serology of orthopoxvirus cameli infection in dromedary camels: analysis by elisa and western enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed, together with a western blotting technique, for the detection of total and igg and igm antibodies to camelpox virus (orthopoxvirus cameli) in camel (camelus dromedarius) sera and for identifying the seroreactive antigens of the virus. a total of 520 camels from different regions in libya were tested. the overall seropositivity rate in the examined herds was 9.8%, and varied between herds from 0 to 30%. two viral antigenic determinants ( ...19968654047
comparison of camelpox viruses isolated in dubai.between october 1993 and march 1994, outbreaks of pox-like exanthemas were observed in several camel raising farms in dubai. scabs from twenty camels with either local or generalized lesions were examined, seven of them had previously been vaccinated with a modified live camelpox virus vaccine. inspection of scabs by electron microscopy confirmed an infection with orthopox viruses (opv) in 10 animals and with parapox virus in one camel. investigation of the scabs by polymerase chain reaction and ...19968861650
experimental camelpox infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated dromedaries.four dromedaries were infected with a virulent camelpox virus strain which was isolated from the lung of a saudi arabian camel. the camels which were infected intradermally and subcutaneously developed severe generalized camelpox. one of these camels had to be euthanized on humane grounds and the second one died 13 days after being infected. this dromedary also developed internal pox. neither dromedary showed camelpox antibodies before infection. the other two camels which had been vaccinated wi ...199910216456
an eruptive moderate form of camelpox infection in dromedary camels (camelus dromedarius) in saudi eruptive moderate form of camelpox infection is reported in camels aged three to four years from the al-ahsa region of saudi arabia. the clinical signs were moderate in nature (between the 'mild' and the 'severe' form). the morbidity rate was 100% while the case fatality rate was 0%. camelpox virus was isolated and identified using electron microscopy and serological analysis.199910588019
analysis of putative rnase p rna from orthopoxviruses.a putative rnase p rna gene in camelpox virus, one of the orthopoxviruses, was cloned and transcribed in vitro. no rnase p activity could be detected in vitro from camelpox virus rnase p rna alone, or by addition of the escherichia coli rnase p protein subunit to reaction mixtures. camelpox virus rnase p rna reconstituted in vitro with camel or hela cell extracts, which were pre-treated with micrococcal nuclease to degrade the endogenous rnase p rna, showed no rnase p activity. vaccinia virus, a ...200516253270
zoonotic cases of camelpox infection in india.this study reports the first conclusive evidence of zoonotic camelpox virus (cmlv) infection in humans associated with outbreaks in dromedarian camels (camelus dromedaries) in northwest region of india during 2009. cmlv infection is usually restricted to camels and causes localised skin lesions but occasionally leads to generalised form of disease. however, the present outbreak involved camel handlers and attendants with clinical manifestations such as papules, vesicles, ulceration and finally s ...201121571451
a transversal study on antibodies against selected pathogens in dromedary camels in the canary islands, spain.the canary islands contain the most important dromedary camel (camelus dromedarius) population in the european union and are the main export point of dromedaries to continental europe and latin america. we investigated the presence of antibodies against relevant disease agents in 100 canarian camel sera. selected blood samples of the same animals were also tested by pcr. sera were tested for antibodies against bluetongue virus (btv; 0%), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv; 0%), camelpox virus (c ...201323992795
human and dromedary camel infection with camelpox virus in eastern sudan.we provide evidence for the zoonotic nature of camelpox virus by reporting infections that involved dromedary camels and three camel herders in showak area of eastern sudan between september and december 2014. the skin lesions in the camel herders consisted of erythema, vesicles, and pustules that involved arms, hands, legs, back, and abdomen and resolved within less than 2 months with no human-to-human transmission. the diagnosis was achieved through molecular technique, virus isolation in cell ...201728055328
genetic characterization of poxviruses in camelus dromedarius in ethiopia, 2011-2014.camelpox and camel contagious ecthyma are infectious viral diseases of camelids caused by camelpox virus (cmlv) and camel contagious ecthyma virus (ccev), respectively. even though, in ethiopia, pox disease has been creating significant economic losses in camel production, little is known on the responsible pathogens and their genetic diversity. thus, the present study aimed at isolation, identification and genetic characterization of the causative viruses. accordingly, clinical case observation ...201627544702
an orthopoxvirus-based vaccine reduces virus excretion after mers-cov infection in dromedary camels.middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) infections have led to an ongoing outbreak in humans, which was fueled by multiple zoonotic mers-cov introductions from dromedary camels. in addition to the implementation of hygiene measures to limit further camel-to-human and human-to-human transmissions, vaccine-mediated reduction of mers-cov spread from the animal reservoir may be envisaged. here we show that a modified vaccinia virus ankara (mva) vaccine expressing the mers-cov spike p ...201626678878
multiplex pcr for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of pox and pox-like diseases in dromedary camels.pox and pox-like diseases of camels are a group of exanthematous skin conditions that have become increasingly important economically. three distinct viruses may cause them: camelpox virus (cmlv), camel parapox virus (cppv) and camelus dromedary papilloma virus (cdpv). these diseases are often difficult to differentiate based on clinical presentation in disease outbreaks. molecular methods such as pcr targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify these diseases, but n ...201526148497
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
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