[distribution of nematode parasites of the digestive system in sheep (ovis aries) and goats (capra hircus) of the piedmontese and valdostano alpine arc].a survey, carried out on gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep and goats of piemonte and of valle d'aosta (87 sheep and 12 goats) has shown the presence of the following species in sheep, bunostomum trigonocephalum, chabertia ovina, cooperia curticei, haemonchus contortus, marshallagia marshalli, nematodirus abnormalis, nematodirus filicollis, nematodirus helvetianus, nematodirus spathiger, oesophagostomum venulosum, ostertagia circumcincta, ostertagia lyrata, ostertagia trifurcata, skrjabinema o ...1977572958
helminths of sheep and goats in desert areas of south-west mauritania (trarza).faecal samples were obtained from sheep and goats before, during and after the rainy season at three locations in south-west mauritania. several animals were also necropsied at the same time. haemonchus contortus was the most prevalent worm. infection by digestive-tract strongyles and strongyloides papillosus was always very light (prevalence less than 20%). sheep were more heavily infected than goats but animals under 1 year of age were not infected by digestive-tract strongyles. it is likely t ...19921295205
multiple anthelmintic resistance in a field strain of haemonchus contortus in goats. 19921413479
interaction of parasitism and nutrition in goats: effects on haematological parameters, correlations, and other statistical associations.weaned wether goats (n = 144) approximately 6 months of age were placed in a 2 x 3 factorial experiment to test the effects and interaction of two levels of nutrition (growth+maintenance, nut1; and twice growth+maintenance, nut2) and three levels of haemonchus contortus burden (0, 500, and 2000 larvae administered every 2 weeks; w0, w500, and w2000, respectively) on packed cell volume, red blood cell count, total serum protein and leukocytes. the statistical analysis revealed clear and proportio ...19921466129
gastrointestinal helminths and lungworms of french dairy goats: prevalence and geographical distribution in poitou-charentes.a study was conducted on 81 dairy-goat farms in western france. faecal samples were collected once and 31 culled goats were necropsied in order to assess their gastrointestinal and respiratory helminth species, their prevalences and the intensities of infection as well as their geographical distribution in six subregions of the surveyed area. fifteen species of helminth were recovered. the most frequent were muellerius capillaris, trichostrongylus colubriformis and teladorsagia circumcincta with ...19921494857
evaluation of ivermectin against experimental infections of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats.fourteen nematode parasite-naïve kids were given a mixed larval inoculum (approximately 17,250 infective larvae) via stomach tube. twenty-two days after infection, the kids were randomly assigned to control and treatment groups of seven animals each. mean eggs per gram for control and treatment groups were 4304 and 5315, respectively. kids in the treatment group were given ivermectin (0.2 mg kg-1) administered by subcutaneous injection. at necropsy, the mean numbers of haemonchus contortus and t ...19921496785
seasonal variations in the numbers of trichostrongylid nematode eggs and their larvae in the faeces of farmed goats in malaysia.faecal worm egg counts of goats from two farms in penang island, west malaysia, were monitored over a period of 14 months. the faecal egg count pattern followed that of total rainfall. the humid tropical environment was favourable for the development of various species of trichostrongylid nematodes, namely haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus spp., oesophagostomum spp. and cooperia spp. generally, h. contortus was observed to be the predominant species, more so in the monsoon months of the yea ...19921615628
resistance to ivermectin by haemonchus contortus in goats and calves.efficacy of ivermectin on susceptible or resistant populations of the parasitic nematode haemonchus contortus was determined in cattle and goats held in a barn. goats were each infected with 3000 infective, ivermectin-susceptible or -resistant h. contortus larvae on day 0 and reinfected with 2000 infective larvae on day 24. goats were treated orally with 600 micrograms kg-1 ivermectin on day 31. no significant differences were detected in blood packed cell volume (pcv) or total protein (tp), pre ...19921639573
interaction of parasitism and nutrition and their effects on production and clinical parameters in goats.weaned wether goats (n = 144) approximately 6 months of age were placed in a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment for 5 months to test the main effects and interaction of two levels of nutrition (growth + maintenance, nut1; twice growth + maintenance, nut2) and three levels of haemonchus contortus burden (0, 500 and 2000 larvae administered every 2 weeks: w0, w500 w2000, respectively) on weight, feed intake, level of infection and packed cell volume (pcv). the rationale for the experimental design ...19911763494
infection of goats with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis: histopathology and ph changes.two groups of goats were experimentally infected with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis, and killed at various days after infection (dai). the percentage of worms that established in the abomasum and the small intestine was low. at necropsy, abomasums from infected goats had thickened walls and oedematous folds. at 7 dai there was an initial infiltration of eosinophils and some neutrophils which tend to increase with age of infection. the mean ph of the abomasum in goats in ...19911777801
disposition of oxfendazole in goats and efficacy compared with sheep.the disposition of intraruminally administered oxfendazole (ofz) in goats was studied at 5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1. the area under the plasma concentration with time curve (auc) increased with increasing dose but at a declining rate. auc was lower after intra-abomasal compared with intraruminal administration. ofz was less effective against drug resistant trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats than in sheep but was of similar efficacy against drug resistant haemonchus contortus in both host species. ...19911780578
blood gastrin and pepsinogen responses of native village goats in malaysia to infection with haemonchus contortus.blood gastrin and pepsinogen responses of native village goats in malaysia to a single dose of 10,500 infective haemonchus contortus larvae were investigated. both blood values were significantly elevated within a week of infection and exhibited a highly significant correlation during the study. the magnitude of the blood gastrin response was, however, significantly greater than that of pepsinogen during the period that both blood values were elevated. it is suggested that blood gastrin assay ma ...19911796870
resistance to benzimidazoles in haemonchus contortus of sheep in tanzania.this study was undertaken to establish whether resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics was present in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats at the university farm of sokoine university of agriculture, morogoro, tanzania. groups of lambs were treated with albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg (recommended dose rate), 5.6 mg/kg and 10.0 mg/kg and a fourth group was untreated. seven days after treatment, faecal egg count reductions (fecr) were found to be 94.3%, 97.6% and 99.3% and 14 days after treat ...19901980804
absence of hypobiosis in abomasal nematodes of sheep and goats in egypt.a total of 96 abomasa from sheep and goats at the zagazig abattoir, sharkia province, egypt, were examined, during the four climatic seasons from april 1986 to march 1987, for the presence of adult and larval nematodes. adults of trichostrongylus axei were most numerous followed by adult haemonchus contortus. adult ostertagia sp. and parabronema skrjabini were less prevalent. there was no significant difference between sheep and goats in infection rates, but worm burdens of the nematodes other t ...19902238430
special problems of hair goats.the majority of angora goats in the united states are in texas, although several other states have significant populations. angora goats have unique nutritional requirements, especially for protein, owing to their selection for mohair production. they are typically managed on extensive systems in which nutrition is marginal at certain times of the year. mineral requirements and plant toxicities may vary between regions where angora goats are raised. many toxic plants are unpalatable and a proble ...19902245371
the epidemiology of helminthosis in small ruminants under the traditional husbandry system in eastern nigeria.the epidemiology of helminth infections in west african dwarf sheep and goats under the traditional husbandry system prevailing in the derived savanna area of eastern nigeria was studied for 12 months. the infections observed were due to haemonchus contortus (87.1%), trichostrongylus spp. (63.8%), metacestodes of taenia hydatigena (30.2%), oesophagostomum columbianum (22.4%), strongyloides sp. (18.8%), cooperia spp. (17.2%), gaigeria pachyscelis (6.0%), moniezia expansa (6.0%), bunostomum trigon ...19902247944
changes in liveweight gain, blood constituents and worm egg output in goats artificially infected with a sheep-derived strain of haemonchus contortus.two groups of goats were dosed with 10,000 and 20,000 sheep-derived strain (sds) larvae of haemonchus contortus respectively. over a period of 42 days goats dosed with 20,000 larvae lost more weight than those dosed with 10,000 larvae. infected goats showed anaemia from about 2 weeks after infection as well as reduced levels of total serum proteins and albumins.19902271911
gastro-intestinal nematode infections in a goat breeding farm in north-western sri lanka.faecal egg counts were used to study patterns of nematode infestation of adult female goats and their offspring according to season, pregnancy and lactation or age on a goat farm (n = 2000) in north-western sri lanka. average rainfall in the area is 825 mm and temperature is between 23 and 33 degrees c throughout the year. the only nematode species present on the farm were haemonchus contortus and oesophagostomum columbianum. in adult females the faecal egg output was not influenced by season an ...19902288007
development and survival of infective larvae of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis on pasture in a tropical environment.a trial to determine the seasonal pattern of egg hatching and larval survival on pasture was carried out in representative wet and dry zones of fiji. fourteen plots were established on parasite-free pasture at each of two sites. one plot at each site was contaminated every month with faeces from naturally infected goats containing a known proportion of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis eggs. pasture was sampled at regular intervals after contamination and infective larvae i ...19902332275
the establishment and development of haemonchus contortus in goats.twelve goats were inoculated with 40,000 third-stage haemonchus contortus larvae and two were killed on each of days 4, 7, 11, 14, 18 and 21 after inoculation (dai). the number of worms that established, and the site of development were recorded. more worms established in the fundic, than in the middle or pyloric thirds of the abomasum. early development occurred within the mucosa; emergence into the lumen started between 7 and 11 days after infection. by 4 dai, all worms had completed the third ...19902343536
faecal water content and egg survival of goat gastro-intestinal strongyles under dry tropical conditions in guadeloupe.faeces from naturally infected goats were deposited on a natural grassland during the dry season in guadeloupe (french west indies) at different times throughout the day. the grass was either 7 or 20-30 cm tall. after a period of between several hours and 7 days, the number of viable strongyle eggs and the faecal water content were measured. faecal temperature was recorded continuously. faecal temperature was greater than 40 degrees-45 degrees c at midday and dehydration was rapid between 8 a.m. ...19902352914
resistance by haemonchus contortus to ivermectin in angora goats. 19902368307
[principal helminths of small ruminants in ituri (upper zaire)].from august 1986 to november 1987, about 180 slaughtered sheep and goats were examined at bunia (haut-zaïre) in order to establish the main helminth parasites. seventeen and fifteen species were identified in sheep and goats respectively. the occurrence of stilesia hepatica, oesophagostomum multifoliatum and muellerius capillaris as well as the absence of echinococcus granulosus constituted the original features of this check-list in the area. parasitism the most frequently encountered both in s ...19902369171
seasonal changes and hypobiosis in haemonchus contortus infection in the west african dwarf sheep and goats in the nigerian derived savanna.a survey was conducted in the nigerian derived savanna (from august 1987 to july 1988) on the seasonal fluctuations in the composition of haemonchus contortus burden of naturally infected west african dwarf sheep and goats. during this period 117 abomasa collected from locally slaughtered animals were processed. male, female as well as immature worms were enumerated. the incidence of haemonchus infection was high (77.8-100%) with no definite seasonal distinction. there was however, a clear seaso ...19902382380
critical controlled test to evaluate resistance of field strains of haemonchus contortus to thiophanate.following reports of suspected gastrointestinal strongylid nematode resistance to thiophanate in sheep and goats at sokoine university of agriculture (sua), tanzania, field strains of haemonchus contortus, one from sua and another from kimamba, tanzania, were selected for a critical controlled test to evaluate the efficacy of thiophanate. the sua h. contortus strain in goats showed a marked resistance to thiophanate at an oral dose of 50 mg kg-1 liveweight (efficacy = 24.1%), while the kimamba h ...19902382387
gastrointestinal nematode infections of goats in a sub-tropical and humid zone of india.twelve hundred and twenty-eight goats (capra hircus l.) from a sub-tropical and humid zone of india were examined for gastrointestinal nematodes. the species encountered in the region were: haemonchus contortus, bunostomum trigonocephalum, oesophagostomum columbianum, trichuris globulosa, o. aspersum, and t. ovis. the overall infection rate was 86.8%. among various species found, h. contortus emerged as the most prevalent, although b. trigonocephalum and o. columbianum were also significantly in ...19892529697
efficacy of three broad-spectrum anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematode infections of goats.groups of 10 goats, harbouring both naturally acquired and experimental infections of gastrointestinal nematodes, were drenched with either levamisole (5 mg kg-1), albendazole (3.8 mg kg-1) or parbendazole (15 mg kg-1), or remained untreated. haemonchus contortus was the numerically dominant infection, with strongyloides papillosus, trichostrongylus colubriformis and oesophagostomum columbianum also present. at 5-6 days post-treatment, goats were killed and necropsied. post-mortem worm counts sh ...19892588471
effects of irrigation on appearance and survival of infective larvae of goat gastro-intestinal nematodes in guadeloupe (french west indies).in guadeloupe (french west indies), faeces from naturally infected goats were deposited during the dry season on three plots, irrigated with long (plot a) or short herbage (b) and non-irrigated with long herbage (c). microclimatic data and the evolution of l3 population size in faeces, on soil surface and on herbage were followed over a period of 26 days. the initial nematode egg population was comprised of 58% haemonchus contortus (hc), 25% trichostrongylus colubriformis (tc) and 17% oesophagos ...19892777463
parasites as stressors: plasma cortisol responses of goats infected with the stomach worm haemonchus contortus to exogenous corticotropin (acth).ten male, juvenile pigmy goats of similar age and weight were allocated randomly to two groups. goats in one group were each inoculated with 20,000 infective larvae of haemonchus contortus. the other group served as uninfected controls. goats were housed together, and precautions were taken to avoid the creation of differential, between group, stressogenic circumstances. body weights, nematode egg production, hematocrits, and clinical signs were monitored over a 61-day period following inoculati ...19873031870
a field evaluation of benzimidazole and nonbenzimidazole drugs in a herd of dairy goats.a study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of six anthelmintics in a herd of dairy goats. pretreatment larval cultures indicated that the goats were infected with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis. three separate treatment regimens were administered. in each trial, mature nonlactating goats were allocated into two treatment groups and a control group. treatment groups received thiabendazole (tbz) or levamisole (lev), mebendazole (mbz) or fenbendazole (fbz), and moran ...19883225804
comparison of ivermectin and thiabendazole for treatment of naturally occurring nematode infections of goats in kenya.the anthelmintic activity of thiabendazole (tbz) at 88 mg kg-1 and ivermectin at 0.2 mg kg-1 was examined in goats with naturally-acquired nematode infections. in one experiment, a herd of 450 does was treated with tbz or ivermectin at 4-week intervals for 9 months and efficacy was measured by reduction in faecal egg counts after each treatment. in a second experiment, 100 kids were treated with ivermectin and effectiveness measured at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment by comparison of their egg cou ...19873564349
[microecological characterization of parasitic nematoda present in goats of arid zones of venezuela].goats from the venezuelan northern arid zones were found infested by the following nematodes: haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus axei, t. colubriformis, cooperia curticei, oesophagostomum columbianum, skrjabinema ovis y trichuris globulosa. the shannon-weaver index of diversity values oscillated between 0.045 and 1.73 bits (means = 1.16 +/- 0.24 bits). the maximum value of montly diversity ranged from 1 to 2.80 bits (means = 2.49 +/- 0.28 bits) and the equitability ranged from 0.045 to 0.67 ...19863587000
the pathogenicity of haemonchosis in sheep and goats in iraq: 1. clinical, parasitological and haematological findings.the response of awassi sheep and the local breed of iraqi goats to primary infection with a prevalent trichostrongylid nematode, haemonchus contortus, was compared by examining their worm burden and the pathogenic effects of the parasite on these hosts following experimental infection. the results showed that the goats had lower worm burdens and had suffered less severe clinical and haematological disturbances than the awassi sheep. the worm counts in sheep were higher than in goats but the coun ...19873617428
effect of ph and temperature on lipase and phospholipase of adult haemonchus contortus (nematoda: trichostrongylidae). 19863735000
efficacy of ivermectin against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats.the efficacy of ivermectin (0.08 per cent w/v oral solution) at different dose levels was evaluated against induced infections of adult haemonchus contortus (21 days old) and trichostrongylus colubriformis (21 days old) and fourth stage larvae of oesophagostomum columbianum (17 days old), ostertagia circumcincta (five days old) and strongyloides papillosus (five days old). twenty-five boergoats (mutton goats) were randomly allocated by bodyweight within each sex to an untreated control group and ...19853840299
anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of goats.cases of anthelmintic resistance on 3 goat farms in gippsland were investigated. on the first farm haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus colubriformis and ostertagia (teladorsagia) circumcincta were found to be resistant to fenbendazole, but the first 2 species were fully susceptible to levamisole. on the second farm a population of t. colubriformis, resistant to concurrent full doses of levamisole and a benzimidazole, was found to retain this resistance when transferred to sheep. on the third ...19854051913
haemonchus contortus: factors determining the polymorphism of linguiform females. 19724648293
haemonchus contortus: attempts to determine biologic differences between the various morphologic types of females. 19724675137
haemonchus contortus: genetically determined polymorphism in females. 19715157769
field trials on the efficacy of thiabendazole against haemonchus contortus in west african dwarf forest sheep and goats. 19675629277
studies on blood picture in stomachworm (haemonchus contortus and haemonchus bispinosus mixed infection) infection in sheep and goats. 19665949912
effect of ph and temperature on four dehydrogenase enzymes of haemonchus contortus. 19846242277
the anthelmintic efficacy of d.l. tetramisole against haemonchus contortus infection in goats. 19846531494
the effects of dl-tetramisole and rafoxanide on tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes of haemonchus contortus, in vitro.various enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (tca) viz., aconitase (e.c., isocitrate dehydrogenase (e.c., succinate dehydrognease (e.c., fumarate reductase (nadh: fumarate oxido-reductase), fumarase (e.c. and maltate dehydrogenase (e.c. were detected in adult haemonchus contortus (nematoda: trichostrongylidae), in vitro. low activities of aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase suggested that the tca cycle has a minor function and the pathway of ...19836686386
seasonal incidence of helminths in sheep and goats in south mozambique.the seasonal fluctuations in faecal worm egg counts were studied at monthly intervals for over a year in 20 male sheep and goats on extensive grazing tracts at a farm near maputo, mozambique. larval differentiation from faecal cultures showed that haemonchus contortus and oesophagostomum columbianum were the most prevalent worm species. trichostrongylus colubriformis, cooperia spp., strongyloides papillosus, moniezia spp., paramphistomum spp. and trichuris spp. also occurred. after the onset of ...19826892176
strongyle infections of small ruminants in nigeria.a survey of strongyle infections was conducted in sheep and goats reared in a traditional extensive husbandry system in two ecological zones of nigeria. one zone had a seasonal pattern of infection. the majority of animals had faecal worm parasite egg counts of below 500 eggs per gram. kids, and lambs younger than 3 months did not carry strongyle worm burdens, and the highest infection rate was found in the 7-12 month age group. a high proportion of small ruminants shed strongyle eggs during the ...19826892178
[observations on the spring rise of faecal strongyle egg counts in goats (author's transl)].examination of the faeces at regular intervals during the period from february to june 1980 in a group of multiparous dairy goats produced the following results: (a) a marked increase in faecal strongyle egg-counts, (b) haemonchus contortus was the worm mainly causing this increase, (c) differences in faecal egg-counts between dutch white (saanen) goats and toggenburger goats or between groups of goats of different ages were not observed, (d) no differences in faecal egg-counts were observed in ...19827064140
haemonchus contortus: the in vitro effects of dl-tetramisole and rafoxanide on glycolytic enzymes. 19827160961
the anthelmintic efficacy of artemisia herba-alba against haemonchus contortus infection in goats.the anthelmintic activity of the powdered shoots of artemisia herba-alba was investigated in experimental haemonchosis in six nubian goats which had been infected with single doses of 800 to 1,000 infective haemonchus larvae. the clinical signs of caprine haemonchosis included inappetence, dullness and soft faeces and were correlated with the pathological findings. none of these changes were observed in four of the six goats following the treatment with 2, 10 or 30 g of artemisia shoots. this su ...19827162537
efficacy of pyrantel tartrate against experimental infections with haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats.the efficacy of pyrantel tartrate was evaluated in goats against induced infections with haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus colubriformis. all the strains were of sheep origin and tested for susceptibility to pyrantel tartrate in sheep at the standard dose rate (20 mg kg-1) prior to the infection of goats. fifteen french alpine female goats were inoculated with the three nematode species. on day 25 post-infection, goats were randomized into an untreated control ...19957571339
seasonal changes and inhibited development of the abomasal nematodes of sheep and goats in saudi arabia.from august 1991 to july 1992, a total of 48 abomasa from sheep and 48 from goats were examined at the jeddah abattoir for the presence of adult and larval nematodes. twenty-three of the sheep (47.9%) and 21 of the goats (43.8%) were infected with nematodes, a total of eight species being found. haemonchus contortus and marshallagia marshalli appeared to be the most important parasites. other species were less prevalent: trichostrongylus axei, camelostrongylus mentulatus, parabronema skrjabini, ...19957676605
protective immunity to haemonchus contortus induced by immunoaffinity isolated antigens that share a phylogenetically conserved carbohydrate gut surface epitope.whole gut homogenates of the blood-sucking nematode haemonchus contortus induce protective immunity in goats, and some of these gut ag are conserved among related parasitic nematode species. to identify gut ag that induce protective immunity and have phylogenetically conserved epitopes, mab were made to gut-surface ag of h. contortus. forty-nine mab reacted with microvilli of the parasite gut. two of these mab (42/10.6.1 and 42/53.3.5) were analyzed here. both of the mab bound to the microvillar ...19937693812
use of random amplified polymorphic dna for identification of ruminant trichostrongylid nematodes.the aim of this work was to evaluate random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) as a source of markers for species identification and phylogenetic analysis of ruminant trichostrongylid nematodes. as these nematodes are often polymorphic, species identification may be difficult. we tested eight species and several of their morphs: haemonchus contortus (three vulvar morphotypes: flap, smooth, and knobbed), teladorsagia circumcincta, ashworthius gagarini, spiculopteragia boehmi, ostertagia leptospicul ...19957724508
anthelmintic resistance in goats in peninsular malaysia.ninety-six randomly selected farms, located throughout peninsular malaysia, were surveyed for goat nematodes resistant to benzimidazoles (bz). on 33 farms bz resistance was demonstrated by means of an egg hatch assay. haemonchus contortus was found to be the main species involved in anthelmintic resistance. there was a positive association between the frequency of anthelmintic treatments on a farm and the presence of benzimidazole resistance. to assess the value of the egg hatch assay, faecal eg ...19947725626
strongyle infections in sheep and goats under the traditional husbandry system in peninsular malaysia.faecal egg counts were used to study patterns of trichostrongyle infections in sheep and goats according to season, age, pregnancy and lactation on traditional farms in west malaysia. haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus spp. were the most important strongyles in sheep and in goats, h. contortus, trichostrongylus spp. and oesophagostomum spp. were most prevalent. the faecal egg counts of sheep and goats were apparently not influenced by the small seasonal climatic variations. strongyle infe ...19957732637
dry areas: an example of seasonal evolution of helminth infection of sheep and goats in southern mauritania.a total of 647 faecal egg counts and 53 necropsies were performed on sheep and goats originating from three sites of a sahelian region of mauritania (gorgol) over a period of 2 years (1990-1992). haemonchus contortus, oesophagostomum columbianum and stilesia globipunctata were the most prevalent species. the seasonal pattern was characterized by long survival of adults and high percentages of arrested fourth-stage larvae in the dry season, suggesting that two different strategies were used to su ...19957732638
[epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in small ruminants in the tree-cropping pasture zone in senegal].an epidemiological survey on gastrointestinal helminthiasis in 51 sheep and 51 goats was held in the tree-cropping pasture region in senegal from october 1990 to september 1991. all the animals examined were infected with at least 1 helminth species. three trematodes (fasciola gigantica, schistosoma bovis, amphistomatids), 2 cestodes (moniezia expansa, cysticercus tenuicollis) and 9 nematodes were identified. the most important parasite in sheep was haemonchus contortus while trichostrongylus co ...19957735304
anthelmintic resistance.anthelmintic resistance is widespread in nematode parasites of sheep, goats and horses. resistance is also developing in nematode parasites of cattle and has been detected in pig parasites. benzimidazole, levamisole/morantel and ivermectin resistances occur in nematodes of sheep and goats and closantel resistance has been found in haemonchus contortus. anthelmintic resistance is likely to develop wherever anthelmintics are frequently used and be detected if it is investigated. worm count or egg ...19947846855
resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics by haemonchus contortus in goats in peninsular malaysia.a previous study had suggested that local strains of goat trichostrongyles, comprising largely haemonchus contortus, might have developed resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics. a trial involving 18 goats was conducted to confirm this. there was a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in worm burdens in goats given levamisole, but this was not so for those animals given albendazole, fenbendazole, oxfendazole and mebendazole (p > 0.05).19947886916
helminth and arthropod parasites of indigenous goats in the northern transvaal.helminth and arthropod parasites of 60 female indigenous goats of three age groups on a farm in the northern transvaal were collected, identified and counted. anoplocephalid tapeworms were present in the two younger groups of goats, while larvae of taenia hydatigena were recovered from all three groups. eight species and two genera of nematodes were found in the youngest goats, five species and three genera in the middle group and six species and two genera in the oldest goats. strongyloides pap ...19947898893
farm history and breeding management influences on the intensity and specific diversity of nematode infection of dairy goats.sixteen dairy-goat farms were investigated in the centre-west of france for nematode infection. the intensity of infection was assessed by means of faecal egg counts and nematode counts at necropsy for digestive-tract nematodes and faecal larval counts for muellerius capillaris. the specific diversity and prevalence were estimated by worm counts of 28 necropsied culled goats. the history and breeding management were recorded by means of a questionnaire. specific diversity was estimated on two cu ...19947975117
control of haemonchosis in malaysian goats with closantel.the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of closantel on natural infections with haemonchus contortus were studied in goats in peninsular malaysia. closantel was highly effective against h. contortus, either at a subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 5.0 mg kg-1 body weight (100%), or in an oral drench mixture with mebendazole at a dose of 10.0 mg kg-1 (99.2%), as indicated by faecal egg counts. h. contortus larvae were absent from faecal cultures for 5, 6 and 7 weeks following treatment with s.c. in ...19947975118
rotational grazing for control of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats in a wet tropical environment.a preliminary experiment involving contamination of pasture plots with eggs of haemonchus contortus, trichostronglyus colubriformis and oesophagostomum columbianum every month for a year established that in the tropical environment of the pacific island of tongatapu, hatching and development of all species was rapid and continuous, with a short survival on pasture (3-7 weeks) of the resulting infective larvae. these results indicated that a rotational grazing system consisting of ten paddocks gr ...19948091608
seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in communal land goats from the highveld of zimbabwe.on six occasions during a 1 year period, goats run on communal pastures by small-scale farmers, were purchased, housed indoors for 3 weeks and autopsied for examination of their gastrointestinal nematode burden. all of the 32 goats examined were infected. the four dominant species, haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis and oesophagostomum columbianum, were present in 88-97% of the animals. three other nematodes, strongyloides papillosus, bunostomum spp. and ...19948171826
effect of subclinical eimeria species infections in tropical goats subsequently challenged with caprine haemonchus contortus.fourteen goat kids of the local indigenous breed naturally infected with eimeria species were divided into two equal groups. the first group was superinfected with 500,000 eimeria species oocysts and the second group was treated with amprolium. sixty days later both groups were infected with 5000 third-stage caprine haemonchus contortus larvae. the goats experimentally superinfected with eimeria shed more h contortus eggs and gained weight more slowly.19948197681
comparative kinetic disposition of oxfendazole in sheep and goats before and during infection with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis.the kinetic disposition of [14c]-oxfendazole (ofz) and its metabolites, fenbendazole (fbz) and fenbendazole sulphone (fbz.so2), in plasma and abomasal fluid were determined in merino sheep and angora goats before and during infection with trichostrongylus colubriformis and haemonchus contortus. the systemic availability (area under the plasma curve, auc) of ofz was significantly lower in goats (13.5 micrograms.h/ml) than in sheep (22.2 micrograms.h/ml) and was reduced with infection in goats (5. ...19938230395
parasite spectrum and seasonal epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in the hundred and four post mortem examinations of randomly selected sheep (52) and goats (52) were carried out weekly from march 1990 to february 1991. gastrointestinal parasites were identified and counted. a large spectrum of 16 helminth species was found in 101 (97%) infected animals. the nematodes infecting small ruminants were, in order of predominance: trichostrongylus colubriformis (96% of all animals), oesophagostomum columbianum (82%), haemonchus contortus (67%), strongyloides papillosus ...19938249251
the prevalence of concurrent trypanosome and gastrointestinal nematode infections in west african dwarf sheep and goats in nsukka area of eastern nigeria.the prevalence of concurrent nematode-trypanosome infections in traditionally reared west african dwarf sheep and goats in eastern nigeria was monitored over a 12-month period during 1987-1988. the most prevalent nematodes were haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis, which usually occurred together in all nematode infected animals. their combined prevalence rates ranged from 90 to 100% throughout the year and they accounted for 66 to 98% of the total monthly worm burdens. of the ...19938249254
comparison of the effects on milk production of concurrent infection with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in high- and low-producing dairy goats.the impact of nematode parasitism of the digestive tract on milk output and milk quality was examined in dairy goats. in addition, the consequences of worm infection were compared in goats with different lactation performance (ie, with initial high or low milk production). forty-eight goats in the second month of lactation were allotted equally to 2 groups. the first group was given 5,000 haemonchus contortus and 20,000 trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae. the 24 additional goats remained free ...19938291768
longistrongylus curvispiculum (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) in free-ranging exotic antelope in texas.longistrongylus curvispiculum was recovered from free ranging sable (hippotragus niger), addax (addax nasomaculatus) and biesa oryx (oryx beisa) on two ranches in central texas (usa). these nematodes represented a small portion of the total abomasal worm burden dominated by haemonchus contortus. female l. curvispiculum easily could be confused with other ostertaginae, but the spicules of the males were diagnostic.19938355363
effect of subclinical coccidiosis in kids on subsequent trichostrongylid infection after female kids of the murciana-granadina breed naturally infected with coccidia were superinfected with a multispecific eimeria inoculum (300,000 oocysts) or treated to control the coccidial infection with amprolium (50 mg kg-1 liveweight day-1; 4 days every 14 days); 80 days later both animal groups received 2500 third-stage larvae of a sheep-derived mixture of trichostrongylus colubriformis (50%), teladorsagia circumcincta (40%) and haemonchus contortus (10%). kids experimentally s ...19938447060
efficacy of closantel against fenbendazole and levamisole resistant haemonchus contortus in small ruminants.sheep infected with a fenbendazole resistant strain of haemonchus contortus and goats with a levamisole resistant strain of the same parasite were used to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of closantel. closantel at the rate of 10 mg/kg body weight was 100% effective against the 2 resistant strains of the parasite as indicated by faecal egg count and worm reduction. the efficacy of fenbendazole in sheep and of levamisole in goats was 56.68 and 76.90%, respectively.19938465440
experimental study of survival strategy of haemonchus contortus in sheep during the dry season in desert areas of the mauritania.the survival of the most common worm of sheep and goats of desert areas, haemonchus contortus, during the dry season is of the utmost importance. it may be achieved through long survival of adult worms that may preserve their ability to excrete viable eggs or to inhibited development in host and survival as a larval stage. twelve lambs were experimentally infected with larvae obtained at the end of the rainy season. the resulting adult worms were able to survive and maintain their ability to pro ...19958544042
haemonchus contortus ga1 antigens: related, phospholipase c-sensitive, apical gut membrane proteins encoded as a polyprotein and released from the nematode during was previously shown that the haemonchus contortus apical gut surface proteins p46, p52, and p100 induced protective immunity to challenge infections in goats. here, it is shown that the three proteins are all encoded by a single gene (ga1) and initially expressed in adult parasites as a polyprotein (p100ga1). p46ga1 and p52ga1 are related proteins with 47% sequence identity, including a cysteine-containing region, which appears to confer secondary structure to these proteins, and a region wi ...19968710924
coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors in the investigation was carried out on coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors on five farms in the netherlands. the goats were individually sampled. coccidial oocysts were identified and nematode eggs counted. larval cultures were made and infective larvae identified to the generic or species level. the goats were divided into three groups according to their age: kids, those weaned but not served, and older goats. oocysts were found in 26 out of 27 kids (96.3%), in 52 out of 55 wea ...19968720569
[epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants in the plateau areas in togo].post-mortem helminthological examinations were performed in togo on small ruminants of the djallonké breed (59 sheep, 60 goats), revealing the presence of eight gastrointestinal nematode species which were, in decreasing prevalence order, trichostrongylus sp. (t. axei and t. colubriformis) (99%), haemonchus contortus (82%), strongyloides papillosus (67%), cooperia curticei (43%), oesophagostomum columbianum (40%), gaigeria pachyscelis (36%) and trichuris ovis (4%). the average worm burden was 1, ...19958734228
evidence for multiple anthelmintic resistance in sheep and goats reared under the same management in coastal kenya.four experiments, two with sheep and two with goats, were carried out to determine the efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole, levamisole, closantel and some of their combinations by faecal egg count reduction tests. in the first experiment, injectable ivermectin, oral ivermectin, fenbendazole and levamisole were tested in 6-month-old lambs, and their reduction percentages were 77%, 13%, 42% and 92%, respectively. in the second experiment, with yearling sheep, the reduction percentages were 35% fo ...19958747913
studies on multispecific resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to benzimidazoles on dairy-goat farms.multispecific resistance to benzimidazoles was studied in three selected farms. these farms had bred dairy goats for more than 15 years. the helminths were introduced with the goats at the establishment of the farms which afterwards remained isolated. nematode resistance could then be related to their own management practices. faecal egg count tests and egg hatch assays were performed to assess intensity of resistance. the generic (infective larvae in faecal cultures) and specific richness (adul ...19958747916
genetic variability in resistance of creole goats to natural infection with trichostrongylids in guadeloupe.the objective of this study was to show the existence of genetic variability in resistance of creole goats to natural infection with intestinal nematodes. four successive cohorts of male and female kids were reared from weaning during 9 months in intensive pangola pastures (stocking rate 1.4 t/ha, regrowth of 21 days, 300 kg n/ ha/year of fertilization). all cohorts considered, 203 offsprings from 13 bucks and 149 goats were used in the experiment. animals were treated with an oral dose of iverm ...19968784523
anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the netherlands.a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with angora and anglo-nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. the lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after infection with 5 mg kg-1 oxfendazole, 0.2 mg kg-1 ivermectin or 7.5 mg kg-1 levamisole. the lambs were slaughtered 1 week later and post-mortem worm counts were performed. benzimidazole resistance was ...19968916403
prevalence and seasonal changes in the gastro-intestinal helminths of nigerian goats.a total of 120 gastro-intestinal tracts and 960 faecal samples were examined to assess the prevalence and seasonal changes in the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of red sokoto (maradi) goats slaughtered at ibadan between may 1991 and april 1992. egg types of strongyles, strongyloides, trichuris, skrjabinema, dicrocoelium and moniezia were encountered in 93%, 83%, 44%, 0.9%, 2.3% and 31% of the faecal samples respectively. however, only strongyle, strongyloides and trichuris eggs occurred in ...19968960229
efficacy of an albendazole slow-release capsule for the control of susceptible or resistant nematode parasites of dairy goats.the efficacy of albendazole slow release capsules-asrc- (proftril-captec) on gastro-intestinal nematodes of dairy-goats was assessed both for benzimidazole (bz) susceptible and resistant strains. for bz susceptible strains, the efficacy of asrc, assessed by controlled test, ranged from 92% for trichostrongylus colubriformis to more than 99% for haemonchus contortus on existing worm burdens. the administration of the asrc prevented infection with the same strains for 85 to 91 days post treatment. ...19969017868
genetic resistance of three genotypes of goats to experimental infection with haemonchus contortus.a total of 46 weaned kids of three genotypes aged about 4-5 months were used to evaluate the effects of trickle infection with a sheep strain of haemonchus contortus. a completely randomized 3 x 2 factorial design was used. factors were genotype (thai native (tn), 75% tn x 25% anglo-nubian (an) and 50% tn x 50% an) and parasite (control and infected). the animals were infected with 750 infective larvae (l3) of h. contortus three times a week for 3 weeks, with a total of 6750 larvae. the experime ...19979066054
production of a monoclonal antibody specific for ovine immunoglobulin e and its application to monitor serum ige responses to haemonchus contortus infection.part of the c epsilon 3-c epsilon 4 region of the ovine immunoglobulin e (ige) gene (nucleotides 1111-1575) was amplified by pcr. the recombinant protein (recige1-2) was expressed in e. coli and both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were produced. these antibodies recognized recige1-2 and native ige on western blots and in elisa. the polyclonal serum showed cross-reactivity with other sheep immunoglobulin classes. the monoclonal antibody was specific for ovine ige and goat ige. infection of ...19979107026
haemonchus contortus: inter- and intrageographic isolate heterogeneity of proteases in adult worm excretory-secretory products. 19979149245
abomasal nematodes in goats from the subtropical island of grand canary (spain).the prevalence of gastric nematodes in 151 goats on grand canary island is around 56%, with a mean burden of 691 worms/animal. no significant differences of prevalence and intensity were found between the four isoclimatic areas of the island [dry-desert (dd); dry-steppe (ds); temperate-mild (tm); temperate-cold (tc)]. five nematode species were identified, the most commonly-occurring being teladorsagia circumcincta (observed in 65.8% of parasitized animals) and trichostrongylus axei (51.9%). the ...19979208446
haemonchosis in spanish ibex.two cases of haemonchosis occurred in the spanish ibex (capra pyrenaica) population of the national hunting reserve of tortosa and beseit, northeastern spain, in july 1992 and may 1993. the animals were cachectic and recumbent and had an acute hemorrhagic, macrocytic and hypochromic anemia; which was related to a high infection of 2,016 and 1,863 haemonchus contortus, respectively, in the abomasum of the animals.19979249719
the efficacy of closantel and rafoxanide against fenbendazole- and levamisole-resistant haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. 19979345716
cd4+ t lymphocytes contribute to protective immunity induced in sheep and goats by haemonchus contortus gut antigens.immunization with parasite antigens derived from the gut of adult haemonchus contortus induces significant levels of protection against the parasite in sheep and goats. however, the mechanisms of immunity involved in this protection are not clear. here, we investigate the requirement for cd4+ t lymphocytes in gut antigen-induced immunity against h. contortus. gut antigen immunized animals were depleted (> 98%) of their cd4+ t lymphocytes in peripheral blood by intravenous injection of an anti-cd ...19979372511
response to challenge infection with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in dairy goats. differences between high and low-producers.the objective of the study was to analyse the influence of the level of milk production in dairy goats on the ability to develop resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infection. two groups of 50 goats were initially exposed (group 'previously infected' pi) or not exposed (group 'not previously infected' npi) to repeated infections with a mixture of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis. after anthelmintic treatment, goats from both groups remained free of parasites for 2 mont ...19979477513
response to challenge infection with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in dairy goats. consequences on milk production.the objective of the study was to examine the ability of dairy goats to develop a response to nematode parasites of the digestive tract after a previous contact with the worms. one hundred dairy goats were initially divided into 2 groups. one remained free of parasites (not previously infected: npi). the second group was infected thrice at 50 days interval with a mixture of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis (previously infected: pi). after this initial exposure to nematodes ...19989493309
repeated infections with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in dairy goats: comparison of resistant and susceptible animals.a total of 70 strongyle-free french alpine dairy goats were exposed to a combination of sequential and challenge infections with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis third-stage larvae. the sequential infection consisted of three inoculations at 50-day intervals, each infection being abbreviated by anthelmintic treatment at 40 days postinoculation. the challenge infection, composed of the same nematode strains, was undertaken 2 months later, when goats were at their 1st month ...19989521016
multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in kenya.the anthelmintic efficacy of benzimidazoles, levamisole, rafoxanide and ivermectin was evaluated on an institutional farm in kenya using faecal egg count reduction test, larval cultures and a controlled slaughter trial. the results of this study indicated simultaneous resistance of haemonchus contortus against benzimidazoles, levamisole and rafoxanide and trichostrongylus columbriformis and oesophagostomum sp. against levamisole on the same farm. injectable and orally administered ivermectin was ...19989637220
hypobiosis of haemonchus contortus in natural infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of kenya.a total of 42 lambs, 42 kids, 21 ewes and 21 does were necropsied during an investigation of the epidemiology of haemonchus contortus infection of sheep (red maasai) and goats (small east african goat) in a semi-arid area of kenya. availability and establishment of the infective stages were monitored by the necropsy of 21 tracer lambs and 21 tracer kids. prevalence of h. contortus was over 90% in both sheep and goats and this species contributed to about 80% of the total worm burden. only about ...19989652383
faecal egg counts are representative of digestive-tract strongyle worm burdens in sheep and goats.the relationship between faecal egg counts and worm burdens in sheep and goats was studied in a large array of environments, from temperate (ewes, lambs or dairy-goats in france) or steppic (ewes in middle-atlas of morocco) to sahelian (young sheep and goats of mauritania in west africa) climates. the studied temperate worm communities were dominated by teladorsagia and trichostrongylus sp., and those from steppic areas by teladorsagia, marshallagia and trichostrongylus sp.; haemonchus contortus ...19989754309
resistance of galla and small east african goats in the sub-humid tropics to gastrointestinal nematode infections and the peri-parturient rise in faecal egg counts.a study was carried out from 1994 to 1996 to compare the resistance to naturally acquired gastrointestinal (gi) nematode infections (predominantly haemonchus contortus) of 88 galla and 114 small east african (sea) goats (does) in the sub-humid coastal region of kenya. live weights (lwt), blood packed cell volume (pcv) and faecal egg counts (fec) were recorded each year at mating, 3-4 months after mating, 1-2 weeks before kidding and 1-4 months after kidding. there was a significant increase in f ...19989777725
in vitro effects of anthelmintics on the histochemistry of haemonchus contortus and trichuris vitro incubation of haemonchus contortus (rud., 1803) and trichuris globulosa (v. linstow, 1901) were proformed for 10-12 h in tyrode's solution and 10 and 50 micrograms/ml concentrations each of albendazole (abz), fenbendazole (fbz), thiophenate (tp), dl-tetramisole and oxyclozanide (to), dl-tetramisole hci (tms) and levamisole hci (lms) to study morphological and histochemical alterations. the major structural changes observed after treatment with all the drugs were vacuolation in the intes ...19969060178
a hemolytic factor from haemonchus contortus alters erythrocyte morphology.a hemolytic factor from adult haemonchus contortus caused distinct morphological changes in the surface of sheep red blood cells (rbcs). after a 15 min exposure to the hemolytic factor, hemolysis was not detected in incubation media, but rbcs were spherical in shape with numerous surface projections compared to control cells that were smooth-surfaced biconcave disks. after 30 min, a time at which significant hemolysis occurred, echinocytes were formed, and after 90 min, cells were severely disru ...19989877069
natural evolution of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats (capra hircus) in the semi-arid ecosystem of the paraíba backwoods, northeastern brazil.this study was conducted in patos county, a semi-arid area with caatinga vegetation in paraiba state, northeastern brazil. twenty-four male goats of mixed breeds were used. the animals were separated in age groups from 1-12 months, i. e., 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 months, with four animals in each group. the animals were slaughtered and necropsied to recover and identify adult worms. the goats were exposed to nematode infection from the first month of life. the most prevalent nematodes in ...19989877070
activity of eprinomectin in goats against experimental infections with haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus colubriformis. 199910097316
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