the corresponding outdoor sites that the dogs usually visited were searched for host-seeking ticks by the flagging method. a total of 1155 ticks was removed from the dogs. the majority were ixodes ricinus (88.5%), followed by d. reticulatus (9.1%) and i. hex ...200616524777
tickborne pathogen detection, western siberia, russia.ixodes persulcatus (n = 125) and dermacentor reticulatus (n = 84) ticks from western siberia, russia, were tested for infection with borrelia, anaplasma/ehrlichia, bartonella, and babesia spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays with subsequent sequencing. i. persulcatus ticks were infected with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (37.6% +/- 4.3% [standard deviation]), anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4% +/- 1.4%), ehrlichia muris (8.8% +/- 2.5%), and bartonella spp. (37.6% +/- 4.3%). d. re ...200516318722
babesia dna detection in canine blood and dermacentor reticulatus ticks in southwestern siberia, russia.babesia infection was studied in 21 blood samples of dogs with symptoms of babesiosis and among 72 dermacentor reticulatus and 70 ixodes persulcatus ticks from southwestern siberia, russia. babesia dna was detected by hemi-nested pcr based on the 18s rrna gene with subsequent direct sequencing. all of the analyzed canine blood samples and three d. reticulatus, but none from i. persulcatus ticks studied were shown to contain babesia dna. nucleotide sequences of the babesia 18s rrna gene fragment ...200516187898
prevention of transmission of babesia canis by dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs after topical administration of fluralaner spot-on solution.the preventive effect of fluralaner spot-on solution against transmission of babesia canis by dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated.201627241120
autochthonous canine babesiosis in the netherlands.outbreaks of autochthonous babesiosis, caused by babesia canis, occurred in the netherlands in the spring and autumn of 2004 affecting 23 dogs. nineteen animals recovered after treatment, whereas four dogs died. adult dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected from these dogs indicate that canine babesiosis could become endemic in the netherlands.200515923085
spatial distribution of dermacentor reticulatus and ixodes ricinus in hungary: evidence for change?a survey was conducted to investigate the spatial distribution of ixodes ricinus and dermacentor reticulatus in hungary and to compare these data with the results of a previous large-scale survey. in the survey conducted in the 1950s, d. reticulatus adults were detected in two isolated areas of two counties, and the presence of these ticks in the collection was explained by accidental introduction. in the present survey, d. reticulatus became the second most common species occurring in all 16 co ...200515740873
babesia canis canis in dogs from hungary: detection by pcr and sequencing.canine babesiosis in hungary has always been a severe and frequent disease, attributed to infection with babesia canis transmitted by dermacentor reticulatus. identification of the disease agent has been based merely on size and morphology of the intraerythrocytic parasites and no evidence has been found concerning the subspecies (genotype) of b. canis. therefore, a molecular survey on natural babesia infection of dogs in hungary using pcr and sequence analysis was attempted to clarify the subsp ...200415710522
ixodes hexagonus is the main candidate as vector of theileria annae in northwest spain.babesia canis and babesia gibsoni have, until recently, been considered the only piroplasms that parasitise dogs. however, recent reports indicate that "small" babesia infections in spanish dogs are surprisingly frequent and molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the infecting agent is closely related to babesia microti. because the 18srdna sequence was not completely identical to that of b. microti, the new name "theileria annae" was assigned to the canine agent. no information is avail ...200312581593
[importation of parasites by tourism and animal trading].international transport of animals is associated with an enhanced risk of import of a number of parasite species that are not endemic in germany. pets accompany tourists on journeys all over the world, but in particular to southern europe, and dogs are increasingly imported from (sub-)tropical countries for reasons of animal welfare. veterinary practitioners are thus confronted with parasites that are unusual in their patients. the specific transmission routes determine whether an imported paras ...200111560118
[endemic risk of babesia canis by dermacentor reticulatus in germany. an epidemiologic study].during the period of january 1995 to january 1997, babesia canis infections were diagnosed in 127 dogs, 65 of them had stayed in foreign countries where dermacentor reticulatus is endemic, namely france, austria and hungary, or in the area offenburg/kehl/freiburg i. breisgau (germany). two dogs being positive for babesia never had left germany before and had not been in the region offenburg/kehl/freiburg i. breisgau. concurrent tick infestations were reported for all of the 67 dogs. for 10 dogs ...19979459834
[dermacentor ticks in france and germany. molecular biological differences in species, ecology and epidemiological implications].dermacentor reticulatus and d. marginatus, two ixodid tick species occurring in france and germany, exhibit morphologically overlapping phenotypes. the results of sequence analyses of the hypervariable rdna gene region its 2 do not support conspecifidity. as in france, d. reticulatus has to be characterized as an epidemiologically effective vector of babesia canis in germany as well, with the endemic area being located at kehl/offenburg/lahr/emmendingen/freiburg in breisgau. ecological investiga ...19968767177
[the subspecies specificity of babesia canis].the large babesia species of dogs, babesia canis, is transmitted by different ticks. dermacentor reticulatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi are the known main vectors. four b. canis isolates of different geographic origin were investigated for their transmission specificity and pathogenicity in infection trials. r. sanguineus ticks exclusively transmitted the babesia isolate from egypt. d. reticulatus was the vector for isolates from hungary and france. transmission of an sou ...19968765536
immunity of dogs against babesia canis, its vector tick dermacentor reticulatus, and ixodes ricinus in endemic area.previous epidemiological studies allowed us to accurately define endemic areas of canine babesiosis and tick distribution in southeastern france (martinod, 1983). using a micro-elisa test 100 dogs sera were tested with 3 antigens: babesia canis, dermacentor reticulatus and ixodes ricinus. antibodies against b. canis and its vector d. reticulatus were detected in an endemic area, sometimes with high levels (optical density 1.38 and 0.80 respectively). a correlation factor and regression lines wer ...19854009345
the ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of babesia canis by dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs.canine babesiosis due to babesia canis is an endemic disease in many european countries. a vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (nexgard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against babesia canis infected adult dermacentor reticulatus in an experi ...201424957215
pathogens vectored by the tick, dermacentor reticulatus, in endemic regions and zones of expansion in poland.dermacentor reticulatus plays an important role in the maintenance of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance in the environment. currently two isolated populations of d. reticulatus are present in poland--western and eastern. the range of the eastern population covers endemic areas in eastern poland but this population is expanding westwards creating an expansion zone in the centre of the country. the expansion zone in western poland is occupied by the recently discovered western populat ...201526403456
dermacentor reticulatus: a vector on the rise.dermacentor reticulatus is a hard tick species with extraordinary biological features. it has a high reproduction rate, a rapid developmental cycle, and is also able to overcome years of unfavourable conditions. dermacentor reticulatus can survive under water for several months and is cold-hardy even compared to other tick species. it has a wide host range: over 60 different wild and domesticated hosts are known for the three active developmental stages. its high adaptiveness gives an edge to th ...201627251148
update on epidemiology of canine babesiosis in southern france.canine babesiosis is an emerging or re-emerging disease caused by babesia and theileria protozoans, also called piroplasms, transmitted by ixodid ticks. in europe, four etiological agents have been identified to date, namely babesia canis, b. vogeli, b. gibsoni and theileria annae. france has a high prevalence of canine babesiosis and two tick species, dermacentor reticulatus and rhipicephalus sanguineus, are supposed to transmit b. canis and b. vogeli respectively. in southern france, where dog ...201526303260
repellency, prevention of attachment and acaricidal efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against the main vector of canine babesiosis in europe, dermacentor reticulatus ticks.dermacentor reticulatus is a european hard tick of major veterinary importance because it is the vector of canine babesiosis due to babesia canis. the efficacy against this particular tick species is therefore a key characteristic for an acaricidal solution for dogs. the repellency, prevention of attachment and acaricidal efficacy of frontline tri- act/frontect, a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against induced infestations of dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs were evaluated after ...201525622802
questionnaire-based survey on distribution and clinical incidence of canine babesiosis in france.the causative agent of canine babesiosis is the protozoan babesia canis, transmitted by the tick dermacentor reticulatus within france. while the parasite can be found everywhere in france however cases of infection are associated with distinct geographical foci. the aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of canine babesiosis diagnosed in veterinary clinics in order to propose an updated map of the disease distribution in france.201323448544
a novel combination of fipronil and permethrin (frontline tri-act®/frontect®) reduces risk of transmission of babesia canis by dermacentor reticulatus and of ehrlichia canis by rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.the ability of frontline tri-act®/frontect®, a topical ectoparasiticide containing fipronil and permethrin for dogs, to prevent the transmission of babesia canis as well as ehrlichia canis was evaluated by infesting dogs with infected vector ticks.201526586365
prevention of transmission of babesia canis by dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated orally with fluralaner chewable tablets (bravecto™).the preventive effect of fluralaner chewable tablets (bravecto™) against transmission of babesia canis by dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated.201526040319
molecular detection of tick-borne rickettsial and protozoan pathogens in domestic dogs from turkey.canine tick-borne parasites have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. in addition to their veterinary importance, domestic dogs play an important role in the transmission cycles of some agents by acting as reservoirs and sentinels. this study investigated babesia, theileria, anaplasma, and ehrlichia species in asymptomatic dogs in ten provinces of turkey.201525889911
novel foci of dermacentor reticulatus ticks infected with babesia canis and babesia caballi in the netherlands and in belgium.autochthonous populations of dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the netherlands were discovered after fatal cases of babesiosis occurred in resident dogs in 2004. the presence of d. reticulatus in the netherlands has also linked with the emergence of piroplasmosis in the resident horse population. the aim of this study was to put together results of continued surveillance of field sites and hosts for this tick in the netherlands and also in belgium and determine their infection status for babesia ...201525889392
prevention of babesia canis in dogs: efficacy of a fixed combination of permethrin and fipronil (effitix®) using an experimental transmission blocking model with infected dermacentor reticulatus ticks.two experimental studies using a transmission blocking model with dermacentor reticulatus ticks infected with babesia canis were performed to test the ability of effitix® to prevent the transmission of babesiosis in dogs.201525595325
molecular detection of emerging tick-borne pathogens in vojvodina, serbia.ticks play an important role in disease transmission globally due to their capability to serve as vectors for human and animal pathogens. the republic of serbia is an endemic area for a large number of tick-borne diseases. however, current knowledge on these diseases in serbia is limited. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of new emerging tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from dogs and the vegetation from different parts of vojvodina, serbia. a total of 187 ticks, includ ...201626565929
tick-borne diseases (borreliosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis) in german and austrian dogs: status quo and review of distribution, transmission, clinical findings, diagnostics and prophylaxis.tick-borne diseases (tbd) in dogs have gained in significance in german and austrian veterinary practices. the widespread european tick species ixodes ricinus represents an important vector for spirochaetes of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and rickettsiales such as anaplasma phagocytophilum. the meadow or ornate dog tick (dermacentor reticulatus) is an important vector for babesia canis, as is the brown dog tick (rhipicephalus sanguineus) for babesia vogeli in the mediterranean regio ...201526152408
the infection of questing dermacentor reticulatus ticks with babesia canis and anaplasma phagocytophilum in the chernobyl exclusion zone.tick occurrence was studied in the chernobyl exclusion zone (cez) during the august-october 2009-2012. dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with anaplasma phagocytophilum and babesia canis by a pcr method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. the prevalence of infection with b. canis canis and a. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. the results present the first evidence of b. canis canis ...201424953751
vector-borne pathogens in ticks and edta-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, kiev, ukraine.due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. to investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in kiev, ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 dermacentor reticulatus and 19 ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of ...201323069260
[autochthonous babesiosis in dogs in the netherlands?].for the first time cases of babesiosis have been diagnosed in dogs that had not been abroad. three cases were seen in the province of gelderland (bennekom, elspeet), two in north-holland (koog aan de zaan). a female dermacentor reticulatus tick, the main vector of the disease in europe, was found on one of the dogs at koog; previously specimens of this tick species had only occasionally been seen on dogs returning from abroad. serological evidence was obtained that in at least four of the cases ...19853975891
species, developmental stage and infection with microbial pathogens of engorged ticks removed from dogs and questing ticks.research into tick-borne diseases implies vector sampling and the detection and identification of microbial pathogens. ticks were collected simultaneously from dogs that had been exposed to tick bites and by flagging the ground in the area in which the dogs had been exposed. in total, 200 ticks were sampled, of which 104 came from dogs and 96 were collected by flagging. these ticks were subsequently examined for dna of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, anaplasma phagocytophilum, rickettsia spp. a ...201222882652
species of ticks and carried pathogens in owned dogs in spain: results of a one-year national survey.this study presents the results of a national survey in spain on the distribution of ticks on owned dogs, their phenology and the associated pathogens over one year. in the study, 1628 adult ticks were collected on 660 dogs presented to 26 veterinary practices, of which 507 dogs (76.8%) carried at least one adult tick. the primary species of ticks were rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (53%), dermacentor reticulatus (9%), ixodes ricinus (9%), and i. hexagonus (4%). parasitism by two species of these ...201728188085
west-to-east differences of babesia canis canis prevalence in dermacentor reticulatus ticks in slovakia.babesia canis canis is the most frequent causative agent of canine babesiosis in central europe, frequently causing severe disease. recently, many new endemic foci of this disease have been reported from european countries. growing incidence of canine babesiosis was recorded also in slovakia during the last decade, from first cases in eastern slovakia ten years ago to recent cases all over the south of the country. we have used nested pcr-rflp method to study prevalence of b. c. canis in its nat ...201121514057
imidocarb: a chemoprophylactic experiment with babesia canis.eight dogs, given imidocarb dipropionate subcutaneously at a dose of 6 mg/kg, were challenged with a sporozoite stabilate of a french strain of babesia canis, prepared from infected dermacentor reticulatus ticks, 2, 3, 4 or 5 weeks after treatment. three control dogs were similarly infected but not preventively treated. one of the controls and one of the dogs treated 5 weeks prior to challenge died of babesiosis. prepatent and incubation periods were similar in treated and control dogs, and all ...19817268745
sympatric occurrence of ixodes ricinus, dermacentor reticulatus and haemaphysalis concinna ticks and rickettsia and babesia species in slovakia.vojka nad dunajom in the south-west of the slovak republic is a locality with sympatric occurrence of 3 species of ticks. this study investigated the spatial distribution of dermacentor reticulatus, ixodes ricinus, and haemaphysalis concinna ticks in this area and determined the prevalence of babesia and rickettsia species in questing adults of these tick species considered as potential risk for humans and animals. ticks were collected by blanket dragging over the vegetation from september 2011 ...201424973275
[detection of babesia canis (piroplasmida) dna in the blood samples and lysates of the ticks dermacentor reticulatus (ixodidae) collected in the tula and moscow regions].chimeric primers, the sensitivity and specificity of which allow them to be used in both the clinical setting and the epizootological assessment of tick infection by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay, have been designed against babesia canis infection. the findings suggest that a large number of babesia dna copies are detectable in the blood in acute babesiosis. some animals that had experienced babesiosis developed blood b. canis carriage--a small number oftrophozoites remain ...201424738223
the risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in poland. part 2: occurrence and control of babesiosis in a sled dog kennel during a 13-year-long period.the achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. vector-borne infections may lead to anemia, affect joints or heart muscles or even cause death. canine babesiosis is an emerging, quickly spreading tick-borne disease in central europe. over a 13-year period (2000-2012) the occurrence of babesiosis cases was analyzed in one sled dog kennel situated in kury, a village near tłuszcz (n 52°24'56.78″, e 21°30'37.55″) in central poland. twenty cases/episod ...201424612743
babesia canis and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) co-infection in a sled dog.sporting dogs, including sled dogs, are particularly prone to tick-borne infection either due to training/racing in forest areas or through visits to endemic areas. the aim was to present tick-borne infections in a 6-dog racing team after a race in estonia.201324069843
questing dermacentor reticulatus harbouring babesia canis dna associated with outbreaks of canine babesiosis in the swiss 2011 and 2012, outbreaks of clinical canine babesiosis were observed in 2 areas of the swiss midlands that had no history of this disease so far. in one area, cases of canine babesiosis occurred over 2 consecutive tick seasons. the outbreaks involved 29 dogs, 4 of which died. all dogs were infected with large babesia sp. as diagnosed in giemsa-stained blood smears and/or pcr. these were identified as b. canis (formerly known as b. canis canis) by subsequent partial sequencing of the 18s rrna ...201323571114
prevention of transmission of babesia canis by dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar.a group of 8 dogs was treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (seresto(®)) 28 days prior to infestation with adult dermacentor reticulatus ticks, infected with babesia canis. the ability of the collar to prevent transmission of b. canis in the treated group was compared to an untreated control group. all 8 dogs in the untreated control group became infected with b. canis parasites, which were detected in blood smears as early as day 6 post tick-application. all control dogs developed clin ...201323158840
identification of babesia species infecting dogs using reverse line blot hybridization for six canine piroplasms, and evaluation of co-infection by other vector-borne pathogens.canine infection by vector-borne hemoparasites is frequent in tropical and sub-tropical areas where exposure to hematophageous ectoparasites is intensive. a reverse line blot (rlb) assay was designed to improve the simultaneous detection of all named canine piroplasm species combined with other vector-borne pathogens of dogs including ehrlichia canis, hepatozoon canis and leishmania infantum common in the mediterranean basin. blood samples of 110 dogs from spain (n=21), portugal (n=14) and israe ...201323017370
[the prevalence of babesia canis canis in marsh ticks (dermacentor reticulatus) in the saarland].an accumulation of autochthonous cases of canine babesiosis caused by babesia canis has been registered in a small animal clinic in the saarland since the beginning of 2006, some cases with fatal outcome. this study aims to contribute to the explanation of strong focal occurrence of infections with b. canis in this region.therefore, patient owners who had presented their dogs in the years 2006 and 2007 because of babesiosis and who had claimed not having left the saarland with their dogs at leas ...201222515037
prevalence and distribution of borrelia and babesia species in ticks feeding on dogs in the u.k.ticks were collected during march-july 2015 from dogs by veterinarians throughout the u.k. and used to estimate current prevalences and distributions of pathogens. dna was extracted from 4750 ticks and subjected to polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis to identify borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) and babesia (piroplasmida: babesiidae) species. of 4737 ticks [predominantly ixodes ricinus linneaus (ixodida: ixodidae)], b. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in ...201728846148
emergence of babesia canis in southern england.the united kingdom is considered free of autochthonous transmission of canine babesiosis although cases are reported in dogs associated with recent travel abroad. during the winter months of 2015/16, a cluster of cases of disease in dogs with signs suggestive of canine babesiosis were reported in harlow, essex.201728514953
molecular detection of rickettsia conorii and other zoonotic spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks, romania.the diverse tick fauna as well as the abundance of tick populations in romania represent potential risks for both human and animal health. spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of emerging human tick-borne diseases worldwide. however, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases has been poorly investigated in romania. in urban habitats, companion animals which are frequently exposed to tick infestation, play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservo ...201626507182
origins of recently emerged foci of the tick dermacentor reticulatus in central europe inferred from molecular markers.the ornate dog tick dermacentor reticulatus is vector of several blood parasites, including babesia canis, a causative agent of babesiosis. the geographical range of d. reticulatus in europe is discontinuous with a gap separating eastern and western macroregions. new foci observed in several locations in western and central europe were considered an expansion of the western population, including foci in western poland. in the present paper we used molecular markers to identify the origins of the ...201728285892
dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794) and babesia canis (piana et galli-valerio, 1895) as the parasites of companion animals (dogs and cats) in the wrocław area, south-western poland.tests performed in 2013 and 2014 revealed the occurrence of three tick species parasitizing pet cats and dogs in the wrocław agglomeration. in total, 1,455 tick specimens were removed from 931 hosts (760 dogs and 171 cats) in 18 veterinary clinics. the dominant tick species was ixodes ricinus (n=1272; 87.4%), followed by i. hexagonus (n=137; 9.4%) and dermacentor reticulatus (n=46; 3.2%). females were the most often collected development stage among i. ricinus and d. reticulatus, and nymphs amon ...201727614478
the southernmost foci of dermacentor reticulatus in italy and associated babesia canis infection in dogs.two clustered clinical cases of canine babesiosis were diagnosed by veterinary practitioners in two areas of northeastern italy close to natural parks. this study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of babesial infection in dogs, the etiological agents that cause canine babesiosis and the potential tick vector for the involved babesia spp.201627090579
uneven seasonal distribution of babesia canis and its two 18s rdna genotypes in questing dermacentor reticulatus ticks in urban has been reported from cities in central europe that clinical cases of canine babesiosis are most frequent in spring time, despite the fact that the peak activity of dermacentor reticulatus (the vector of babesia canis) is during autumn. the present study was initiated to evaluate the seasonal distribution of b. canis-infected d. reticulatus ticks in this context. in two habitats of budapest 852 d. reticulatus adults were collected between august, 2014 and june, 2015. among the molecularly an ...201627009915
a new pcr assay for the detection and differentiation of babesia canis and babesia vogeli.babesia spp. are globally distributed tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect the red blood cells of a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans. diagnosis of babesiosis is often impeded by the transient presence of the parasites in peripheral blood, as well as by their pleomorphic nature. given the reports of an expanding and, in some cases, sympatric geographical distribution of babesia canis and babesia vogeli in dogs and associated vectors, in europe, the development of time-effici ...201728739301
light and electron microscopic study on developmental stages of babesia canis within the gut of the tick dermacentor reticulatus.the initial developmental stages of babesia canis within the gut of the vector tick, dermacentor reticulatus, were studied by means of light and electron microscopy. large quantities of varying "spiky-rayed" stages and few ovoid stages without any protrusions were observed after lysis of the engorged canine erythrocytes. the transformation of spherical erythrocytic stages into "spiky-rayed" forms was initiated inside the intact erythrocytes. the significance of all developmental stages in a hypo ...19807391862
[imported arthropod-borne parasites and parasitic arthropods in dogs. species spectrum and epidemiologic analysis of the cases diagnosed in 1995/96].between january 1995 and december 1996 nonendemic or only regionally occurring arthropodborne parasites including ehrlichiae and parasitic arthropods in germany were detected in 484 dogs, whereby at least 15 species were involved. listed in decreasing order, leishmania infections occurred most frequently, followed by infections/infestations with babesia canis, ehrlichia canis, rhipicephalus sanguineus, dirofilaria immitis and dermacentor reticulatus. the other species, namely babesia gibsoni, tr ...19989531673
the prevention of transmission of babesia canis canis by dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs using a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene.four groups of seven dogs were treated topically with a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene in a spot-on formulation (certifect™, merial limited, ga, usa) on 28, 21, 14 and 7 days prior to tick infestation, respectively and acaricidal efficacy and transmission blocking compared with an untreated control group (seven dogs). all dogs were infested with adult dermacentor reticulatus ticks harbouring babesia canis canis. babesia canis canis was transmitted by d. reticulatus to ...201121777737
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