ovine herpesvirus 2 lytic cycle replication and capsid production.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) causes malignant catarrhal fever in cattle, pigs and deer. we have observed intact circular and linear ovhv-2 genomes in infected t cell lines derived from cows and rabbits. bovine t cell lines were predominantly latently infected but rabbit t cell lines supported ovhv-2 productive cycle gene expression and virus capsids were demonstrated for the first time.200212466476
malignant catarrhal fever in a bison (bison bison) feedlot, 1993-2000.a fatal enteric syndrome was identified in american bison (bison bison) at a large feedlot in the american midwest in early 1998. an estimated 150 bison died of the syndrome between january 1998 and december 1999. the syndrome was identified as malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), primarily the alimentary form. clinical onset was acute, and most affected bison died within 1-3 days; none recovered. consistent lesions were hemorrhagic cystitis, ulcerative enterotyphlocolitis, and arteritis-phlebitis. ...200212033673
isolation and expression of three open reading frames from ovine herpesvirus-2.ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2), a member of the gammaherpesviruses (genus rhadinovirus), asymptomatically infects its natural host, the sheep, but causes malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in susceptible hosts, such as cattle, deer and pigs. a permissive cell culture system for virus replication has not been identified but viral dna is present within lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcls) established from cases of mcf. during this study, a cdna expression library generated from lcls was screened with sheep ...200211842248
[malignant catarrhal fever in switzerland: 2. evaluation of the diagnosis].malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a mostly fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle. in 1995 a pcr based method was introduced for the detection of the ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), which is regarded as the causative agent of the sheep-associated form of the disease. this pcr can be regarded as a gold standard for the in vivo diagnosis of sheep-associated mcf in cattle (müller-doblies et al., 1998). this semi-nested pcr was now used as a reference test for the reassessment of diagnostic crit ...200111776716
ovine herpesvirus-2 glycoprotein b sequences from tissues of ruminant malignant catarrhal fever cases and healthy sheep are highly conserved.ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2) infection has been associated with malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in susceptible ruminants. in order to further investigate whether ohv-2 is an aetiological agent for sheep-associated (sa) mcf in cattle and bison, the entire sequences of ohv-2 glycoprotein b (gb) from different sources of viral dna were compared. target dna was derived from tissues of bovine and bison cases of sa-mcf, from a lymphoblastoid cell line established from another bovine case of sa-mcf, and ...200111602790
a simpler, more sensitive competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to malignant catarrhal fever earlier competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa) was developed for detection of specific antibody against malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) viruses (mcfv) in ruminants. in this study, the indirect ci-elisa was improved by conjugating the monoclonal antibody 15-a directly with horseradish peroxidase and by developing a method of producing precoated, dried antigen plates. this new test is referred to as a direct ci-elisa. the reformatted test yielded a significantly imp ...200111478614
[malignant catarrhal fever in switzerland. 1.epidemiology].malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a usually fatal infectious disease of cattle with global distribution. based on the recent introduction of a diagnostic pcr assay and a competitive inhibition elisa (cielisa) epidemiological data were collected on field cases in switzerland. throughout a three-year period, an mcf incidence of 0.6@1000 was observed, with a gradient of cases from eastern to western switzerland. while the cantons wallis, vaud and geneva reported no and the remaining western canton ...200111344942
detection and multigenic characterization of a novel gammaherpesvirus in goats.evidence for the existence of a caprine gammaherpesvirus was obtained by analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes of goats with pcr assays that target the herpesvirus genes encoding the glycoprotein b (gb), the dna polymerase (dpol) and the terminase (term) with degenerate and deoxyinosine-substituted primers. a contiguous 3.6 kbp sequence extending from the gb to the dpol gene was then determined with specific primers. all sequences (gb, dpol and term) showed a close relationship with the corres ...200111311431
experimental transmission of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever from sheep to japanese deer (cervus nippon) and cattle.the assumption that sheep carry ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2), the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf), is widely accepted, albeit ovhv-2 has not been isolated. we attempted experimental contact transmission of mcf from japanese sheep persistently infected with ovhv-2 to japanese deer (cervus nippon) and cattle. in experiment 1, a deer was kept in close quarters with an infected ewe. in experiment 2, a second deer was kept with the same ewe. in experiment 3, two ...200111230931
constitutive activation of lck and fyn tyrosine kinases in large granular lymphocytes infected with the gamma-herpesvirus agents of malignant catarrhal fever.large granular lymphocytes (lgl) with a t or natural killer (nk) lymphoblast morphology and indiscriminate (non-major histocompatibility complex-linked) cytotoxicity for a variety of target cells can be derived in culture from the tissues of animals infected with either alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2). in this study, lgl survival in the absence of exogenous interleukin-2 was inhibited by the protein kinase inhibitor genestein, but not the p70 s6 kinase inhibito ...200111168636
quantitative fluorogenic pcr assay for measuring ovine herpesvirus 2 replication in sheep.a fluorogenic pcr specific for ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) dna was developed and compared to a previously established conventional seminested pcr. testing of a total of 152 blood samples from both positive and negative animals revealed that the results of both assays corresponded to each other in 100% of the cases. a second fluorogenic pcr for genomic sheep dna was required to normalize the quantity of viral dna in the sample. separate standard curves had to be constructed for each pcr. the ana ...200111139205
epizootic malignant catarrhal fever in three bison herds: differences from cattle and association with ovine herpesvirus-2.three bison herds in colorado experienced high mortality from malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). in comparison with cattle, the bison had a more rapidly progressive disease, fewer clinical signs, and milder inflammatory histologic lesions. there was consistent association with ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2). contact with sheep was not consistent. of 17 animals in herd a, 15 died of acute mcf; 1 was slaughtered while healthy; and 1 developed clinical signs of mcf, was treated with corticosteroids and ...200011108448
malignant catarrhal fever: polymerase chain reaction survey for ovine herpesvirus 2 and other persistent herpesvirus and retrovirus infections of dairy cattle and bison.using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) test for sequences of ovine herpesvirus 2 (ohv2), this virus was shown to be significantly associated with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) in terminal cases of disease in 34 cattle and 53 bison. ovine herpesvirus 2 was not detected in cattle (38) and bison (10) that succumbed to other diseases. other persistent herpesviruses, retroviruses, and pestivirus, some of which have been previously isolated from cases of sa-mcf, were not associa ...200011021426
newly recognized herpesvirus causing malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in a north american zoo. the clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of mcf. antibody to an epitope conserved among the mcf viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. pcr failed to amplify viral sequences from dna extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes (pbl) and/or spleens of the deer with primers specific for ...200010747100
detection of two novel porcine herpesviruses with high similarity to gammaherpesviruses.evidence for the existence of porcine gammaherpesviruses was obtained by pcr and sequence analysis. initially, samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc), spleens, lungs, kidneys and livers of pigs from germany and spain were tested with a pcr assay which targets conserved regions of the herpesvirus dna polymerase gene with degenerate and deoxyinosine-substituted primers. amplicons of identical sequence were obtained from one spleen and two pbmc samples. this sequence showed a high per ...199910211967
diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever by pcr using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.a previously described polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay (amplification of a 238-bp fragment of ovine herpesvirus 2 [ohv-2] genomic dna) for diagnosis of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) was adapted for use on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. variables affecting its use were examined. archived tissues from cattle, white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and bison (bison bison) diagnosed with mcf by clinical signs or histologic lesions were obtained from 2 veteri ...199910098680
phenotype, growth regulation and cytokine transcription in ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2)-infected bovine t-cell lines.the causal agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2), can be propagated in il-2-dependent lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from diseased cattle and deer providing a useful model for the investigation of the pathogenesis of mcf. in this study, five interleukin-2 (il-2)-dependent cell lines were established from affected cattle to examine their growth regulation and cytokine transcription. all cell lines expressed cd2, cd5 and cd25. three of the cell l ...19989847021
field validation of laboratory tests for clinical diagnosis of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever.until recently, sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) was diagnosed mainly on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathological changes. using clinically diagnosed field cases, we have evaluated a seminested pcr and a competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa) and compared these assays in the diagnosis of sa-mcf in cattle with histopathology as a provisional "gold standard." samples from 44 cattle with clinical signs suggestive of sa-mcf were examine ...19989738052
detection of a novel bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus.degenerate pcr primers which amplify a conserved region of the dna polymerase genes of the herpesvirus family were used to provide sequence evidence for a new bovine herpesvirus in bovine b-lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). the sequence of the resultant amplicon was found to be distinct from those of known herpesvirus isolates. alignment of amino acid sequences demonstrated 70% identity with ovine herpesvirus 2, 69% with alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, 65% with bovine herp ...19989557713
chronic and recovered cases of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in cattle.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is traditionally regarded as a disease with a short clinical course, low morbidity and high case fatality rate. owing to the limitations of the assays used for laboratory diagnosis. it was difficult in characterise the clinical spectrum of sheep-associated mcf, particularly when the cattle recovered from an mcf-like clinical syndrome. over a period of three years, 11 cattle that survived mcf for up to two-and-a-half years were identified on four premises. a clinic ...19979178482
detection of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus antibodies by complement fixation tests.some serological diagnosis methods and examinations for detection of antibodies to sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) infection were investigated. the wildebeest-associated mcf virus strain wc11 propagated on fetal bovine thyroid cell cultures was used as an antigen. antibodies were detected by complement fixation (cf) tests in cattle pathologically diagnosed as having sheep-associated mcf, as well as in cattle experimentally infected with mcf virus strain wc11. however, immunodiff ...19968645750
pcr detection of the sheep-associated agent of malignant catarrhal fever.from a genomic library previously constructed from a lymphoblastoid cell line (lcl) propagated from a bovine case of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf), caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2), several ohv-2 clones were identified and characterised by hybridisation using probes from the unique region of the alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (avh-1) genome. nucleotide sequence from one clone was generated and the predicted amino acid sequence was found to contain regions of homology with t ...19938352654
pcr detection of ovine herpesvirus-2 dna in indonesian ruminants--normal sheep and clinical cases of malignant catarrhal fever.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), a fatal viral disease of cattle and other large ruminants, has a worldwide distribution. there are two forms of the disease, one of which, is caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (ahv-1) and is derived from wildebeest. the other form is associated with domestic sheep and is caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2). the disease in indonesia is sheep-associated with the preferred livestock of this area, balinese cattle (bos javanicus) and water buffalo (bubalus bubalis ...19947839584
investigation of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus infection in ruminants by pcr and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.development of control measures for the gammaherpesviral disease of cattle known as sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) has been hampered by a lack of accurate diagnostic tests either for the causative virus or for antibody against that virus. a recently developed competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa) for the detection of antibody to malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) virus (mcfv) in ruminants based on a monoclonal antibody to a widely conserved epitope ...19957559946
the vascular lesions of a cow and bison with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever contain ovine herpesvirus 2-infected cd8(+) t lymphocytes.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a herpesvirus disease syndrome of ruminants. the microscopic pathology of mcf is characterized by lymphoid proliferation and infiltration, necrotizing vasculitis and epithelial necrosis. because previous attempts to detect viral antigen or nucleic acids in lesions have been unsuccessful, the pathogenesis of the lesions in acute mcf has been speculated to involve mechanisms of autoimmunity and lymphocyte dysregulation. in this study, the vascular lesions in the ...200312867630
evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in muskox (ovibos moschatus), nubian ibex (capra nubiana), and gemsbok (oryx gazella).six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (alhv-1) carried by wildebeest (connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (cphv-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic mcf in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus; mcfv-wtd). ...200314733283
a devastating outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in a bison early 2003, an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) occurred in a bison feedlot in southern idaho. the outbreak resulted in a 51.2% (n = 825) mortality rate among bison, which had been exposed to sheep for 19 days. diagnosis was made by detection of ovine herpesvirus 2 (sheep-associated mcf virus) dna in tissues or peripheral blood by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and by histological examination of tissue lesions. peak losses occurred between 41 and 55 days postmean exposure time (p ...200616566270
experimental aerosol infection of cattle (bos taurus) with ovine herpesvirus 2 using nasal secretions from infected sheep.infection of clinically susceptible ruminants, including domesticated cattle and american bison, with ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) can result in the fatal lymphoproliferative and vasculitis syndrome known as malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). a reliable experimental infection model is needed to study the pathogenesis of mcf and to develop effective vaccination strategies to control the disease. an experimental aerosol infection model using sheep, the natural carriers of ovhv-2, has been developed ...200616621344
malignant catarrhal fever in pigs and a genetic comparison of porcine and ruminant virus isolates in outbreak of the sheep-associated form of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in a finnish sow herd was diagnosed by histopathology and confirmed by pcr. several gilts and sows were suffering from high fever and anorexia and had aborted, and six of them had died. typical signs of lymphoproliferation and vasculitis were observed histologically in several tissues, including the uterus. ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) was detected by pcr in two sows. sequences of the ovhv-2 tegument protein gene obtaine ...200616997996
occurrence of ovine herpesvirus type-2 infection in sheep and cattle in samsun province, turkey.july 2004, a cow with clinical signs of ovine herpesvirus type-2 infection which is known as sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) was reported in samsun province in turkey. blood samples were collected from the suspected cow, 10 sheep housed with it, and from 150 healthy sheep and 29 healthy cattle randomly selected from different places in samsun province. nested polymerase chain reaction (n-pcr) was used to detect ovine herpesvirus type-2 (ovhv-2) dna in the suspected cow and co ...200617009812
molecular epidemiology of ovine herpesvirus type 2 infection in kashmir, india.the aims of this investigation were to determine the prevalence of ovine herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2) (the causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever) infection in cattle, the carrier status of sheep and goats, and to define the pattern of acquisition of ovhv-2 in lambs under natural flock conditions in kashmir, india. none of the buffy coat samples from 21 lambs contained ovhv-2 dna sequences up to 28 days after birth, only one lamb had sequences of ovhv-2 dna as early as 29 days after birth, ...200617071670
[porcine malignant catarrhal fever: diagnostic findings and first detection of the pathogenic agent in diseased swine in switzerland].for the first time ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) was identified in swiss pigs as the causative agent of porcine malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). diseased animals from two farms were observed to show weakness, anorexia, fever up to 41 degrees c, and neurological symptoms, i.e. ataxia, convulsions and hyperesthesia, erosion on the snout and in the oral and nasal mucosa, as well as multiple skin lesions. histopathological findings included severe non-purulent inflammation with mononuclear cell infil ...200312649951
outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in welsh black cattle in outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) resulted in the deaths of 12 cattle in a herd of 77 animals during seven weeks in 1999; in addition, one cow developed a milder disease which was confirmed as mcf by pcr for ovine herpesvirus 2 dna and an immunofluorescent antibody test for antibodies to the virus, but recovered. further pcr and serological testing revealed the infection in three other animals, none of which developed clinical disease. hypocuprosis and the possibility of a genetic p ...200212356235
long distance spread of malignant catarrhal fever virus from feedlot lambs to ranch bison.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) caused by ovhv-2 occurred in ranch bison herds separated by significant distances from feedlot lambs. mortality rates correlated with distances: 17.5%, 6.1%, and 0.43% at approximately 1.6, 4.2, and 5.1 km, respectively. the study further defines the importance of distance of species separation for mcf control.200818309750
seroprevalence of ohv-2, bvdv, bhv-1, and brsv in ranch-raised bison (bison bison).serum samples were collected at slaughter from 226 24-30-month-old american bison (bison bison) bulls from kansas, minnesota, north dakota, and manitoba and assayed for antibodies to ovine herpesvirus type-2 (ohv-2), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine herpesvirus type-1 (bhv-1), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). antibodies were detected by serum neutralization for bvdv, bhv-1, and brsv, while antibodies to ohv-2 were detected by competitive inhibition-elisa (ci-elisa). detec ...200212680649
experimental infection of sheep with ovine herpesvirus 2 via aerosolization of nasal secretions.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in clinically susceptible ruminants, including cattle, bison and deer. studies of ovhv-2 have been hampered by the lack of an in vitro propagation system. here, the use of nasal secretions collected from ovhv-2-infected sheep experiencing intense virus shedding episodes as a source of infectious virus for experimental animal infections was examined. ovhv-2 uninfected sheep were nebulized with nasal ...200515722516
malignant catarrhal fever-like disease in sheep after intranasal inoculation with ovine herpesvirus-2.a malignant catarrhal fever (mcf)-like disease was induced experimentally in 3 sheep after aerosol inoculation with ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2). each of 3 ovhv-2-negative sheep was nebulized with 2 ml of nasal secretions containing approximately 3.07 x 10(9) ovhv-2 dna copies from a sheep experiencing an intensive viral-shedding episode. ovine herpesvirus-2 dna became detectable by polymerase chain reaction in the peripheral blood leukocytes of all 3 sheep within 3 days, and all 3 seroconverted ...200515825499
[virus in sheep's skin].in a double sense, the ovine gamma herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2) is a virus in sheep's skin. not only is it present world wide in all sheep breeds but also it causes malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in cattle pigs, elk, and bison. ovhv-2 cannot be propagated in cell culture. therefore, new results from ovhv-2 research are based on molecular techniques and may be summarized as follows. ovhv-2 is transmitted by respiratory routes as well as by sexual intercourse. lambs are infected within the first f ...200515861922
intra-nasal inoculation of american bison (bison bison) with ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) reliably reproduces malignant catarrhal fever.sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) due to infection with ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is common in commercial herds of american bison ( bison bison). inability to propagate ovhv-2 in vitro has been a constraint on experimental studies of the disease. we sought to establish whether nasal secretions from sheep that shed ovhv-2 might induce the disease in bison and to define a minimum challenge dose. fourteen bison were nebulized with sheep nasal sections containing 10(3)-10(7) ovhv-2 ...200717846237
evaluation of ovine herpesvirus type 2 infections, as detected by competitive inhibition elisa and polymerase chain reaction assay, in dairy cattle without clinical signs of malignant catarrhal monitor ovine herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2) infection status and the association between ovhv-2 infection and development of clinical signs of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in cattle.200516117071
resistance to malignant catarrhal fever in american bison (bison bison) is associated with mhc class iia polymorphisms.the rhadinovirus ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) is the most common causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in clinically susceptible ruminants including cattle and bison. american bison (bison bison) are highly susceptible to clinical mcf. nevertheless, approximately 20% of bison on ranches or in feedlots become infected with the virus without developing clinical disease. defining the genetic basis for differences in susceptibility between bison could facilitate development of improved ...200717326800
pathogenesis of gammaherpesvirus infections.gammaherpesviruses are members of an emerging subfamily among the herpesviridae. two genera are discriminated: (i) lymphocryptovirus, including its type species epstein-barr virus (ebv), and (ii) rhadinovirus, including viruses of interest for medicine, veterinary medicine, and biomedical research, i.e. alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, equine herpesvirus 2, human herpesvirus 8, mouse herpesvirus 68, and ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2). the perception that these viruses have a narrow ...200616332416
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
differential transcription of ovine herpesvirus 2 genes in lymphocytes from reservoir and susceptible species.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is a lymphotropic gammaherpesvirus that asymptomatically infects most sheep, but causes malignant catarrhal fever in cattle, bison, pigs and deer. there is no permissive cell culture system but ovhv-2-infected t lymphocytes can be cultured from diseased animals. we showed that the ovhv-2 genome was in a circular conformation in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cells and that the latency-associated orf73 was transcribed, while expression of the productive cycle gene ...200616525732
malignant catarrhal fever in a captive american bison (bison bison) in italy.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a fatal, systemic disease of cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants that, in europe, is caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2). american bison (bison bison) are highly susceptible to the disease. an adult american bison, housed in a zoo in southern italy in close cohabitation with a group of domestic sheep (ovis aries aries) displayed clinical signs that resembled the acute form of mcf. by real-time polymerase chain reaction, ovhv-2 dna was detected intra ...200818987244
gammaherpesvirus carrier status of black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) in south africa.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is an economically important disease primarily of domestic cattle with a high case fatality rate. it is caused by either alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (alhv-1) or ovine herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2). the major reservoir host of alhv-1 is the blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), but it is generally accepted that the black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) is also a reservoir host. no viral studies in the black wildebeest have been reported and the carrier status of ...200819244822
infection with ovine herpesvirus 2 in norwegian herds with a history of previous outbreaks of malignant catarrhal fever.infection with ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) in healthy cattle, swine, sheep, and goats was investigated on 43 selected norwegian farms; of which, 41 (95%) had experienced outbreaks of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in cattle and/or swine during the preceding 5 years. two of the farms had no history of mcf and were included for control purposes. blood samples from 384 cattle, 40 sows, 75 sheep, and 4 goats were examined for ovhv-2 by polymerase chain reaction assay (pcr) and for antibodies using ...200919286510
detection of ovine herpesvirus 2 major capsid gene transcripts as an indicator of virus replication in shedding sheep and clinically affected animals.the aim of this study was to identify tissues where ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) replication occurs in vivo. a reverse-transcriptase pcr targeting the ovhv-2 major capsid protein gene (orf 25) was developed and the presence of transcripts used as an indicator of virus replication in naturally infected sheep, and cattle and bison with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf). orf 25 transcripts were detected in 18 of 60 (30%) turbinate, trachea, and lung samples from five sheep experie ...200818054405
characterization of bison bison major histocompatibility complex class iia haplotypes.american bison (bison bison) and domestic cattle (bos taurus and bos indicus) evolved from a common ancestor 1-1.4 million years ago. nevertheless, they show dramatic differences in their susceptibility to infectious diseases, including malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). although bison are highly susceptible to ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) associated mcf, about 20% of healthy domesticated and wild bison are positive for ovhv-2 antibody. we are interested in testing the hypothesis that, within the ...200516331512
immunohistochemical study of experimental malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is an often-fatal lymphoproliferative disease of a variety of ungulates that occurs worldwide. it is caused by either of the highly related but distinct gammaherpesviruses alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1, wildebeest reservoir) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2, sheep reservoir). mcf in rabbits is an excellent model as it closely resembles the disease in susceptible ungulates that include cattle, deer and bison. in this study, newly available and previously characte ...200717374379
a real-time pcr assay for measuring alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 dna.alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) is a rhadinovirus that causes malignant catarrhal fever in certain ruminant species and is an important pathogen in africa and other areas where carrier species and clinically susceptible ruminants intermingle. in this study, a real-time pcr for alhv-1 dna was developed and compared to an established nested pcr. the nested pcr amplifies a region of the alhv-1 gene coding for a transactivator protein (orf 50), while the real-time pcr assay targets the alhv-1 gen ...200515998545
outbreak of wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever in ankole cattle.during an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in a herd of ankole cattle in a zoological collection, two adult cows and one adult bull from a herd of 15 died or were euthanased between july and november 2004. the clinical, gross postmortem and histological findings were typical of the disease in uk native domestic cattle. the diagnosis was confirmed by serology in two animals, and by pcr in all three; the pcr provided evidence of alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 infection in all three animals an ...200718024925
probable malignant catarrhal fever presented as transient generalised crusting dermatitis in a history: a 2-year-old crossbred cow developed crusting ulcerative lesions that covered approximately 40% of the body. they were first observed 2 weeks after the cow calved, and were most severe over the caudal aspect of the proximal hindlegs and perineum. clinical findings and diagnosis: generalised variably confluent 1-2-cm diameter foci of ulceration and crusting were visible. no ocular or oral lesions were visible, and the cow did not have diarrhoea. skin biopsies revealed lesions consis ...200818408797
experimental infection of rabbits with ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a generally fatal disease that primarily occurs in ruminants and is caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. outside of africa mcf is mainly caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) which is carried subclinically by sheep. cell-free virus is present in nasal secretions of shedding sheep and aerosol is the primary mode of transmission. although ovhv-2 has never been propagated in vitro, experimental infection involving intranasal nebulization with nasal secretions ...200818539411
malignant catarrhal fever: a review.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle and other ungulates caused by the ruminant gamma-herpesviruses alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (alhv-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2). these viruses cause inapparent infection in their reservoir hosts (wildebeest for alhv-1 and sheep for ovhv-2), but fatal lymphoproliferative disease when they infect mcf-susceptible hosts, including cattle, deer, bison, water buffalo and pigs. mcf is an important disease wherever reser ...200918760944
a captured viral interleukin 10 gene with cellular exon structure.we have characterized a novel, captured and fully functional viral interleukin (il)-10 homologue ((ovhv)il-10) from the gammaherpesvirus ovine herpesvirus 2. unlike il-10 homologues from other gammaherpesviruses, the (ovhv)il-10 peptide sequence was highly divergent from that of the host species. the (ovhv)il-10 gene is unique amongst virus captured genes in that it has precisely retained the original cellular exon structure, having five exons of similar sizes to the cellular counterparts. howev ...200818796712
experimental nebulization of american bison (bison bison) with low doses of ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), is an important cause of mortality in ranched american bison and domestic cattle in north america. previous studies showed that bison can be infected by intranasal nebulization with sheep nasal secretions containing ovhv-2 and provided preliminary information on viral doses required for infection and disease progression. the goals of this study were to establish optimal minimal infectious and minimal lethal doses of ovhv-2 ...201020018461
cd8(+)/perforin(+)/wc1(-) gammadelta t cells, not cd8(+) alphabeta t cells, infiltrate vasculitis lesions of american bison (bison bison) with experimental sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever.sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2), a gamma-herpesvirus in the macavirus genus, is a fatal disease associated with lymphoproliferation, lymphocytic vasculitis, and mucosal ulceration in clinically susceptible species. sa-mcf is an important threat to american bison (bison bison) due to their high susceptibility to this disease. currently, the pathogenesis of disease in sa-mcf is poorly understood, and the immunophenotype of lymphocytes that ...201020413164
outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever among cattle associated with a state livestock exhibition.severe disease and death were identified in cattle exhibited at a state fair that were naturally infected with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2).201020590500
investigation of the role of austrian ruminant wildlife in the epidemiology of malignant catarrhal fever viruses.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is an ubiquitous disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), which is endemic in sheep and transmitted from healthy carriers. further viruses of the mcf group are also able to induce mcf in ruminants. as alpine pasturing is very common in austria, possible contact with ruminant wildlife carrying and excreting mcf viruses might be suspected as an infection source. to investigate the epidemiologic role of austrian deer and chamois, ...200919395762
malignant catarrhal fever of cattle is associated with low abundance of il-2 transcript and a predominantly latent profile of ovine herpesvirus 2 gene expression.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a lethal disease of cattle, characterized by vasculitis, necrosis, and accumulation of activated, dysregulated cytotoxic lymphocytes in various tissues. ovine gamma herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is a causative agent of mcf, which may trigger the disease through immunopathogenic pathways. lymphocytes are the main target of the virus. however, the pathogenic basis of the disease is still mysterious.200919603070
identification of peripheral blood mononuclear cells targeted by ovine herpesvirus-2 in sheep.sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), is usually a fatal disease of various ruminants and swine. in contrast, natural ovhv-2 infection in sheep, which are the main ovhv-2 reservoir, proceeds without any clinical symptoms. since the range of targeted cells may be important for pathogenesis, we wanted to analyze the natural range of peripheral mononuclear blood cells (pbmc) targeted by ovhv-2. to this end, ovhv-2-free sheep were exposed to natura ...201019783107
transmission of ovine herpesvirus 2 from asymptomatic boars to sows. 201021122250
the prevalence of ovine herpesvirus-2 in 4 sheep breeds from different regions in south africa.about 90% of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (bmcf) pcr-positive cases in south africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) and the other 10% by ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2). the prevalence of ovhv-2 in different sheep breeds in south africa was determined in order to investigate whether the lower incidence of bmcf caused by ovhv-2 in comparison with alhv-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. a single-tube hemi-nested pcr was developed, evaluated and applied to ...201021247014
malignant catarrhal fever in cows due to ovine herpesvirus type 2. 201121842548
novel virus-encoded microrna molecules expressed by ovine herpesvirus 2-immortalized bovine t-cells.a number of herpesviruses have now been shown to encode micrornas (mirnas) that have roles in control of both viral and cellular gene expression. ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever, a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle. using massively parallel sequencing and northern hybridization we have identified eight putative mirnas encoded by ovhv-2 expressed in an ovhv-2-immortalized bovine lymphocyte cell line. these eight mirnas ar ...201221957125
a possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) in switzerland.abstract:201122132808
validation of nonnested and real-time pcr for diagnosis of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in clinical samples.sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf), a frequently fatal disease primarily of certain ruminants, is caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2). molecular diagnosis of sa-mcf in affected animals has relied on detection of ovhv-2 dna using a nested pcr, which has significant potential for amplicon contamination as a routine method in diagnostic laboratories. in this report, a nonnested and a previously developed real-time pcr were validated for detection of ovhv-2 dna in samples from cl ...200717609352
complete sequence and analysis of the ovine herpesvirus 2 genome.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is endemic in sheep populations worldwide and causes malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), a lymphoproliferative disease, in cattle, bison and deer. ovhv-2 has been placed in the gammaherpesvirus subfamily and is related closely to alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (alhv-1). here, the cloning, sequencing and analysis of the complete ovhv-2 genome derived from a lymphoblastoid cell line from an affected cow (bj1035) are reported. the unique portion of the genome consists of 130,93 ...200717170433
comparison of ovine herpesvirus 2 genomes isolated from domestic sheep (ovis aries) and a clinically affected cow (bos bovis).the rhadinovirus ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever. ovhv-2 primarily affects ruminants and has a worldwide distribution. in this study, a composite sequence of ovhv-2 genomic dna isolated from nasal secretions of sheep experiencing virus-shedding episodes was determined and compared with the sequence of ovhv-2 dna isolated from a lymphoblastoid cell line derived from a clinically affected cow. the study confirmed the ovhv-2 sequence ...200717170434
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