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a summary of the prevalence of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a captive wapiti population.a total of 87 brains from harvested and collected wapiti and red deer (cervus spp.) were examined grossly and microscopically between 1973 and 1977 in a 2104 ha. preserve. prevalence of infection significantly increased from 26.6% of the sample in 1973 to 64.3% in 1975 (p less than .05). a decline to 47.7% in 1977 (p greater than .05) was not significant. however, the number of clinical cases was significantly higher in 1976-1977 (p less than .02) than previously reported in 1973-1975.1979459045
the development of clinical signs and the population significance of neurologic disease in a captive wapiti herd.clinical signs attributable to meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were recorded in three male and three female wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) ranging in age from 5 - 29 months. the study was conducted from september, 1976 to may, 1977 in a 2104-ha preserve. some differences were noted in occurrence, time schedule and sequence of signs but the basic pattern was similar. the mean time between initial sign observed and death was 100 days. the effect of neurologic disease on population ...1978650796
prevalence and effects of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a captive wapiti population.prevalence of neurologic disease attributed to parelaphostrongylus tenuis was investigated in a population of wapii (cervus elaphus canadensis) enclosed in a 2080 ha. preserve. brains of 44 animals harvested in 1973, 1974 and 1975 were examined grossly and microscopically. prevalence of infection increased each year from 26.6% of the sample in 1973 to 64.3% in 1975. these data suggest that wapiti living close to white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) may have a high prevalence of infection, ...1977864848
parelaphostrongylus andersoni (nematoda: protostrongylidae) in white-tailed deer from michigan.dorsal-spined larvae in fecal samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in michigan and pennsylvania were used as a source of larvae to infect a hand-raised white-tailed deer fawn. the fawn receive 200 third-stage larvae and passed dorsal-spined larvae in feces 66 days later. muscleworm (parelaphostrongylus andersoni), and meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were recovered at necropsy. two white-tailed deer and seven wapiti (cervus elaphus) exposed to larvae of ...19902250330
identification of dorsal-spined larvae from free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus) in southwestern manitoba, canada.dorsal-spined first-stage larvae recovered from feces of free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus) were passaged through snails (triodopsis multilineata) and two hand-raised white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus). a total of 74 adult parelaphostrongylus tenuis were recovered from the fawns; no other protostrongylid nematodes were recovered. the study indicates that wapiti may be infected with natural infections of meningeal worm and pass larvae suitable for transmission to gastropod interme ...19892716114
meningeal worm evokes a heterogeneous immune response in elk.meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a neurotropic nematode of ungulates in eastern north america. lack of an effective diagnostic test increases the concern of translocating potentially infected ungulates into western north america, where p. tenuis does not occur naturally. in an attempt to identify serodiagnostic molecules, we determined (1) whether elk (cervus elaphus) experimentally infected with p. tenuis produce antibodies against infective larvae or adult worms, and (2) if sera ...19989577781
the potential for false-positive diagnosis of protostrongyliasis by extraction of larvae from feces.the potential of protostrongylid first-stage larvae (l1) to survive passage through the alimentary canal of non-infected mammals was investigated. parelaphostrongylus tenuis l1 were collected from feces of an experimentally infected white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). we utilized two red deer (cervus elaphus) and four laboratory rats (rattus norvegicus) which were each fed the l1 of p. tenuis. larvae were recovered, intact and alive, from the fecal samples of all six animals. larvae of p ...199910574541
distribution of meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in south dakota.heads of hunter-harvested deer (odocoileus sp.) and elk (cervus elaphus) were collected from meat processing plants throughout south dakota (usa) from 1997 through 1999 to determine distribution of meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in eastern and western south dakota. a total of 2,848 white-tailed deer (wtd) were examined for p. tenuis, of which 578 (20.3%) were infected with the parasite. of 578 deer infected, 570 (98.6%) were harvested east of the missouri river. our results indicate ...200415137501
mortality of rocky mountain elk in michigan due to meningeal worm.mortality from cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis caused by the meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been hypothesized to limit elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in areas where elk are conspecific with white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). elk were reintroduced into michigan (usa) in the early 1900s and subsequently greatly increased population size and distribution despite sympatric high-density (>or=12/km2) white-tailed deer populations. we monitored 100 radio-collared ...200515827219
evidence of parelaphostrongylus tenuis infections in free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) in southern ontario.the antemortem detection of a parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in a free-ranging wild elk (cervus elaphus) in southern ontario is documented. postmortems on other free-ranging elk that died during 2000-2005 indicated that 59% (17/29) were infected with p. tenuis, based on presence of lesions in the brain.200718050795
clinical parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in two captive american bison (bison bison).2 juvenile (17 and 19 months of age) male american bison (bison bison) were examined because of acute bilateral hind limb weakness and ataxia; 1 animal also had urinary incontinence.200818828725
surveys for disease agents in introduced elk in arkansas and kentucky.surveys for disease agents were conducted in introduced free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in arkansas and kentucky. elk had been captured in colorado and nebraska and released in arkansas during 1981-1985. from 1997 through 2002 elk were captured in arizona, kansas, north dakota, new mexico, oregon, and utah and released in southeastern kentucky. specimens were collected from 170 hunter-killed elk in arkansas during 1998-2006, and 44 elk in kentucky during 2001-2004. significant findings ...201020090032
retrospective study of central nervous system lesions and association with parelaphostrongylus species by histology and specific nested polymerase chain reaction in domestic camelids and wild ungulates.formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from elk (cervus elaphus), goats, and camelids with case histories and lesions suggestive of parelaphostrongylus tenuis were examined by histology to characterize lesions that could aid in definitively diagnosing p. tenuis infection. additionally, sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr) using parelaphostrongylus-specific primers to determine how pcr results corresponded with histological findings. histo ...201425274743
identification of antigens with potential for immunodiagnosis of parelaphostrongylus tenuis and elaphostrongylus cervi infections in red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) were infected experimentally with parelaphostrongylus tenuis in new brunswick, canada, and with elaphostrongylus cervi in new zealand. excretory-secretory (e-s) antigens from adult p. tenuis were evaluated for their serodiagnostic potential in identifying p. tenuis and heterologous e. cervi infections in a western blot. the antigen recognition profile of sera from animals infected with p. tenuis varied between individuals and with duration of infections, whereas ...200212099432
an aspartyl protease inhibitor orthologue expressed by parelaphostrongylus tenuis is immunogenic in an atypical host.parelaphostrongylus tenuis is a neurotropic nematode common in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) of eastern north america. this parasite is the causative agent of a debilitating neurologic disease in atypical hosts, including domestic livestock. in order to identify proteins of potential significance in the host-parasite relationship, a cdna library was produced from adult p. tenuis mrna. screening the library with antisera from infected red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) and immunized a ...200212093670
immunodiagnosis of experimental parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in elk.elk infected with the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis (protostrongylidae), do not consistently excrete larvae in feces, making the current method of diagnosing live animals using the baermann fecal technique unreliable. serological diagnosis could prove more useful in diagnosing field-infected animals but depends on the identification and availability of good quality antigen. to mimic field infections, 2 elk were inoculated with 6 infective l3 larvae of p. tenuis, and another 2 with 2 ...200211858642
establishment of adult parelaphostrongylus tenuis, patent infections, and acquired immunity after experimental infection of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).experimental parelaphostrongylus tenuis infections were established in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and an atypical host, red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus). groups of deer were fed 10, 25, or 100 third-stage larvae (l3) of p. tenuis and received a single equivalent challenge exposure at varying intervals. infections were monitored up to 6 yr in white-tailed deer and up to 2.8 yr in red deer. the prepatent period in white-tailed deer varied from 91 to 1,072 days (381 +/- 374) and in ...200415165045
meningeal worm in a reintroduced elk population in kentucky.meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been implicated in the failure of several elk (cervus elaphus) restoration attempts in the eastern united states. however, limited post-release monitoring and a paucity of published literature prevents a clear understanding of this parasite's role in past failures. during winters of 1997-2001, the kentucky department of fish and wildlife resources translocated 1,044 elk from western states to eastern kentucky (usa) in an effort to restore a free-ra ...200314567220
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