[distribution of nematode parasites of the digestive system in sheep (ovis aries) and goats (capra hircus) of the piedmontese and valdostano alpine arc].a survey, carried out on gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep and goats of piemonte and of valle d'aosta (87 sheep and 12 goats) has shown the presence of the following species in sheep, bunostomum trigonocephalum, chabertia ovina, cooperia curticei, haemonchus contortus, marshallagia marshalli, nematodirus abnormalis, nematodirus filicollis, nematodirus helvetianus, nematodirus spathiger, oesophagostomum venulosum, ostertagia circumcincta, ostertagia lyrata, ostertagia trifurcata, skrjabinema o ...1977572958
infection of goats with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis: histopathology and ph changes.two groups of goats were experimentally infected with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis, and killed at various days after infection (dai). the percentage of worms that established in the abomasum and the small intestine was low. at necropsy, abomasums from infected goats had thickened walls and oedematous folds. at 7 dai there was an initial infiltration of eosinophils and some neutrophils which tend to increase with age of infection. the mean ph of the abomasum in goats in ...19911777801
evaluation of ivermectin against experimental infections of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats.fourteen nematode parasite-naïve kids were given a mixed larval inoculum (approximately 17,250 infective larvae) via stomach tube. twenty-two days after infection, the kids were randomly assigned to control and treatment groups of seven animals each. mean eggs per gram for control and treatment groups were 4304 and 5315, respectively. kids in the treatment group were given ivermectin (0.2 mg kg-1) administered by subcutaneous injection. at necropsy, the mean numbers of haemonchus contortus and t ...19921496785
gastrointestinal helminths and lungworms of french dairy goats: prevalence and geographical distribution in poitou-charentes.a study was conducted on 81 dairy-goat farms in western france. faecal samples were collected once and 31 culled goats were necropsied in order to assess their gastrointestinal and respiratory helminth species, their prevalences and the intensities of infection as well as their geographical distribution in six subregions of the surveyed area. fifteen species of helminth were recovered. the most frequent were muellerius capillaris, trichostrongylus colubriformis and teladorsagia circumcincta with ...19921494857
disposition of oxfendazole in goats and efficacy compared with sheep.the disposition of intraruminally administered oxfendazole (ofz) in goats was studied at 5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1. the area under the plasma concentration with time curve (auc) increased with increasing dose but at a declining rate. auc was lower after intra-abomasal compared with intraruminal administration. ofz was less effective against drug resistant trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats than in sheep but was of similar efficacy against drug resistant haemonchus contortus in both host species. ...19911780578
efficacy of netobimin against muellerius capillaris and resistant strain of digestive tract strongyles in dairy goats.the efficacy of netobimin against digestive tract strongyles and the small lungworm muellerius capillaris was tested in a dairy goat herd. the drenches were given orally at the rate of 20 mg/kg of body weight once, 10 mg/kg on 2 successive days, or 7.5 mg/kg on 3 successive days. fecal egg counts and larval counts were done 8 days before and on the day of drenching; further counts were performed on postdrenching days 8 and 18. two goats were necropsied, 1 on postdrenching day 5 and 1 on day 10 i ...19911928914
changes in liveweight gain, blood constituents and worm egg output in goats infected with a sheep-derived strain of trichostrongylus colubriformis.two groups of goats were dosed with 20,000 and 40,000 sheep-derived strain (sds) larvae of trichostrongylus colubriformis respectively. over a period of 42 days, goats dosed with 40,000 larvae lost more weight than goats dosed with 20,000 larvae. anaemia was not observed in infected goats, but total serum proteins, albumins and phosphorus fell with infection.19902224486
faecal water content and egg survival of goat gastro-intestinal strongyles under dry tropical conditions in guadeloupe.faeces from naturally infected goats were deposited on a natural grassland during the dry season in guadeloupe (french west indies) at different times throughout the day. the grass was either 7 or 20-30 cm tall. after a period of between several hours and 7 days, the number of viable strongyle eggs and the faecal water content were measured. faecal temperature was recorded continuously. faecal temperature was greater than 40 degrees-45 degrees c at midday and dehydration was rapid between 8 a.m. ...19902352914
efficacy of three broad-spectrum anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematode infections of goats.groups of 10 goats, harbouring both naturally acquired and experimental infections of gastrointestinal nematodes, were drenched with either levamisole (5 mg kg-1), albendazole (3.8 mg kg-1) or parbendazole (15 mg kg-1), or remained untreated. haemonchus contortus was the numerically dominant infection, with strongyloides papillosus, trichostrongylus colubriformis and oesophagostomum columbianum also present. at 5-6 days post-treatment, goats were killed and necropsied. post-mortem worm counts sh ...19892588471
development and survival of infective larvae of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis on pasture in a tropical environment.a trial to determine the seasonal pattern of egg hatching and larval survival on pasture was carried out in representative wet and dry zones of fiji. fourteen plots were established on parasite-free pasture at each of two sites. one plot at each site was contaminated every month with faeces from naturally infected goats containing a known proportion of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis eggs. pasture was sampled at regular intervals after contamination and infective larvae i ...19902332275
the establishment and development of trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats.twelve goats were inoculated with 20,000 infective larvae of trichostrongylus colubriformis and two were killed on each of days 4, 7, 11, 14, 18 and 21 after inoculation (dai). the number of worms that established, and the site of development were recorded. most of the worms established within the first 3 m of the small intestine. there was little relocation or loss of nematodes after establishment. the worms started to migrate from the mucosa to the lumen 11 days after infection. at 4 dai, 63% ...19902343537
effects of irrigation on appearance and survival of infective larvae of goat gastro-intestinal nematodes in guadeloupe (french west indies).in guadeloupe (french west indies), faeces from naturally infected goats were deposited during the dry season on three plots, irrigated with long (plot a) or short herbage (b) and non-irrigated with long herbage (c). microclimatic data and the evolution of l3 population size in faeces, on soil surface and on herbage were followed over a period of 26 days. the initial nematode egg population was comprised of 58% haemonchus contortus (hc), 25% trichostrongylus colubriformis (tc) and 17% oesophagos ...19892777463
[principal helminths of small ruminants in ituri (upper zaire)].from august 1986 to november 1987, about 180 slaughtered sheep and goats were examined at bunia (haut-zaïre) in order to establish the main helminth parasites. seventeen and fifteen species were identified in sheep and goats respectively. the occurrence of stilesia hepatica, oesophagostomum multifoliatum and muellerius capillaris as well as the absence of echinococcus granulosus constituted the original features of this check-list in the area. parasitism the most frequently encountered both in s ...19902369171
the formation of the first-stage cuticle within the egg of trichostrongylus colubriformis.the ultrastructure of the formation of the first-stage cuticle within the egg of trichostrongylus colubriformis is described. the first indication of cuticle formation was the formation of the epicuticle external to the epidermal plasma membrane. this becomes thickened to form the epicuticle of the fully formed cuticle. microtubules and microfilaments associated with the epidermal plasma membrane were observed during the early phases of cuticle formation. the basal zone was secreted into the spa ...19883217140
biogenic amines and their metabolites in trichostrongylus colubriformis, a nematode parasite of ruminants.the following biogenic amines (ba) and ba metabolites were identified via hplc in homogenates prepared from adults of trichostrongylus colubriformis (nematoda) recovered from the intestines of goats: n-acetyldopamine, dopa, dopamine, epinephrine, epinine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylglycol, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl) proprionic acid, metanephrine, o-methyl-dopa, 3-methoxytyramine, norepinephrine, normetanephrine, octopamine, p-hydroxymandelic acid, serotonin, synephrine, tyram ...19872885143
a field evaluation of benzimidazole and nonbenzimidazole drugs in a herd of dairy goats.a study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of six anthelmintics in a herd of dairy goats. pretreatment larval cultures indicated that the goats were infected with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis. three separate treatment regimens were administered. in each trial, mature nonlactating goats were allocated into two treatment groups and a control group. treatment groups received thiabendazole (tbz) or levamisole (lev), mebendazole (mbz) or fenbendazole (fbz), and moran ...19883225804
development of resistance to trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats.a high level of host resistance to trichostrongylus colubriformis was established in a group of saanen goats infected weekly with 10,000 infective larvae for 10 weeks, treated with an anthelmintic and then challenged twice with 50,000 larvae, with a further anthelmintic treatment 28 days after the first challenge. a second group of goats exposed only to the two challenge infections developed worm burdens intermediate between, and significantly different from, the first group and a third control ...19892815537
trichostrongylus colubriformis: larvicidal activity of toxic extracts from bacillus sphaericus (strain 1593) spores. 19873678452
sex steroid content and metabolism in trichostrongylus colubriformis (nematoda).testosterone, progesterone and cholesterol were found in mixed sexes of the nematode trichostrongylus colubriformis from goats, according to thin-layer, gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography. the structure of these steroids was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. melting points of the worms' steroids were similar to authentic standards of the steroids. estradiol was not detected in worms from either goat sex. cholesterol was about 0.08% of the wo ...19863734997
resistance of trichostrongylus colubriformis to levamisole and morantel: differences in relation to selection history.two field strains of trichostrongylus colubriformis were tested by in vitro and in vivo methods for resistance to morantel, levamisole and thiabendazole and compared with an anthelmintic-naive laboratory-passaged strain (mcm). one field strain (tas) was isolated from a dairy goat herd which had experienced severe helminthiasis despite intensive anthelmintic usage. the other (bck) was isolated from sheep which had been treated solely with levamisole over a 6-year period. the bck strain had very h ...19863776078
depressed feeding by the nematode trichostrongylus colubriformis in inoculated goats. 19863783358
efficacy of ivermectin against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats.the efficacy of ivermectin (0.08 per cent w/v oral solution) at different dose levels was evaluated against induced infections of adult haemonchus contortus (21 days old) and trichostrongylus colubriformis (21 days old) and fourth stage larvae of oesophagostomum columbianum (17 days old), ostertagia circumcincta (five days old) and strongyloides papillosus (five days old). twenty-five boergoats (mutton goats) were randomly allocated by bodyweight within each sex to an untreated control group and ...19853840299
effects of host serum on feeding by trichostrongylus colubriformis (nematoda).the effect of host serum on in vitro feeding by trichostrongylus colubriformis was studied by incubating adult helminths in goat serum containing the dye, rhodamine b. the amount of dye ingested was determined by fluorometric analysis. immune serum from goats infected with t. colubriformis suppressed helminth feeding, while normal serum from uninfected goats did not. suppression of feeding by immune serum increased with the duration of the host's infection. heat-inactivation (56 degrees c) of im ...19853887294
anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of goats.cases of anthelmintic resistance on 3 goat farms in gippsland were investigated. on the first farm haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus colubriformis and ostertagia (teladorsagia) circumcincta were found to be resistant to fenbendazole, but the first 2 species were fully susceptible to levamisole. on the second farm a population of t. colubriformis, resistant to concurrent full doses of levamisole and a benzimidazole, was found to retain this resistance when transferred to sheep. on the third ...19854051913
the fine structure of the alimentary tract of third-stage larvae of haemonchus placei and trichostrongylus colubriformis. 19715091364
trichostrongylus colubriformis: effect of anthelmintics on ingestion and oviposition. 19854066143
[trichostrongylus colubriformis infestation in childhood]. 19705531654
strongyle infections of small ruminants in nigeria.a survey of strongyle infections was conducted in sheep and goats reared in a traditional extensive husbandry system in two ecological zones of nigeria. one zone had a seasonal pattern of infection. the majority of animals had faecal worm parasite egg counts of below 500 eggs per gram. kids, and lambs younger than 3 months did not carry strongyle worm burdens, and the highest infection rate was found in the 7-12 month age group. a high proportion of small ruminants shed strongyle eggs during the ...19826892178
seasonal incidence of helminths in sheep and goats in south mozambique.the seasonal fluctuations in faecal worm egg counts were studied at monthly intervals for over a year in 20 male sheep and goats on extensive grazing tracts at a farm near maputo, mozambique. larval differentiation from faecal cultures showed that haemonchus contortus and oesophagostomum columbianum were the most prevalent worm species. trichostrongylus colubriformis, cooperia spp., strongyloides papillosus, moniezia spp., paramphistomum spp. and trichuris spp. also occurred. after the onset of ...19826892176
effects of concurrent subclinical infections by coccidia (eimeria christenseni) and intestinal nematodes (trichostrongylus colubriformis) on apparent nutrient digestibilities and balances, serum copper and zinc, and bone mineralization in the pigmy goat.subclinical infections by the intestinal nematode trichostrongylus colubriformis were established in 7 pigmy goats by inoculating each with 4,000 infective larvae 5 days/week for 18 weeks. at the start of the 14th week, 3 of the goats were orally inoculated daily with 10,000 sporulated oocytes of the coccidium eimeria christenseni for 6 days, producing subclinical infections. during selected weeks, the goats were placed in metabolism cages to monitor feed consumption and collect orts, feces, and ...19827181193
use of random amplified polymorphic dna for identification of ruminant trichostrongylid nematodes.the aim of this work was to evaluate random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) as a source of markers for species identification and phylogenetic analysis of ruminant trichostrongylid nematodes. as these nematodes are often polymorphic, species identification may be difficult. we tested eight species and several of their morphs: haemonchus contortus (three vulvar morphotypes: flap, smooth, and knobbed), teladorsagia circumcincta, ashworthius gagarini, spiculopteragia boehmi, ostertagia leptospicul ...19957724508
[epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in small ruminants in the tree-cropping pasture zone in senegal].an epidemiological survey on gastrointestinal helminthiasis in 51 sheep and 51 goats was held in the tree-cropping pasture region in senegal from october 1990 to september 1991. all the animals examined were infected with at least 1 helminth species. three trematodes (fasciola gigantica, schistosoma bovis, amphistomatids), 2 cestodes (moniezia expansa, cysticercus tenuicollis) and 9 nematodes were identified. the most important parasite in sheep was haemonchus contortus while trichostrongylus co ...19957735304
anthelmintic treatments against digestive-tract nematodes in grazing dairy goats with high or low levels of milk production.the effect of a regular anthelmintic treatment during the grazing period on milk production and milk composition was measured in a dairy goat farm. one month before turnout, 92 goats were given 10 febantel and then allocated to 2 equivalent groups according to their levels of milk production. the first group was given febantel monthly, the second group was kept as an untreated control. parasitological, haematological and serological data were collected monthly from march to september. mi ...19947951347
efficacy of pyrantel tartrate against experimental infections with haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats.the efficacy of pyrantel tartrate was evaluated in goats against induced infections with haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus colubriformis. all the strains were of sheep origin and tested for susceptibility to pyrantel tartrate in sheep at the standard dose rate (20 mg kg-1) prior to the infection of goats. fifteen french alpine female goats were inoculated with the three nematode species. on day 25 post-infection, goats were randomized into an untreated control ...19957571339
farm history and breeding management influences on the intensity and specific diversity of nematode infection of dairy goats.sixteen dairy-goat farms were investigated in the centre-west of france for nematode infection. the intensity of infection was assessed by means of faecal egg counts and nematode counts at necropsy for digestive-tract nematodes and faecal larval counts for muellerius capillaris. the specific diversity and prevalence were estimated by worm counts of 28 necropsied culled goats. the history and breeding management were recorded by means of a questionnaire. specific diversity was estimated on two cu ...19947975117
benzimidazole-resistant trichostrongylus colubriformis from goats in central england. 19948036773
establishment of camel isolates of haemonchus longistipes and trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats.two main nematode parasites, haemonchus longistipes and trichostrongylus colubriformis, have been reported to cause morbidity and mortality in camels. although goats are usually reared with camels in the combined animal husbandry system prevailing in northern india, these parasites have not been reported in goats. therefore, it was planned to conduct an experimental cross-transmission study of h. longistipes and t. colubriformis isolated from camels and transferred to young goats. twelve healthy ...19938128589
comparative kinetic disposition of oxfendazole in sheep and goats before and during infection with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis.the kinetic disposition of [14c]-oxfendazole (ofz) and its metabolites, fenbendazole (fbz) and fenbendazole sulphone (fbz.so2), in plasma and abomasal fluid were determined in merino sheep and angora goats before and during infection with trichostrongylus colubriformis and haemonchus contortus. the systemic availability (area under the plasma curve, auc) of ofz was significantly lower in goats (13.5 micrograms.h/ml) than in sheep (22.2 micrograms.h/ml) and was reduced with infection in goats (5. ...19938230395
seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in communal land goats from the highveld of zimbabwe.on six occasions during a 1 year period, goats run on communal pastures by small-scale farmers, were purchased, housed indoors for 3 weeks and autopsied for examination of their gastrointestinal nematode burden. all of the 32 goats examined were infected. the four dominant species, haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis and oesophagostomum columbianum, were present in 88-97% of the animals. three other nematodes, strongyloides papillosus, bunostomum spp. and ...19948171826
parasite spectrum and seasonal epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in the hundred and four post mortem examinations of randomly selected sheep (52) and goats (52) were carried out weekly from march 1990 to february 1991. gastrointestinal parasites were identified and counted. a large spectrum of 16 helminth species was found in 101 (97%) infected animals. the nematodes infecting small ruminants were, in order of predominance: trichostrongylus colubriformis (96% of all animals), oesophagostomum columbianum (82%), haemonchus contortus (67%), strongyloides papillosus ...19938249251
comparison of the effects on milk production of concurrent infection with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in high- and low-producing dairy goats.the impact of nematode parasitism of the digestive tract on milk output and milk quality was examined in dairy goats. in addition, the consequences of worm infection were compared in goats with different lactation performance (ie, with initial high or low milk production). forty-eight goats in the second month of lactation were allotted equally to 2 groups. the first group was given 5,000 haemonchus contortus and 20,000 trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae. the 24 additional goats remained free ...19938291768
the prevalence of concurrent trypanosome and gastrointestinal nematode infections in west african dwarf sheep and goats in nsukka area of eastern nigeria.the prevalence of concurrent nematode-trypanosome infections in traditionally reared west african dwarf sheep and goats in eastern nigeria was monitored over a 12-month period during 1987-1988. the most prevalent nematodes were haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis, which usually occurred together in all nematode infected animals. their combined prevalence rates ranged from 90 to 100% throughout the year and they accounted for 66 to 98% of the total monthly worm burdens. of the ...19938249254
allozyme variations between sheep or rabbit laboratory reared and goat wild populations of trichostrongylus colubriformis.allozyme variation at 3 polymorphic enzyme loci (gpi, pgm, mdh) was studied in trichostrongylus colubriformis. by means of a multivariate analysis it was shown that populations of worms harboured by naturally infected goats were genetically different from populations laboratory reared in lambs or rabbits. a deficiency of heterozygotes was recorded in each population studied.19938300304
studies on multispecific resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to benzimidazoles on dairy-goat farms.multispecific resistance to benzimidazoles was studied in three selected farms. these farms had bred dairy goats for more than 15 years. the helminths were introduced with the goats at the establishment of the farms which afterwards remained isolated. nematode resistance could then be related to their own management practices. faecal egg count tests and egg hatch assays were performed to assess intensity of resistance. the generic (infective larvae in faecal cultures) and specific richness (adul ...19958747916
effect of subclinical coccidiosis in kids on subsequent trichostrongylid infection after female kids of the murciana-granadina breed naturally infected with coccidia were superinfected with a multispecific eimeria inoculum (300,000 oocysts) or treated to control the coccidial infection with amprolium (50 mg kg-1 liveweight day-1; 4 days every 14 days); 80 days later both animal groups received 2500 third-stage larvae of a sheep-derived mixture of trichostrongylus colubriformis (50%), teladorsagia circumcincta (40%) and haemonchus contortus (10%). kids experimentally s ...19938447060
genetic variability in resistance of creole goats to natural infection with trichostrongylids in guadeloupe.the objective of this study was to show the existence of genetic variability in resistance of creole goats to natural infection with intestinal nematodes. four successive cohorts of male and female kids were reared from weaning during 9 months in intensive pangola pastures (stocking rate 1.4 t/ha, regrowth of 21 days, 300 kg n/ ha/year of fertilization). all cohorts considered, 203 offsprings from 13 bucks and 149 goats were used in the experiment. animals were treated with an oral dose of iverm ...19968784523
anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the netherlands.a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with angora and anglo-nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. the lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after infection with 5 mg kg-1 oxfendazole, 0.2 mg kg-1 ivermectin or 7.5 mg kg-1 levamisole. the lambs were slaughtered 1 week later and post-mortem worm counts were performed. benzimidazole resistance was ...19968916403
prevalence and seasonal changes in the gastro-intestinal helminths of nigerian goats.a total of 120 gastro-intestinal tracts and 960 faecal samples were examined to assess the prevalence and seasonal changes in the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of red sokoto (maradi) goats slaughtered at ibadan between may 1991 and april 1992. egg types of strongyles, strongyloides, trichuris, skrjabinema, dicrocoelium and moniezia were encountered in 93%, 83%, 44%, 0.9%, 2.3% and 31% of the faecal samples respectively. however, only strongyle, strongyloides and trichuris eggs occurred in ...19968960229
efficacy of an albendazole slow-release capsule for the control of susceptible or resistant nematode parasites of dairy goats.the efficacy of albendazole slow release capsules-asrc- (proftril-captec) on gastro-intestinal nematodes of dairy-goats was assessed both for benzimidazole (bz) susceptible and resistant strains. for bz susceptible strains, the efficacy of asrc, assessed by controlled test, ranged from 92% for trichostrongylus colubriformis to more than 99% for haemonchus contortus on existing worm burdens. the administration of the asrc prevented infection with the same strains for 85 to 91 days post treatment. ...19969017868
relationship between genetic diversity in the nematode trichostrongylus colubriformis and breeding management in ten dairy-goat farms.ten dairy-goat farms were investigated in center-west of france for genetic variability of trichostrongylus colubriformis in relation to breeding management. farm management data were obtained from a questionnaire. genetic variability was based on two polymorphic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (mdh) and glucose-phosphate isomerase (gpi). after their establishment, the farms were subsequently isolated from introduction of strongyle worms as shown in the questionnaire; this was also suggested by th ...19969017884
response to challenge infection with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in dairy goats. differences between high and low-producers.the objective of the study was to analyse the influence of the level of milk production in dairy goats on the ability to develop resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infection. two groups of 50 goats were initially exposed (group 'previously infected' pi) or not exposed (group 'not previously infected' npi) to repeated infections with a mixture of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis. after anthelmintic treatment, goats from both groups remained free of parasites for 2 mont ...19979477513
response to challenge infection with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in dairy goats. consequences on milk production.the objective of the study was to examine the ability of dairy goats to develop a response to nematode parasites of the digestive tract after a previous contact with the worms. one hundred dairy goats were initially divided into 2 groups. one remained free of parasites (not previously infected: npi). the second group was infected thrice at 50 days interval with a mixture of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis (previously infected: pi). after this initial exposure to nematodes ...19989493309
the results of anthelmintic-abbreviated infections of trichostrongylus colubriformis and teladorsagia circumcincta on fecal egg counts in goats on pasture.twenty, 2-yr-old angora goats kept on nematode larvae-contaminated pasture since birth were divided into 2 equal groups. goats from group 1 were immunized by drug-abbreviated infection, a procedure that gave high protection against field challenge in 12-moold sheep. group 1 was orally dosed 3 times with increasing numbers of trichostrongylus colubriformis and teladorsagia circumcincta infective larvae. each time, the infection was abbreviated with oxfendazole (oxf) 15 days after dosing. group 2 ...19979194842
natural evolution of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats (capra hircus) in the semi-arid ecosystem of the paraíba backwoods, northeastern brazil.this study was conducted in patos county, a semi-arid area with caatinga vegetation in paraiba state, northeastern brazil. twenty-four male goats of mixed breeds were used. the animals were separated in age groups from 1-12 months, i. e., 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 months, with four animals in each group. the animals were slaughtered and necropsied to recover and identify adult worms. the goats were exposed to nematode infection from the first month of life. the most prevalent nematodes in ...19989877070
repeated infections with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in dairy goats: comparison of resistant and susceptible animals.a total of 70 strongyle-free french alpine dairy goats were exposed to a combination of sequential and challenge infections with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis third-stage larvae. the sequential infection consisted of three inoculations at 50-day intervals, each infection being abbreviated by anthelmintic treatment at 40 days postinoculation. the challenge infection, composed of the same nematode strains, was undertaken 2 months later, when goats were at their 1st month ...19989521016
duration of activity of oral moxidectin against haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats. 199910399250
[helminth species of goats in germany].the helminth fauna of the gastrointestinal tract of 25 and the respiratory organs and the livers of 6 german goats was qualitatively and quantitatively examined. one trematode species (dicrocoelium dendriticum), 2 species of cestodes (moniezia expansa and metacestodes of taenia hydatigena) and 28 species of nematodes (24 in the gastrointestinal tract and 4 in the lungs) were recorded. two goats were infested with oestrus ovis larvae. the most prevalent species were ostertagia circumcincta and ch ...19989880938
activity of eprinomectin in goats against experimental infections with haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus colubriformis. 199910097316
faecal egg counts in angora goats following natural or experimental challenge with nematode parasites: within-flock variability and repeatabilities.phenotypic variation in faecal worm-egg count (fec) was studied in 100 angora goats between 6 months and 2 years old as part of a wider investigation into the potential use of fec as a selection trait in breeding goats for improved natural resistance to nematode infection. shortly after weaning at 4-5 months old the goats were subjected to a procedure involving successive natural and experimental challenges, which was continued at 6-monthly intervals until the goats were 2 years old. experimenta ...199910435796
resistance of field isolates of trichostrongylus colubriformis and ostertagia circumcincta to ivermectin.twelve romney lambs and 10 angora goats were infected with 7000 infective third-stage larvae (89% trichostrongylus, 11% ostertagia) collected from goats suspected of harbouring ivermectin-resistant nematodes. on 28 days p.i., the lambs and goats were divided into treatment and control groups of six and five animals, respectively. the animals in the treatment groups were treated with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) and necropsied 35 days p.i. faecal egg counts were estimated on days 28 and 35 p.i. and lar ...199910404276
susceptibility of high and low producer dairy goats to single experimental infection with trichostrongylus colubriformis.culled dry dairy goats, which differed in their level of production in previous lactations, received a single infection with trichostrongylus colubriformis. the objectives of the study were twofold. first, the study aimed at examining the ability of dairy goats to develop an immune response to trichostrongyle infection and the associated cellular changes developing within the intestinal mucosa. second, a comparison between animals differing in their level of production was assessed, in order to ...200011097293
the effect of two levels of dietary protein on resistance and resilience of dairy goats experimentally infected with trichostrongylus colubriformis: comparison between high and low producers.numerous studies have examined the interactions between protein nutrition and the response to nematode parasitism in sheep, but very few in goats. compared with other ruminants, goats are less resistant to nematode infection. in addition, in dairy goats, high producing animals have been shown to be less resistant and less resilient to infection compared to low producing ones. the objective of the present study was to examine the consequences of protein supplementation on both resistance and resi ...200010779203
a molecular tool for species identification and benzimidazole resistance diagnosis in larval communities of small ruminant parasites.this report describes a molecular method for determining in a first step the generic composition of a nematode community and in a second step, the resistance of each species to benzimidazole (bz). we first established a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) linked to a restriction fragment length polymorphism strategy using the isotype 1 beta-tubulin gene. this method overcame the limitations of morphological identification of larval stages of trichostrongylid nematode species. geographically distant ...200011038310
assessment of genetic variability of resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in creole goats in the humid tropics.goat production is widespread in the tropics. goats are very susceptible to gastrointestinal nematode infection, but there is less evidence of their genetic resistance. genetic resistance of creole goats to gastrointestinal nematodes has been studied at guadeloupe in the french west indies since 1995. the objective of this research was to investigate genetic variation for resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infection, in order to introduce this trait into breeding schemes. genetic variabilit ...200111465357
multispecific resistance of trichostrongyles to benzimidazoles in a goat herd in germany.anthelmintic resistance of nematodes to benzimidazoles and ivermectin was suspected from field observations in an angora goat herd in northern hesse. larvae of the caprine trichostrongyle isolate were used for artificial infections of helminth-naive sheep. groups of the lambs were treated with albendazole (3.8 mg/kg p.o.) or ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg s.c.) four weeks after infection or remained untreated as controls and were necropsied one week later. albendazole reduced the mean faecal egg counts b ...200111367880
benefit of the control of gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats in the dry zone of sri lanka.the benefit of gastrointestinal nematode control in cross-bred goats in the dry area of sri lanka was studied throughout 1 year by comparing the performances of three groups: group 1 animals (n = 11) were left untreated against gastrointestinal nematodes; group 2 animals (n = 11) were given monthly anthelmintic treatment. doramectin, at the dose rate of 300 microg/kg bodyweight during the entire study period; group 3 animals (n = 11) were also given monthly doramectin treatment at the dose rate ...200212019940
ivermectin and clorsulon (ivomec super) in treatment of goats naturally infested with scab mites and biting lice.five goats naturally infested with sarcoptes scabiei, psoroptes ovis and bovicola caprae were treated with a combination of ivermectin and clorsulon. a subcutaneous injection in a dose of 1 ml/50 kg live weight was given. this provides dose levels of 200 ug ivermectin and 2 mg clorsulon. four goats were cured from the three ectoparasites within one to two weeks. the last elder goat, which was anaemic and naturally infected with trichostrongylus colubriformis, was still infested with the two scab ...200111478437
prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy goats under extensive management conditions in southwestern france.the occurrence of benzimidazole (bz) and levamisole resistance was investigated in 18 randomly selected dairy goat herds located in southwestern france and characterized by extensive management. on each of the 18 farms, 45 adult goats were randomly allocated into three groups of 15 animals each: an untreated control group, a group that was orally administered fenbendazole (10 mg kg(-1) body weight) and a group that received orally a levamisole drench (12 mg kg(-1) body weight). individual faecal ...200111818048
diversity of benzimidazole-resistance alleles in populations of small ruminant parasites.the resistance of gastro-intestinal nematodes of small ruminants (sheep and goat) to benzimidazole anthelmintic drugs seems to be linked primarily to a single mutation in the isotype 1 beta-tubulin gene. this study was carried out to investigate the origin and diversity of benzimidazole-resistance alleles in trichostrongylid nematodes. we sequenced a 550 bp fragment of the isotype 1 beta-tubulin gene from several benzimidazole-resistant teladorsagia circumcincta populations isolated from dairy g ...200212062563
the endoparasites of sheep and goats, and shepherd in north sinai governorate, egypt.examination of sheep and goats in four areas in north sinai revealed an overall infection of 12.70% with fasciola species, 11.8% with paramphistomum cerve, 12.80% with moniezia expansa, 47.11% with trichostrongylus colubriformis, 4.59% trichuris ovis and 44.85% coccidia. the highly infected sheep and goats were diagnosed in el hassanah center (90.49%), followed by al arish city (87.31%), then rafah city (74.39%), and lastly bir al abd (54.71%). the elevation of the overall percent of infection i ...200212049248
effect of the nematophagous fungus, duddingtonia flagrans, on the larval development of goat parasitic nematodes: a plot study.effective alternatives to anthelmintic treatment against nematode parasites of goats are required because of the high prevalence of benzimidazole resistance. towards this objective, the nematophagous fungus, duddingtonia flagrans (df), was used in a plot study against two main parasitic nematode species of goats, teladorsagia circumcincta (tcir) and trichostrongylus colubriformis (tcol). worm-free, culled goats were experimentally infected with strains of tcir and tcol to constitute donors. half ...200312657214
effects of condensed tannins on established populations and on incoming larvae of trichostrongylus colubriformis and teladorsagia circumcincta in goats.the use of tanniferous plants or tannins represents one alternative approach to the control of gastrointestinal parasites in ruminants but most data have been obtained in sheep. the current study was therefore performed in goats with two objectives: firstly, to investigate the effects of condensed tannins (ct) on adult populations of trichostrongylus colubriformis and teladorsagia circumcincta; secondly, to examine their effects on the establishment of infective larvae of these two species. in e ...200312791242
association studies using random and "candidate" microsatellite loci in two infectious goat diseases.we established a set of 30 microsatellites of bovidae origin for use in a biodiversity study in swiss and creole goats. additional microsatellites located within or next to "candidate" genes of interest, such as cytokine genes (il4, inf-gamma) and mhc class ii genes (drb, dya) were tested in the caprine species in order to detect possible associations with two infectious caprine diseases. microsatellite analysis was undertaken using automated sequencers (abi373 & 3100). in the first study, a tot ...200312927084
mortality of creole kids during infection with gastrointestinal strongyles: a survival analysis.mortality due to strongyles infection in small ruminants is a critical component of flock productivity in a tropical climate. in goat production, few experiments have been conducted to estimate the variability of this trait. a survival analysis study was carried out in the creole experimental flock of inra-gardel (moule, guadeloupe) to identify management and genetic factors influencing mortality of kids reared at pasture and infected with gastrointestinal strongyles, predominantly haemonchus co ...200314552365
efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus duddingtonia flagrans against three species of gastro-intestinal nematodes in laboratory faecal cultures from sheep and goats.the ability of the nematode-killing fungus duddingtonia flagrans to reduce number of infective larvae of three species of gastro-intestinal parasitic nematodes developing in dung was investigated in both goats and sheep. groups of lambs and kids (12-20 weeks old) were given mono-specific infections of haemonchus contortus, ostertagia (teladorsagia) circumcincta or trichostrongylus colubriformis. following patency of the infections (t1) faecal samples were collected for determination of faecal ne ...200314729170
the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of browsing criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections during the rainy season in tropical mexico.the objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (gin) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the wet season in tropical mexico. thirty-four 2-month old criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 22-week trial. the kids were placed into four groups. two groups of 8 kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74%, respectively fresh basis) (t ...200415381302
duration of activity of topical eprinomectin against experimental infections with teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats.the immediate as well as the persistent anthelmintic efficacies of topically applied eprinomectin were evaluated in goats against induced infections with teladorsagia circumcincta (2800 l3) and trichostrongylus colubriformis (6000 l3). twenty-three culled dairy goats were allocated to the following groups: control animals (group 1), animals treated 21 days prior to nematode infection (group 2), animals treated 7 days prior to nematode infection (group 3) and animals treated 21 days after nematod ...200415482897
effects of the repeated distribution of sainfoin hay on the resistance and the resilience of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats, the need to explore novel approaches to control nematodes and to reduce the exclusive reliance on chemotherapy is strongly demanded in this host species. in sheep, several studies have shown that the consumption of tannin-rich legume forages was associated with positive effects on host resilience and resistance to parasite infection. in goats, studies on such interactions between tanniferous plants and nematode infections remain few ...200515710528
in vitro effects of three woody plant and sainfoin extracts on 3rd-stage larvae and adult worms of three gastrointestinal nematodes.most studies on the effects of tanniferous plants on nematodes have examined forages but have neglected the woody plants. therefore, in vitro effects of extracts from 3 woody plants (rubus fructicosus, quercus robur, corylus avellana) have been tested on trichostrongyles and compared to sainfoin, a legume forage. because some in vivo results indicated that the effects of tannins differed depending on the parasitic species and/or stages, the effects were measured on 3rd-stage larvae (l3) and adul ...200415267113
influence of the route of administration on efficacy and tissue distribution of ivermectin in goat.the tissue concentration and efficacy of ivermectin after per os and subcutaneous administration were compared in goats experimentally infected with trichostrongylus colubriformis (ivermectin-susceptible strain, inra). infected goats (n = 24) were treated per os (n = 9) or subcutaneously (n = 9) with ivermectin, 0.2 mg/kg, or kept as not treated controls. the faecal egg counts and small intestine worm counts were determined. ivermectin concentration was measured in the plasma, gastrointestinal t ...200515740862
the comparative efficacy of four broad spectrum anthelmintics against some experimentally induced trichostrongylid infections in sheep and goats.a controlled slaughter trial was undertaken to compare the efficacies of oxfendazole (5 mg/kg), morantel citrate (10 mg/kg), levamisole (8 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) against experimentally induced infections of adult haemonchus contortus, ostertagia spp., trichostrongylus colubriformis and cooperiacurticei in sheep and goats. ivermectin and oxfendazole achieved similar levels of efficacy in both hosts against all four worm genera as did levamisole and mortantel against h. contortus and c. ...198716031344
the difference in efficacy of ivermectin oral, moxidectin oral and moxidectin injectable formulations against an ivermectin-resistant strain of trichostrongylus colubriformis in evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin oral, moxidectin oral and moxidectin injectable formulations against an ivermectin-resistant strain of trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep.200116032180
lack of effects of quebracho and sainfoin hay on incoming third-stage larvae of haemonchus contortus in goats.the effects of tannins on adult populations of haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus colubriformis and teladorsagia circumcincta in goats are characterised mainly by a decrease in egg excretion without any significant changes in worm number. in contrast, the impact of tannins on t. colubriformis or t. circumcincta third-stage larvae (l3) is associated with a significant reduction in worm establishment. the objective of the present study was to examine the effects of quebracho extract tannins on ...200516129346
impact on productivity of peri-parturient rise in fecal egg counts in creole goats in the humid tropics.the control of gastrointestinal nematodes requires an understanding of their epidemiology so that particular parasite stages can be targeted. dam infection during early lactation is one example of this in ruminant nematode infections. the existence of the peri-parturient relaxation in immunity and its impact on productivity were examined in a creole goat flock from guadeloupe, exposed to mixed natural infection (predominantly haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis). a total of 1 ...200516165278
improving resilience against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing kids during the dry season in tropical mexico.the objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (gin) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the dry season in tropical mexico. thirty-three two-month-old criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 20-week trial. the kids were placed into four groups. two groups of eight kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74% respectively fresh bas ...200616203095
haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in pen-trials with javanese thin tail sheep and kacang cross etawah goats.weight gain costs due to infection were higher in sheep than goats, 28 and 17.5%, respectively, for trichostrongylus colubriformis and 48.7 and 32.2%, respectively, for haemonchus contortus. the extent of bodyweight cost attributed to anorexia in sheep infected with h. contortus was higher (13.5 g/day) than in sheep infected with t. colubriformis (2.3 g/day). on the other hand, bodyweight cost due to the other pathogenic effects in sheep infected with t. colubriformis were higher (35.6 g/day) co ...200616310309
comparative efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus duddingtonia flagrans against haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus colubriformis in goat faeces: influence of the duration and of the temperature of coproculture.amongst the alternative strategies to the use of anthelmintics, the administration of duddingtonia flagrans spores has already proved its efficacy in reducing the number of developing larvae of several nematode species in goat faeces. in this trial, the efficacy of this fungus against the larvae of the three major nematode species of goats was compared in various conditions of coproculture. twelve strongyle free goats were experimentally infected with either trichostrongylus colubriformis, telad ...200616328368
efficacy of short-term feeding of sulla (hedysarum coronarium) to young goats against a mixed burden of gastrointestinal nematodes.the aim was to investigate the efficacy of feeding sulla to young goats (<6 months of age) against a naturally acquired infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. eleven goats were removed from the field, housed and were randomly divided into two treatment groups. group 1 (n = 5) was fed a diet comprising lucerne-based pellets and aged hay. group 2 (n = 6) were fed a diet of only sulla offered ad lib. the sulla contained 2.6% free condensed tannins (ct), 1.8% protein-bound ct and 0.1% fibre-bound ...200616427202
naturally occurring variability in some phenotypic markers and correlates of haemonchotolerance in west african dwarf goats in a subhumid zone of nigeria.west african dwarf (wad) goats of the nigerian subhumid zone generally show strong resistance and resilience to haemonchus contortus in laboratory experiments, although a relatively small proportion are susceptible to infection. little is known about these extremes of response phenotype in nature. therefore, a survey was carried out of gastrointestinal nematode infections in wad goats, with emphasis on abomasal worms, at three goat markets in southern nigeria during the rainy season. faecal samp ...200616764992
sericea lespedeza hay as a natural deworming agent against gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats.infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (gin), particularly haemonchus contortus, is the biggest constraint to profitable goat production in the united states (us). due to widespread prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goat gin, alternative, non-chemical control methodologies are needed to increase profitability of small ruminant industries. a study was designed to test the efficacy of a high condensed tannin (ct) legume, sericea lespedeza [sl, lespedeza cuneata (dum.-cours. g. don)] agai ...200616564132
resistance of trichostrongyles to benzimidazoles in italy: a first report in a goat farm with multiple and repeated introductions.anthelmintic resistance is widely distributed in small ruminants throughout the world. the extension of resistance seems lower in southern european countries and has not been reported previously in italy. in the present study, resistance to benzimidazoles, levamisole and ivermectin was evaluated in a multi-breed goat farm of southern italy. the farm had a history of repeated goat introductions from other flocks and a moderate regimen of anthelmintic treatments using alternatively the three above ...200717356891
effect of nematophagous fungus duddingtonia flagrans and energy supplementation on the epidemiology of naturally infected kids.gastrointestinal (gi) nematode infection is a major constraint for grazing livestock production. the increasing prevalence and severity of anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in many parts of the world has led to a search for non-chemical control options. under experimental conditions, the nematophagous fungus duddingtonia flagrans is emerging as an alternative to chemotherapy for the control of gi nematode infection in biological production systems. also, recent information points to the role of e ...200717274157
combining the effects of supplementary feeding and copper oxide needles for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in browsing goats.the aim was to assess the benefits obtained from combining supplementary feeding and copper needles (cowp), compared to the use of both approaches independently, for the control of gastrointestinal nematode (gin) infections in browsing kids. forty-four nematode free criollo kids were exposed to natural parasite infection. the kids were divided into six experimental groups: not treated, supplemented (nt-s), not treated, not supplemented (nt-ns), moxidectin treated, supplemented (m-s), moxidectin ...200717400391
trichostrongylus colubriformis rdna polymorphism associated with arrested development.polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) was performed on the cistron of rdna in the two groups of infective larvae trichostrongylus colubriformis-the population with and without ability to undergo arrested development. general primers designed by caenorhabditis elegans rdna were used for the amplification of the rdna cistron between genes 18s and 28s. amplified fragments were digested by using a series of restriction endonucleases. hinc ii restriction profiles unique ...200818452038
the effect of long-term feeding of fresh and ensiled cassava (manihot esculenta) foliage on gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats.the benefit of long-term feeding of fresh or ensiled cassava foliage on gastrointestinal parasite in goats was evaluated. eighteen male goats (15.15 +/- 2.83 kg and between 4-6 months) were randomly allocated into three treatments supplemented with 200 g of wheat bran head(-1) day(-1). all groups were fed ad-libitum on either grass (co), fresh cassava (caf) or ensiled cassava foliage (cas). at the beginning of the trial, each goat was inoculated with 3000 l3 containing approximately 50% haemonch ...200918516697
effect of the consumption of lysiloma latisiliquum on the larval establishment of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.the consumption of tannin-rich (tr) forages has been associated with negative effects against gastrointestinal nematodes and with an improved host resilience. it has been hypothesized that tannins affect the capacity of infective larvae to establish in the mucosae of the host. in this study, we aimed at testing this hypothesis using lysiloma latisiliquum, a tropical tr tree. the objectives were: (i) to evaluate the effect of the consumption of l. latisiliquum on the establishment of nematode thi ...200818771854
prevalence of anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in the southeastern united determine prevalence of anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in the southeastern united states.200819072608
influence of earthworms on development of the free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematodes in goat faeces.with the important infection of small ruminants by gastrointestinal nematodes, and in the face of reduced efficacy of anthelminthic treatments, a search for other biological options is necessary. the effect of earthworms on the free-living stages of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in faeces from goats naturally infected in tropical pastures was evaluated. two levels (0 vs 14 individuals per container) of indigenous earthworms (50% pontoscolex corethrus and 50% perionyx ex ...200919443123
multiple anthelmintic resistance and the possible contributory factors in beetal goats in an irrigated area (pakistan).this paper presents the first report of multiple anthelmintic resistance in the gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its possible contributory factors in an irrigated area (pakistan). a total of 18 privately owned beetal goat flocks were selected in order to determine the anthelmintic resistance against commonly used anthelmintics. forty to 48 animals from each flock were selected according to their weight and egg count. the three anthelmintics viz., oxfendazole, levamisole and ivermectin, we ...201019733870
anthelmintic activity of some mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes.the anthelmintic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs. most data have been acquired on legume forages, but only few on browse plants. the present study aimed to (i) screen the in vitro effects of extracts from 7 mediterranean plants on haemonchus contortus, (ii) verify the role of tannins using an inhibitor, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (pvpp) and (iii) verify the in vivo effects of extracts from 4 plants. significant inhibition was shown in vitro ...201019961649
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