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a comparison of the intratracheal, intravenous and intratonsillar routes of inoculation of goats with pasteurella haemolytica. 19921466144
interaction of ruminant transferrins with transferrin receptors in bovine isolates of pasteurella haemolytica and haemophilus somnus.the interactions of ruminant transferrins with receptors on bovine isolates of pasteurella haemolytica and haemophilus somnus were compared by growth studies and direct and competitive binding assays. isolates of p. haemolytica were capable of utilizing and binding transferrin from sheep, goat, or cattle, whereas isolates of h. somnus were capable of utilizing and binding only bovine transferrin.19921612764
experimental infection of dexamethasone-treated goats with pasteurella haemolytica a2.sixteen goats either subjected to transport stress or without transport stress were treated with dexamethasone for 3 days prior to infection with p. haemolytica serotype a2 intranasally. the transport-stressed and dexamethasone-treated goats in the first group had various degrees of pulmonary lesions and the organism was re-isolated from the nasal cavity, lymph nodes and lungs. none of the goats treated with dexamethasone only were infected with p. haemolytica and had no lesions of pneumonic pas ...19911777800
comparison of four immune variables and pulmonary lesions of goats with intrapulmonary exposure and subsequent intrathoracic challenge exposure with pasteurella haemolytica.a comparison of immune variables following lung sensitization with live pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 (ph1)-impregnated agar beads was done in 2 separate trials. the ph1 immune variables studied were blood bactericidal activity, serum bacteriolysis, total classical complement, and indirect hemagglutination antibody. each trial had 16 male weanling goats: 6 controls and 10 principals. in trial 1, each goat was surgically catheterized through the trachea, then the material was deposited in a ...19911928902
aerobic bacteria from nasal discharge of goats suffering from clinical ppr: isolation and identification.bacteriological isolation of aerobic bacteria from nasal discharge of achondroplastic west african dwarf goats showing clinical signs of peste des petits ruminants (ppr), and the laboratory procedures carried out for the identification of the isolates are described. from a total of forty nasal swabs obtained seventy five isolates were recovered. the percentage frequency of isolation of different organisms in descending order of occurrence is as follows: staphylococcus 44.0%; streptococcus 22.67% ...19912023545
monoclonal antibody in the identification of haemophilus somnus.electrophoretic comparisons of outer membrane proteins of haemophilus somnus isolates revealed 2 major protein bands (46 and 14 kilodaltons [kd]) common to all isolates tested. a monoclonal antibody raised against h. somnus reacted to the 46-kd band. coagglutination tests were performed using a monoclonal antibody coagglutination assay. the monoclonal reagent was produced by incubating cowan strain staphylococcus aureus suspension, used as a source of crude protein a, with mouse ascitic fluid mo ...19902094432
immune response to pulmonary injection of pasteurella haemolytica-impregnated agar beads followed by transthoracic challenge exposure in goats.a method of inducing pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 (ph1) lung infection in goats, using low numbers of bacteria and without impairing host immunity, was developed. two trials were conducted. results of trial 1, using 10 principals (ph1 agar beads) and 6 controls (agar beads alone), indicated that ph1 organisms imbedded in agar beads could survive host lung defenses for 32 days. results of trial 2 indicated that lung immunity in the inoculated goats (principals) was high and they were more p ...19902240785
effects of pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin on neutrophils from white-tailed deer and several exotic ruminant species.pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin is a pore-forming cytolysin which acts as a virulence factor in pasteurellosis of domestic ruminants. leukocytes from cattle, sheep and goats are susceptible to leukotoxin-induced lysis; however, leukocytes from non-ruminant species so far tested are resistant to leukotoxin-induced lysis. neutrophils obtained from three white-tailed deer, four saiga antelope, an addra gazelle, a grant's gazelle and a sable antelope were tested for susceptibility to the lytic ef ...19902382402
characterization of pasteurella haemolytica strains isolated from goats in hungary.thirty-five pasteurella haemolytica strains were isolated in hungary from goat carcasses sent for postmortem examination from two farms with large goat flocks. all strains belonged to biotype a and with the exception of one strain of serotype a8 they belonged to serotype a2. no untypable strains were found by the indirect haemagglutination test.19892697144
a retrospective study of hepatic abscesses in goats: pathological and microbiological findings.post-mortem examination of 658 goats showed that 17 (2.5%) exhibited hepatic abscesses. the following bacteria were isolated: corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (58.9%), escherichia coli (11.8%), corynebacterium sp. (11.8%), pasteurella haemolytica (5.9%), proteus sp. (5.9%) and staphylococcus aureus (5.9%). hepatic abscesses occurred more frequently in adult animals. eleven of the 17 goats (64.7%) were older than 12 months of age. four goats (23.5%) were 12 months of age and only two (11.8%) we ...19892920279
a simple immunological detection method for the direct screening of genes from clone banks.a simple immunoassay has been developed which can be used in the isolation of particular gene(s) from a clone bank of recombinant plasmids. a clone bank of the dna is constructed with a plasmid vector and maintained in escherichia coli. the recombinant clones were filtered onto a hydrophobic grid membrane and grown up into individual colonies, and a replica was made onto nitrocellulose paper. the bacterial cells were then lysed with chloroform and the proteins were immobilized onto the nitrocell ...19863008788
identification of brucella abortus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of cows, goats, and mice with an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex immunoenzymatic staining technique.an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex immunoenzymatic staining technique was evaluated for light microscopic detection of brucella organisms in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. tissues from cows, goats, and mice inoculated with b abortus strain 2308 were examined, using rabbit antiserum to brucella cell surface protein as primary antibody. stained organisms were identified histologically in tissue sections containing b abortus, as detected by bacteriologic examination of duplicate nonpro ...19863096172
outbreak of pneumonia caused by pasteurella haemolytica infection in shiba goats in japan. 19883172608
prevalence, causes and laboratory diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in the goat.five goat herds were examined to determine the prevalence and causes of subclinical mastitis and to assess the value of some laboratory tests currently used on milk samples as aids in the diagnosis of caprine mastitis. in the 170 samples taken from the pairs of mammary glands of 85 goats, the prevalence of infection in the different herds ranged from 15 per cent to 79 per cent of halves. just over one-third (36 per cent) of all halves were infected, the organisms isolated being coagulase-negativ ...19863727324
pneumonia in goats following administration of live and heat-killed pasteurella haemolytica.six of 7 and 3 of 4 goats inoculated with live and heat-killed p. haemolytica (biotype-t), respectively, had pneumonia at necropsy. clinically, the pneumonia was only detected in 8 of 9 goats with diseased lungs. one goat died of a fibrinous pneumonia which was associated with a profuse growth of both p. haemolytica (biotype-t) and p. multocida and a limited growth of escherichia coli from the lungs. in the remaining 8 goats with lung lesions, the pneumonia was of the proliferative type, with on ...19863760267
an outbreak of highly fatal pneumonia in kids due to pasteurella haemolytica. 19705530303
serotypes of pasteurella haemolytica isolated from sheep, goats and calves. 19846475404
partial characterization of the leukotoxin of pasteurella haemolytica-like bacteria isolated from swine enteritis.pasteurella haemolytica-like (phl) strains isolated from diarrheic pigs are known to produce a leukotoxin that is lethal to ruminant leukocytes. in the present study, 12 phl strains were screened for leukotoxin production using a tetrazolium dye-reduction assay. sterile culture supernatant from strain 6213a, the maximum leukotoxin producer, was used as the crude leukotoxin for characterization studies. the leukotoxin was inactivated by heat at 60 degrees c and by trypsin, protease, and amylase. ...19957483245
extracellular neuraminidase production by pasteurella species isolated from infected animals.a total of 721 field isolates of various pasteurella species (haemolytica, multocida, and testudinis) from various regions of the united states were examined for extracellular neuraminidase production. all strains were grown and tested in the same way. included were 372 p. haemolytica serotype 1 isolates, 181 p. haemolytica serotype 2 isolates, 63 p. haemolytica serotype 6 isolates, 101 pasteurella multocida isolates, and 4 pasteurella testudinis isolates. all pasteurella species examined produc ...19957580802
in vivo production of neuraminidase by pasteurella haemolytica a1 in goats after transthoracic challenge.nine goats were injected transthoracically with pasteurella haemolytica a1 to determine if an extracellular bacterial enzyme, neuraminidase, was produced in vivo during infection with this organism. the principal group of goats (n = 9) each received 1 ml of 7.25 x 10(5) live p. haemolytica a1 cells in polyacrylate beads transthoracically in the left lung on days 0 and 21. six goats were used as negative controls and received 0.3 g of polyacrylate beads subcutaneously in the right flank on days 0 ...19947927740
transferrin receptors on ruminant pathogens vary in their interaction with the c-lobe and n-lobe of ruminant transferrins.the interaction between ruminant transferrins and receptor proteins on the surface of the ruminant pathogens pasteurella haemolytica, haemophilus somnus, pasteurella multocida, haemophilus agnii, and moraxella bovis was evaluated by a combination of binding assays and affinity isolation procedures. membranes isolated from p. haemolytica, p. multocida, and h. agnii were capable of binding sheep, goat, and cattle transferrins whereas binding by membranes from h. somnus and m. bovis was specific fo ...19948076248
evidence of species specificity in the cytocidal effects of pasteurella haemolytica.pasteurella haemolytica was found to have a cytotoxic effect on the peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes of cattle, sheep, and goats, but no effect on the mononuclear leukocytes of swine, horses, or humans. in contrast, escherichia coli caused marked cell death among mononuclear leukocytes of all species tested.19807439998
[main infectious agents involved in the etiology of lung diseases of small ruminants in northern cameroon].between 1990 and 1992, 91 necropsies of small ruminants affected with pulmonary illness led to the isolation of the following strains of mycoplasma (m.): m. mycoides subsp. mycoides lc, m. ovipneumoniae, m. agalactiae, m. sp. type d2 and m. arginini. eleven pasteurella multocida strains (serotypes a1, a3, a5, a7 and d2) and 11 pasteurella haemolytica strains (serotypes 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8 and 9) were isolated. corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, actinomyces pyogenes, staphylococcus sp., streptococc ...19958552842
an immunohistochemical method of detecting mycoplasma species antigens by use of monoclonal antibodies on paraffin sections of pneumonic bovine and caprine lungs.lung samples from pneumonic lesions in cattle and goats, naturally or experimentally infected with strains of the mycoplasma mycoides cluster, were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. an immunohistochemical technique using monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies was performed on tissue sections in order to detect mycoplasma antigens. four monoclonal antibodies (mabs), one (2a3) raised against m. mycoides ssp. mycoides small colony (sc) and large colony (lc), two (1d3 and 5e5) against m. myco ...19968885707
pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin: chemiluminescent responses of peripheral blood leukocytes from several different mammalian species to leukotoxin- and opsonin-treated living and killed pasteurella haemolytica and staphylococcus aureus.a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (ldcl) assay was used to assess the response of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (pmn) preparations from 4 species of ruminants (ie, cattle, sheep, goats, and antelopes) and 6 species of nonruminants (ie, swine, dogs, cats, rabbits, horses, and persons) to both opsonized and nonopsonized preparations of living and heat-killed pasteurella haemolytica and staphylococcus aureus and to opsonized and nonopsonized heat-killed strains of each bacterium in the presence o ...19863946910
efficacy of doxycycline in a goat model of pasteurella pneumonia.the clinical efficacy of doxycycline (doxycen, cenavisa, spain), a long-acting preparation, was evaluated for treatment of pasteurella haemolytica infection in 6 goats. one goat was not infected and served as a control. the disease was induced by intratracheal inoculation of 10(7) to 10(9) cfu of p. haemolytica. confirmation of respiratory disease was based on evidence of appropriate clinical signs. before and after initiation of doxycycline treatment on day 10, each goat was examined daily. thr ...19979291074
experimental contact of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) with horses and cattle, and comparison of neutrophil sensitivity to pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.peripheral blood neutrophils from horses, cattle, and rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) were evaluated for susceptibility to cytotoxin-dependent lysis of different biotypes and serotypes of pasteurella haemolytica of domestic sheep, cattle, bighorn sheep, or mountain goat (oreamnos americana) origin utilizing a cytotoxicity assay which measures the degree of bacteria cytotoxin-killing of neutrophils. all isolates of p. haemolytica (biotypes a and t) were noncytotoxic to h ...19969359057
combined enzyme and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of caprine pasteurella haemolytica serovar 2 respiratory tract isolates.the present investigation describes a novel method of demonstrating strain diversity among pasteurella haemolytica biovar a, serovar 2 (pha2) nasal turbinate isolates from a flock of 32 experimental goats during a naturally occurring outbreak of pasteurellosis. after a 21 day conditioning period in a feedyard, 51 pha2 isolates from 27 culture-positive goats were identified including 1 on day 22, 14 on day 25, 21 on day 39, and 15 on day 66. each pha2 isolate was evaluated for its enzyme activity ...19938306653
stimulation of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue of goats and its effect on in vitro colonization by pasteurella haemolytica.twenty goats of about 7 months of age were divided into five groups. the goats in groups 1 and 2 were exposed once, using an intranasal spray to 2 ml of an inoculum containing 10(6) colony-forming units/ml of living or dead pasteurella haemolytica a2, respectively. the goats in groups 3 and 4 were similarly exposed twice at a 2-week interval. group 5 was the untreated control. the number and size of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (balt) in goats exposed twice to either living or dead or ...19989618886
efficacy of intranasal administration of formalin-killed pasteurella haemolytica a2 against intratracheal challenge in goats.a trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of intranasal vaccination in protecting goats against pneumonic pasteurellosis with intramuscular vaccination using an oil adjuvant vaccine, and a combination of the two methods. forty goats were divided into four equal groups. group 1 was vaccinated twice intranasally with formalin-killed pasteurella haemolytica a2, group 2 was vaccinated twice intramuscularly with an oil adjuvant vaccine containing p haemolytica a7, and group 3 was initially vaccin ...19989595632
serotypes of pasteurella haemolytica and pasteurella trehalosi isolated from farm animals in hungary.the biochemical and serological characteristics of 486 p. haemolytica and 31 p. trehalosi strains (517 in total) isolated from different lesions of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry were examined. a total of 476 p. haemolytica strains (97.9%) showed the characteristics typical of the former biotype a of p. haemolytica, while 10 isolates (2.1%), all from poultry, could not be biotyped. a total of 481 strains (93.0%) could be assigned to one of the 17 serotypes of p. haemolytica-p. trehalosi ...199910379234
response of the ruminant respiratory tract to mannheimia (pasteurella) haemolytica.pneumonia is a leading cause of loss to the sheep and cattle industry throughout the world. mannheimia (pasteurella) haemolytica is one of the most important respiratory pathogens of domestic ruminants and causes serious outbreaks of acute pneumonia in neonatal, weaned and growing lambs, calves, and goats. m. haemolytica is also an important cause of pneumonia in adult animals. transportation, viral infections with agents such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza-3 virus or ...200010967288
pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of danofloxacin in serum and tissue fluids of goats following intravenous and intramuscular administration.to determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of danofloxacin in goats and the concentrations required to induce bacteriostasis, bactericidal activity, and bacterial elimination.200111763192
sharing of pasteurella spp. between free-ranging bighorn sheep and feral goats.pasteurella spp. were isolated from feral goats and free-ranging bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) in the hells canyon national recreation area bordering idaho, oregon, and washington (usa). biovariant 1 pasteurella haemolytica organisms were isolated from one goat and one of two bighorn sheep found in close association. both isolates produced leukotoxin and had identical electrophoretic patterns of dna fragments following cutting with restriction endonuclease haeiii. similarly pasteure ...200314733287
pasteurella haemolytica complicated respiratory infections in sheep and goats.respiratory infections which commonly occur in sheep and goats often result from adverse physical and physiological stress combined with viral and bacterial infections. inevitably, pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia occurs as a result of these interactions. in this review, we present recent advances in research on the complex etiology of pneumonia involving p. haemolytica. initially stress, induced by factors such as heat, overcrowding, exposure to inclement weather, poor ventilation, handling an ...19989689740
pasteurella haemolytica serotypes from pneumonic goat lungs. 198616031253
experimental respiratory infection of goats with caprine herpesvirus and pasteurella haemolytica.groups of six male goats were inoculated intratracheally and intranasally with either caprine herpesvirus followed 6 days later by pasteurella haemolytica, canine herpesvirus alone or p. haemolytica alone. pneumonic lesions were observed in five of the six goats inoculated with caprine herpesvirus followed by p. haemolytica and in three of the six goats inoculated with p. haemolytica alone, but were not observed in goats inoculated with caprine herpesvirus alone or in non-infected controls. past ...199016031569
efficacy of a subcutaneously administered, ultraviolet light-killed pasteurella haemolytica a1-containing vaccine against transthoracic challenge exposure in goats.to determine the effectiveness of pasteurella haemolytica biovar a, serovar 1 (ph a1) killed by uv light and incorporated with an oil adjuvant or carriers.19968836369
perinatal exposure to low doses of pcb 153 and pcb 126 affects maternal and neonatal immunity in goat kids.pregnant does (10 goats/group) were dosed orally either with polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) 153 (98 microg/kg body weight/d) or pcb 126 (ng/kg body weight/d) dissolved in corn oil or with corn oil only (control group) from gestation day (gd) 60 until delivery. an additional group (n = 5) of pregnant does received the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (des; 0.4 microg/kg body weight/d) by intramuscular injection using the same treatment schedule as for the pcb groups. blood samples for immune ...200616291567
phylogenetic diversity of pasteurellaceae and horizontal gene transfer of leukotoxin in wild and domestic sheep.wild and domestic animal populations are known to be sources and reservoirs of emerging diseases. there is also a growing recognition that horizontal genetic transfer (hgt) plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. we used molecular phylogenetic methods to assess diversity and cross-transmission rates of pasteurellaceae bacteria in populations of bighorn sheep, dall's sheep, domestic sheep and domestic goats. members of the pasteurellaceae cause an array of deadly illnesses including ba ...200716635591
potential pathogens carried by spanish ibex (capra pyrenaica hispanica) in southern spain.the spanish ibex (capra pyrenaica hispanica) population of southern spain was surveyed for potential pathogens associated with the conjunctiva, external ear canal, as well as reproductive and upper respiratory tracts. we sampled 321 ibex (131 adult males, 100 adult females, and 90 yearlings); these included 271 apparently healthy animals and 50 that were naturally infected with sarcoptes scabiei. a total of 688 bacterial isolates were identified (377 gram-negatives, 225 gram-positives, and 86 my ...200616870855
nasal bacterial flora of clinically normal goats.an enclosed swab assembly was employed to collect nasal mucus from 45 clinically normal goats. eleven bacterial species were isolated from their nasal cavities. pasteurella haemolytica and pasteurella multocida were the most important isolates.19854031140
contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and mannheimia haemolytica-associated acute respiratory disease of goats and sheep in afar region, ethiopia.in april 2002, an investigation into an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in goats and sheep in milae (afar), ethiopia was conducted. the investigation involved 4 flocks (722 sheep and 750 goats in total) and comprised the disease history, clinical and post-mortem examination, and microbiological analysis of nasal swabs, lung lesions, and pleural fluid samples. clinically diseased animals exhibited severe respiratory distress, and necropsy of two of the goats demonstrated fibrinous pneumonia ...200617361779
a caprine pneumonia outbreak associated with caprine herpesvirus and pasteurella haemolytica respiratory infections.in a field disease outbreak, 60 female goats died over a 2-3 week period. necropsies of seven of these does revealed that six had an acute exudative necrotising broncho-pneumonia, and moderate to high numbers of pasteurella haemolytica were isolated from their lungs. caprine herpesvirus, identified as bovid herpesvirus type 6, was isolated from the lungs of two of these does, including one with pneumonia, and from nasal swabs of in-contact goats. clinical disease was only observed in does, and d ...199016031570
molecular cloning of cd18 of bison, deer and elk, and comparison with that of other ruminants and non-ruminants.pneumonia caused by mannheimia haemolytica is an important disease of cattle, domestic sheep, bighorn sheep and goats. leukotoxin (lkt) produced by m. haemolytica is cytolytic to all leukocyte subsets of these species. lkt utilizes cd18, the beta subunit of beta(2)-integrins, as its functional receptor on leukocytes of these species. cytotoxicity assays revealed that leukocytes from bison, deer, and elk are also susceptible to lkt-induced cytolysis. the availability of cdna encoding cd18 of biso ...201020176404
pulmonary venous thrombosis in caprine pasteurella pneumonia.a 3-year-old angora goat that developed acute fibrinous pleuropneumonia associated with pasteurella haemolytica infection had thrombotic occlusion of a large pulmonary vein. thrombosis of pulmonary capillaries occurs in pneumonic pasteurellosis, but large vessels are not commonly affected. this unusual lesion may reflect the procoagulant effect of pasteurella endotoxin on vascular endothelium. an incidental observation was the presence of myocardial-type muscle fibres in the tunica media of the ...19979179755
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and sensitivity to tulathromycin in goat respiratory bacterial isolates.bacterial pneumonia is a common and often life-threatening respiratory problem in both meat and dairy goats. options for approved antibiotic therapy in goats to combat these bacterial infections are severely limited and frequently drugs must be used in an extra-label manner. tulathromycin, a triamilide macrolide antimicrobial drug shown to be effective against swine and cattle respiratory bacterial agents, has been identified as a potentially useful drug in caprines. the present study was conduc ...201122078276
effects of aerosolized dust in goats on lung clearance of pasteurella and mannheimia species.the objective was to determine whether the inhalation of large quantities of feedyard dust predisposed the animals to pulmonary bacterial proliferation. two control groups, c1 and c2, did not receive dust treatments, and two principal groups (p1 and p2) received a total of 14 dust treatments each. the c1 and p1 groups of goats each received a transthoracic challenge of live mannheimia haemolytica (4 x 10(6) colony forming units, cfu) the c2 and p2 groups of goats each received a transthoracic ch ...200312567239
the effect of pasteurella haemolytica a2 infection on phagocytosis efficiency of caprine broncho-alveolar macrophages.an experiment was designed to study the in vivo effect of pasteurella haemolytica a2 infection on the phagocytosis activity of caprine broncho-alveolar macrophages and the extent of pneumonic lesions. twelve healthy local kacang goats, about 7 months of age, were divided into two groups of six. goats in group 1 were inoculated intratracheally with 4 ml inoculum containing 2.8 x 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu)/ml of staphylococcus aureus. goats in group 2 were inoculated intratracheally with 4 m ...200111666033
the effects of dexamethasone on the response of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue to intranasal administration of formalin-killed pasteurella haemolytica a2 in goats.a trial was conducted to observe the immediate and chronic effects in goats of dexamethasone administration on the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (balt) response to intranasal administration of formalin-killed pasteurella haemolytica a2. twenty-four goats were divided into four groups. those in group 1 were injected intramuscularly with 1 mg/kg dexamethasone on three consecutive days, followed by intranasal exposure to formalin-killed p. haemolytica a2 one day after the last dexamethasone t ...199910672963
isolation of an adenovirus and an adeno-associated virus from goat kids with enteritis.a dairy goat operation in minnesota experienced a sudden, markedly increased mortality among its neonatal goats. approximately 60 of 130 kids (46%) died. the animals had diarrhea and dyspnea of 1-2 days duration before death. necropsy of 4 goat kids revealed marked, acute, catarrhal enteritis and fibrinous pleuropneumonia. mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from the lungs. basophilic inclusion bodies filling the entire nucleus were present in enterocytes of the ileum of 3 goats. adenoviral part ...200415460334
how mannheimia haemolytica defeats host defence through a kiss of death mechanism.mannheimia haemolytica induced pneumonias are only observed in goats, sheep and cattle. the bacterium produces several virulence factors,whose principal ones are lipopolysaccharide and leukotoxin. the latter is cytotoxic only for ruminant leukocytes, a phenomenon that is correlated with its ability to bind and interact with the ruminant beta2-integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1. this paper globally reviews all the information available on host-pathogen interactions underlying respi ...200515720968
aspects of the pharmacokinetics of doxycycline given to healthy and pneumonic east african dwarf goats by intramuscular injection.the effect of experimentally induced pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia on the pharmacokinetics of doxycycline (doxycen retard) administered intramuscularly was studied in seven east african dwarf goats. the study was conducted in two consecutive phases, separated by a washout period of four weeks. the experimental infection, induced by intratracheal administration of 5 ml of 10(7) to 10(9) cfu/ml of pasteurella haemolytica, produced a temperature rise, depression and laboured breathing within 6- ...19979266665
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of respiratory tract pathogens from sheep and goats.to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of common respiratory tract pathogens from sheep and goats.200617042733
the distribution of pasteurella haemolytica serotypes among cattle, sheep, and goats in south africa and their association with diseases.over an 8-year period (september 1986 to march 1994), a total of 497 organ specimens from sheep and goats and 96 from cattle, were received for their isolation of pasteurella haemolytica. they were collected in seven geographical areas in south africa (as it existed before the april 1994 elections). these areas include the eastern cape, transvaal (new name: gauteng), nambia, orange free state (new name: free state), natal (new name: kwazulu-natal), western cape and the northern cape. this invest ...19958668319
properties of a respiratory syncytial virus isolated from a sheep with rhinitis.a virus isolated from a yearling cross-bred ewe was identified as respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) by indirect immunofluorescence and by virus neutralization with bovine rsv antisera. the virus caused a mild conjunctivitis in 3-month-old lambs when inoculated alone. although clinical signs of pneumonia were not observed, there was gross and microscopic evidence of pulmonary inflammation in the lungs of lambs inoculated with either the sheep rsv isolate alone or in conjunction with pasteurella h ...19853893243
experimental infections of goats with mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, lc type.in five experiments 29 goats were infected experimentally by five different routes with a strain of mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, lc type, isolated from a contagious caprine pleuropneumonia-like outbreak on a farm in northern sweden. all the goats were colonised except those inoculated subcutaneously with small doses. in its pattern of pathogenicity this strain was similar to other experimentally tested strains except that peroral infection in kids produced no clinical signs. a 'conta ...19892649950
molecular aspects of virulence of pasteurella haemolytica.pasteurella haemolytica is represented by two biotypes (a and t), 15 serotypes, and numerous untypable strains. specific biotypes and serotypes are associated with fibrinous pleuropneumonia (pneumonic pasteurellosis) in cattle, sheep, and goats, septicemic pasteurellosis in lambs, and mastitis in ewes. four virulence factors have been associated with p. haemolytica: fimbriae, a polysaccharide capsule, endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (lps)], and leukotoxin (lkt). the interactions of these virulence ...19901972901
characterization of pasteurella spp isolated from healthy domestic pack goats and evaluation of the effects of a commercial pasteurella vaccine.to characterize pasteurella spp isolated from healthy pack goats and evaluate the effects of administration of a commercial pasteurella vaccine.200216206792
transmission of lungworms (muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.four domestic goats (capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from may 2003 to april 2004 with seven rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. during the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by mannheimia (pasteurella) haemolytica biotype a, serotype 2. the remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healt ...200919395736
cellular and humoral responses in the respiratory tract of goats following intranasal stimulation using formalin-killed pasteurella haemolytica a2.a study to determine the immunoglobulin and cellular responses in the respiratory tract of goats following intranasal exposures to formalin-killed pasteurella haemolytica a2 was carried out. forty-two goats were divided into two groups. goats in group 1 were subjected to double intranasal exposures to formalin-killed p. haemolytica a2 while goats in group 2 were the unexposed control. prior to and at weekly intervals post-exposure, three goats from each group were killed, serum samples were coll ...199910189198
pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling of marbofloxacin administered alone and in combination with tolfenamic acid in goats.in a four-period cross-over study, the fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug marbofloxacin (mb) was administered to goats intramuscularly (im) at a dose rate of 2 mg/kg, both alone and in combination with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid (ta), also administered im at a dose rate of 2 mg/kg. using a tissue cage model of inflammation, based on the irritant actions of carrageenan, the pharmacokinetics (pk) of mb and mb in combination with ta were determined. mb mean values of a ...201019299172
immunohistochemical detection of mannheimia (pasteurella) haemolytica antigens in goats with natural pneumonia.pneumonia is a leading cause of loss to ruminants throughout the world. mannheimia (pasteurella) haemolytica is one of the most important etiological agent of pneumonia in cattle, sheep, and goats. this study was carried out to determine the incidence of m.haemolytica antigens using immunohistochemistry labelling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues in pneumonic lungs of goats slaughtered at abattoir, and then to compare these immunohistochemistry results with the results of bacterial is ...200918972219
mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced cytolysis of ovine (ovis aries) leukocytes is mediated by cd18, the beta subunit of beta2-integrins.mannheimia (pasteurella) haemolytica causes severe pneumonia in cattle, sheep and goats. leukotoxin (lkt) is the most important virulence determinant produced by this organism. previously, we identified cd18, the beta subunit of beta(2)-integrins, as the receptor for lkt on bovine leukocytes. since lkt is specific for leukocytes of cattle, sheep and goats, we hypothesized that lkt utilizes cd18 as its receptor on ovine leukocytes as well. therefore, the objective of this study was to transfect a ...200717368825
use of a polymerase chain reaction method to detect the leukotoxin gene lkta in biogroup and biovariant isolates of pasteurella haemolytica and p trehalosi.to determine whether pasteurella haemolytica and p trehalosi isolates possess the structural gene for pasteurella leukotoxin lkta and whether beta-hemolytic activity of these isolates correlated with detection of the lkta gene.199910566816
characterization of the caprine (capra hircus) beta-2 integrin cd18-encoding cdna and identification of mutations potentially responsible for the ruminant-specific virulence of mannheimia haemolytica.the leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a great number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. we describe here the isolation and characterization of the caprine beta(2) (cd18) sub-unit, common to the leukocyte beta(2)-integrin family. the deduced 770-amino-acid sequence reveals a transmembrane protein with 80, 81, 83, 96 and 99% identity with its canine, murine, human, bovine and ovine homologues respectively. analysis of cd18 sequences emphasizes the functional im ...200415513736
efficacy of pasteurella haemolytica subunit antigens in a goat model of pasteurellosis.the effectiveness of pasteurella haemolytica biovar a, serovar 1 (ph1) subunit vaccines was tested in goats, using challenge exposure by transthoracic injection. twenty-two weanling male spanish goats were randomly allotted to 4 groups. six goats were given 2 transthoracic injections into the lung 18 days apart with live ph1 impregnated in agar beads (positive controls). six goats were not given injections (negative controls). five goats were given 2 transthoracic injections into the lung 18 day ...19938250389
isolation of pasteurella haemolytica from the nasal cavity of goats.twenty transport-stressed goats were divided into two groups. the first group was further stressed with steroid. pasteurella haemolytica was found at various sites in the nasal cavity of goats in this group as early as 2 weeks post-transportation. the successful isolations continued consistently with more goats having pure growth of p. haemolytica at later stages. mild catarrh rhinitis, loss of epithelial cilia and erosions were the main lesions observed in the nasal cavity. goats in the second ...19911913132
mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced cytolysis of caprine (capra hircus) leukocytes is mediated by the cd18 subunit of beta2-integrins.mannheimiosis is the major respiratory disease among some ruminants, whereas it is not pathogenic for other mammals, an observation that has been attributed to a specific interaction between mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin (lkt) and bovine or ovine cd18 subunit of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (lfa-1) and mac-1. we therefore hypothesized that lkt utilizes cd18 as its receptor on caprine leukocytes as well. we have transiently transfected the beta2-integrins-deficient k-562 cell line ...200818775487
atypical non-progressive pneumonia in goats.an outbreak of severe respiratory disease in a goat herd was associated with mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, mycoplasma arginini, mannheimia haemolytica and pasteurella multocida with mortality rates exceeding 20% in kids. post mortem features in affected kids included severe pleuropneumonia, lung consolidation, large quantities of pleural fluid and pericarditis. this is the first report of atypical proliferative pneumonia in goats in portugal.201019596209
nasal carriage of pasteurella haemolytica serotypes by sheep and goats in jordan. 19979316235
cloning and comparison of bighorn sheep cd18 with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice.previously, we have shown that cd18, the beta-subunit of beta(2)-integrins, serves as a receptor for leukotoxin (lkt) secreted by mannheimia (pasteurella) haemolytica on bovine leukocytes. anti-cd18 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) inhibit lkt-induced cytolysis of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) leukocytes suggesting that cd18 may serve as a receptor for lkt on the leukocytes of this species as well. confirmation of bighorn sheep cd18 as a receptor for lkt, and elucidation of the enhanced lkt-suscep ...200616213032
pasteurella haemolytica ultraviolet-irradiated vaccine by parenteral and aerosol routes compared in the goat model.positive control 1 (pc1) (n = 9) goats were injected transthoracically into the left lung with live pasteurella haemolytica biovar a, serovar 1 (pha1) in polyacrylate (pa) beads on days 0 and 21. positive control 2 (pc2) (n = 6) goats were nebulized with live pha1 and pa beads on days 0 and 21. negative control (nc) goats (n = 6) were each injected transthoracically into the left lung with pa beads alone on days 0 and 21. four groups (n = 6) were administered pa beads mixed with ultraviolet (uv) ...19989662614
the potential role of the arthus and shwartzman reactions in the pathogenesis of pneumonic pasteurellosis.pneumonic pasteurellosis (pp) is an economically important disease in cattle, sheep, and goats. pasteurella haemolytica is commonly isolated from the severe fibrinopurulent pneumonia that characterize this respiratory syndrome. during infection, the bacteria produce leukotoxin (lkt) and lipopolysaccharide (lps), both potent inducers of inflammation. nonetheless, it has also been demonstrated that an exacerbated host's inflammatory response is responsible for the severe lung damage. despite resea ...200010807496
antigenic and virulence properties of pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin mutants.antigenic properties of two mutants of pasteurella haemolytica, strains 59b0071 and 59b0072, that do not produce detectable leukotoxin were investigated. western blot (immunoblot) analysis with a number of polyclonal sera from animals recovering from pasteurellosis revealed that both mutants secreted a variety of antigens that were also present in cultures of several wild-type strains. these antigens ranged from about 100 to 15 kda. mutant strain 59b0071 was found to be totally deficient in leuk ...19957868224
experimental infection of peste des petit ruminant virus and mannheimia haemolytica a2 in goats: immunolocalisation of mannheimia haemolytica antigens.nigerian strain of peste des petit ruminant (ppr) virus and mannheimia haemolytica (mh) biotype a serotype 2, was used successfully to reproduce a concurrent disease in west african dwarf goats. the development of the various pathological features were studied at regular intervals following infection. the acute inflammatory reaction which had developed by day 3 after initial infection was characterised by flooding of the alveoli by neutrophils, oedema, hemorrhage and syncytial cells together wit ...201020617380
cross-protection studies with three serotypes of pasteurella haemolytica in the goat model.cross-protection studies employing three serotypes of pasteurella haemolytica (ph) were performed in goats, with challenge exposure by transthoracic injection. indirect hemagglutination (iha) serum titers showed that the herd had been naturally infected with ph biovar a, serovar 2 (pha2) prior to the study. sixty-four weanling male spanish goats were randomly allotted to 16 groups. fifteen goats were given two transthoracic injections into the lungs 21 days apart with live pasteurella haemolytic ...19989504986
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