alcelaphine herpesviruses 1 and 2 sds-page analysis of virion polypeptides, restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic dna and virus replication restriction in different cell types.herpesviruses have been isolated from white-tailed, white-bearded and blue wildebeest, as well as from jimela topi and cape hartebeest. these animals are members of the sub-family alcelaphinae of the family bovidae. viruses isolated from wildebeest cause malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in susceptible ruminant species. alcelaphine herpesviruses (ahv) isolated from wildebeest replicate in both fetal aoudad sheep kidney (fak) cells and bovine embryonic lung (bel) cells. however, virus isolates from ...19892549921
prevalence of antibodies to alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 and nucleic acid hybridization analysis of viruses isolated from captive exotic ruminants.a serologic survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibodies to alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (ahv-1) in captive exotic ruminants within the united states. forty-six percent of the members of the subfamily alcelaphinae (wildebeest, topi, hartebeest) in the family bovidae had virus-neutralizing antibody to ahv-1. other subfamilies of bovidae with high prevalence of virus-neutralizing antibodies to ahv-1 included hippotraginae (oryx and addax) and caprinae (sheep and goats), with prevale ...19892552876
isolation of bovine herpesvirus-3 from african buffaloes (syncerus caffer).eleven virus isolations were made from the blood of 45 free living healthy african buffaloes by long term cocultivation of their leucocytes with bovine thymus or spleen cells. the isolates were indistinguishable from each other or from herpesviruses isolated from a severely ill buffalo calf and from a dead buffalo. these viruses possessed the characteristics of the bovine herpesvirus-3 (bhv-3) group and were indistinguishable by serology and restriction endonuclease analysis from the bhv-3 type ...19892662288
excretion of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 by captive and free-living wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus).excretion of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (ahv-1) is for all practical purposes limited to wildebeest calves under the age of 4 months. sixty-one per cent of calves 1-2 months of age excreted virus with a mean titre of 9.8 x 10(4) cytopathic-forming foci/ml in their ocular fluid. the incidence declined sharply to less than 2% in wildebeest older than 6 months. no difference in age-related excretion of virus could be detected between free-living and captive wildebeest and no virus could be isolated ...19892748133
epizootology of wildebeest-derived malignant catarrhal fever in an outbreak in the north-western transvaal: indications of an intermediate host.the investigation involved 37 herds of cattle numbering 6,280 animals and 5 groups of blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), consisting of 30-330 wildebeest per group. all the cases of wildebeest-derived malignant catarrhal fever encountered were associated with wildebeest and not with other game animals. six per cent of the cases were encountered in late summer when the wildebeest calves were 3-4 months old, whereas 73% occurred in spring, when the wildebeest calves were 8-11 months old and d ...19892748134
role of wildebeest fetal membranes and fluids in the transmission of malignant catarrhal fever virus.malignant catarrhal fever virus was not isolated from samples of fetal membranes or fluid collected from 93 calving wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) in kenya maasailand. cell-free strains of malignant catarrhal fever virus were very rapidly inactivated when exposed to the sun under field conditions, at least 3.0 log10 units/25 microliter being lost per hour at midday. it is suggested that wildebeest fetal membranes and fluids act as visual markers for areas of pasture which are particularly he ...19836623872
a plaque assay for malignant catarrhal fever virus and virus neutralizing activity.a cell-free strain of malignant catarrhal fever virus which produced a readily recognizable cytopathic effect was obtained by serial passage of the virus in a rabbit kidney cell line. plaque assay of the virus was more rapid and gave higher titres 11 days postinoculation than tube titration, but the latter advantage decreased with a longer incubation period. plaques were clear with sharp edges and measured 0.5 to 2 mm in diameter after 15 days. a plaque neutralization test was developed and succ ...19807427840
identification and analysis of an alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (ahv-1) cdna clone expressing a fusion protein recognized by ahv-1-neutralizing antisera.rabbit antiserum to psoralen-inactivated alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (ahv-1) virions was shown to react specifically with ahv-1-infected cells by indirect immunofluorescence. western blot analysis using this antiserum identified a 15-kd virion protein that was also detected in infected-cell proteins between 12 and 144 h p.i., and a 37-kd protein present in infected cells between 24 and 120 h p.i. a cdna library was constructed using mrna obtained from ahv-1-infected fetal mouflon sheep kidney (fms ...19957733826
generation of a nucleic acid probe specific for the alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 and its use for the detection of malignant catarrhal fever virus dna in blue wildebeest calves (connochaetes taurinus).two wc 11 specific dna fragments, 3 kb and 2 kb in size, respectively, were cloned and evaluated as probes for their use in diagnostic and epidemiological investigations of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). field specimens including blood, ocular fluid, nasal mucus and urine of blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) calves in the kruger national park, south africa, were tested and found positive for excretion of mcf-virus by slot blot hybridization. in 2 cases mcf-virus dna was detected in the u ...19938332328
[malignant catarrhal fever in zoo ruminants].an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in indian gauer (bos gaurus gaurus) and javan banteng (bos javanicus javanicus) occurred in the year 1964 and killed almost all animals of the groups of these species kept at the munich zoo at that time. in the consecutive years at highly irregular intervals cases of the head-and-eye-form of mcf occurred sporadically at the zoo in european and american bison (bison bonasus, b. bison' bison, b. bison athabascae), elk (alces alces), red deer (cervus e ...19989810608
blue wildebeest and the aetiological agent of bovine malignant catarrhal fever. 196013736396
gammaherpesvirus carrier status of black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) in south africa.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is an economically important disease primarily of domestic cattle with a high case fatality rate. it is caused by either alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (alhv-1) or ovine herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2). the major reservoir host of alhv-1 is the blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), but it is generally accepted that the black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) is also a reservoir host. no viral studies in the black wildebeest have been reported and the carrier status of ...200819244822
wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever: perspectives for integrated control of a lymphoproliferative disease of cattle in sub-saharan africa.wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever (wa-mcf), an acute lymphoproliferative disease of cattle caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (alhv-1), remains a significant constraint to cattle production in nomadic pastoralist systems in eastern and southern africa. the transmission of wa-mcf is dependent on the presence of the wildlife reservoir, i.e. wildebeest, belonging to the species connochaetes taurinus and connochaetes gnou; hence, the distribution of wa-mcf is largely restricted to ken ...201626446889
alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (malignant catarrhal fever virus) in wildebeest placenta: genetic variation of orf50 and a9.5 alleles.alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1), a causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle, was detected in wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) placenta tissue for the first time. although viral load was low, the finding of viral dna in over 50% of 94 samples tested lends support to the possibility that placental tissue could play a role in disease transmission and that wildebeest calves are infected in utero. two viral loci were sequenced to examine variation among virus samples obtained from ...201525969987
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
global mammal parasite database version 2.0.illuminating the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of parasites is one of the most pressing issues facing modern science, and is critical for basic science, the global economy, and human health. extremely important to this effort are data on the disease-causing organisms of wild animal hosts (including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths, arthropods, and fungi). here we present an updated version of the global mammal parasite database, a database of the parasites of wild ungulates (artioda ...201728273333
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