isolation of mycobacterium paratuberculosis from the uterine flush fluids of cows with clinical paratuberculosis.mycobacterium paratuberculosis was isolated from the uterine flush fluids obtained from 3 to 4 cows with clinical paratuberculosis. four cows with clinical paratuberculosis were subjected to uterine lavage, using an established embryo recovery technique, and the recovered fluids were cultured for m paratuberculosis. mycobacterium paratuberculosis has previously been demonstrated to adhere to bovine ova. embryos within the uterus of a superovulated cow infected with m paratuberculosis could be ex ...19902125588
mammary gland exposure of cows to mycobacterium paratuberculosis.mycobacterium paratuberculosis injected into the mammary gland was transported to the supramammary lymph nodes in 5 of 6 cows and to the intestine of 1 cow. the bacillus caused hypersensitivity to johnin and stimulated the production of complement-fixing antibodies. apparently, the bacillus is not a cause mastitis.1978749582
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of antibodies to mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cattle. 1978696542
the specificity and sensitivity of the fluorescent antibody test for mycobacterium johnei infection in abattoir and culled a series of 100 cattle in which there was no bacteriological or histopathological evidence of mycobacterium johnei infection there were four positive reactions to the fluorescent antibody (fa) test with m johnei antigen and 20 to the complement fixation (cf) test. in a second series of 118 culled adult cattle m johnei infection was found in 26. the fa test was positive in 16 and the cf in 12 of those infected cattle. in 92 cattle with no evidence of m johnei infection the fa test was positive ...1976769122
paratuberculosis in cattle and free-living exotic deer.paratuberculosis was studied among dairy cows and exotic deer that shared grazing areas at point reyes national seashore, california. of the 10 dairy herds tested, 5 (50%) were infected with mycobacterium paratuberculosis (based on results of fecal culture). mycobacterium paratuberculosis was cultured from 9 (8.7%) of the 103 bovine fecal samples and from 4 (3.9%) of the 103 bovine rectal mucosa scapings tested. of 89 fecal samples from 52 axis deer (axis axis) and 37 fallow deer (dama dama), 5 ...1979500426
paratuberculosis (johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a rocky mountain goat in colorado.between may, 1972 and february, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (johne's disease) caused by mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) and one rocky mountain goat (oreamnos americanus) on or near mt. evans in colorado. diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of m. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. the clinical signs and pathologic changes se ...1979480512
accidental self-inoculation with mycobacterium paratuberculosis bacterin (johne's bacterin) by veterinarians in wisconsin.we surveyed wisconsin veterinarians to assess the frequency and severity of accidental self- and other human exposure to mycobacterium paratuberculosis bacterin (johne's bacterin). of 199 veterinarians administering the bacterin to cattle, 22 reported one or more exposures, including 19 needle-stick exposures, 8 skin surface exposures, and 2 oral mucosa exposures. the mean incidence of needle sticks was 5.5/100 veterinarians/year of bacterin use or 1/1,000 doses administered. the mean total dose ...19883391850
skin testing, fecal culture, and lymphocyte immunostimulation in cattle inoculated with mycobacterium paratuberculosis.fourteen calves at 21 days of age were experimentally inoculated with 100 mg (wet weight) of mycobacterium paratuberculosis. three calves were inoculated orally, 4 intravenously, and 7 subcutaneously. lymphocyte immunostimulation, fecal culture, and intradermal tuberculin skin testing were done between 112 to 150 days following exposure. lymphocyte immunostimulation test results, conducted at 112 days after inoculation, showed all animals positive to mycobacterium avium purified protein derivati ...1977339793
comparison of techniques for measuring the local and systemic responses to tuberculin in cattle.thermography of tuberculin skin reactions in cattle sensitized with mycobacterium avium, mycobacterium bovis, or mycobacterium paratuberculosis was rapid and sensitive, but was not as specifically related to the homologous sensitization as was increased skin thickness at 48 and 72 hours. systemic temperature responses were more completely monitored by radiotelemetry of intraperitoneally located temperature transmitters than by rectal thermometry, but the temperatures indicated by the 2 methods w ...1977319714
detection of antibodies to mycobacterium johnei by counterimmunoelectrophoresis.counterimmunoelectrophoresis (cie) was applied in the detection of antibodies to mycobacterium johnei in 110 sheep, 11 goat and 31 cattle sera and compared to immunodiffusion (id) test. one per cent noble agar, 7 ml per slide of 5 cm x 10 cm; barbitone-tris buffer, mu = 0.03, ph 8.6; a constant current of 5 ma per slide and m johnei protoplasmic antigen at 4 mg per ml were found to impart high sensitivity to cie and give rapid results. cie detected 97 sheep, 11 goat and 31 cattle positive sera, ...197896579
identification of two groups of mycobacterium paratuberculosis strains by restriction endonuclease analysis and dna hybridization.genomic dna was prepared from four reference strains of mycobacterium paratuberculosis and 46 isolates of this organism from new zealand, australia, canada, and norway and also from two mycobactin-dependent "wood pigeon" strains. the dna was characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis, both with and without dna hybridization, with a probe specific to a repetitive dna sequence in m. paratuberculosis. both techniques differentiated m. paratuberculosis strains into two groups, but dna hybrid ...19902166089
comparison of different media for the isolation of small ruminant strains of mycobacterium paratuberculosis.two different egg based media, with and without the incorporation of sodium pyruvate, were used to isolate m. paratuberculosis from sheep, goat and cattle samples obtained at our laboratory for two years. both media were adequate for bovine material, with a slightly improved isolation rate for herrold's egg yolk medium incorporating sodium pyruvate; however, most of the small ruminant strains grew only on löwenstein-jensen medium without sodium pyruvate. those results point out the need to use d ...19911949552
an evaluation of selected screening tests for bovine paratuberculosis.the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the lipoarabinomannan antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (lam-elisa), carbohydrate antigen complement fixation (ch-cft), and protein d antigen agar gel immunodiffusion (d-agid) tests for bovine paratuberculosis, relative to histopathology, and to culture and isolation of mycobacterium paratuberculosis from tissues and feces. samples for test evaluation were collected from four sources including blood and tissues from 400 cull ...19911909601
an epidemiological study of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle in ontario: study design and prevalence observational study involving 304 dairy herds and three abattoirs was conducted between 1986 and 1989 to investigate the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle in ontario. the objectives of this paper were to describe the method of data collection for the study, to present descriptive production statistics and to present estimates of the prevalence of paratuberculosis among dairy cattle in ontario. mycobacterium paratuberculosis was isolated from the distal ileum and/or the ileoceca ...19911889036
application of the direct leukocyte-migration agarose test in cattle naturally infected with mycobacterium paratuberculosis.four cows with persistent diarrhea and complement-fixing antibodies to johnin were examined, using the leukocyte-migration agarose test (lmat) with johnin as the specific antigen. the diagnosis of paratuberculosis (johne's disease) was microscopically verified at necropsy. as control animals, 3 healthy cows and 3 cows with disease other than paratuberculosis were examined, using lmat. the migration indices in the group of cows with paratuberculosis were significantly lower (less than 0.001) than ...1977911084
effect of freezing on the viability of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in bovine feces.three bovine fecal specimens were cultured for mycobacterium paratuberculosis before freezing and after frozen storage at -70 degrees c for 3 and 15 weeks. the losses in viability from 0 to 3 weeks of storage were significant (p = 0.01) for all three samples. the losses in viability between 3 and 15 weeks of storage were not significant (p greater than 0.05) for two specimens in which the m. paratuberculosis occurred naturally, but the loss was significant (p = 0.01) in a simulated specimen (m. ...1977914994
[experimental paratuberculosis in sheep after intravenous or oral inoculation: pathogenicity and biologic diagnosis].an experimental paratuberculosis study was performed in sheep. one group of 6 lambs was inoculated intravenously with the equivalent of 50 mg (wet weight) of live bacilli, another group of 6 lambs was inoculated orally by placing 500 mg (wet weight) of live organisms in milk feed and a group of 3 lambs was used as controls. the degree of cellular immunity was followed by examining delayed hypersensitivity using 3 allergens (bovine tuberculin ppd, avian tuberculin ppd and johnine ppd) and that of ...19921610074
pathological evaluation of paratuberculosis in naturally infected cattle.thirty-two of 51 cattle infected with mycobacterium paratuberculosis had chronic enteritis, chronic lymphangitis or mesenteric lymphadenopathy, or all three, at slaughter. granulomatous inflammatory lesions were mild to advanced and predominantly involved the distal small intestine. rectal involvement was seen only in five cattle. fourteen had microgranulomas in the liver. there were three cytological forms of macrophages: histiocytic, polygonal and epithelioid. the latter two types had engulfed ...1978664186
development and evaluation of a rapid absorbed enzyme immunoassay test for the diagnosis of johne's disease in absorbed enzyme immunoassay (eia) test for johne's disease in cattle was developed in which absorption of cross-reacting antibodies occurred as a rapid reaction in solution rather than overnight with whole organisms and a subsequent centrifugation step. total test time was reduced to less than 2 h with a minimum of manipulations. the test was evaluated in cattle herds from johne's disease-endemic and johne's disease-free regions of australia. specificity was 99.8%. calculations of sensitivity ...19911883290
isolation of mycobacterium paratuberculosis after oral inoculation in uninfected cattle.feces from cows naturally infected with mycobacterium paratuberculosis was given to 6 uninfected heifers by orogastric intubation, to determine whether ingested organisms could be passively excreted and detected by bacteriologic culture of feces (ie, false-positive result). heifers were paired, and each pair received a different dose of feces on days 1 and 2. fecal samples were collected from the heifers 3 times daily. mycobacterium paratuberculosis was detected in fecal samples of all heifers w ...19921510305
effects of dialyzable lymph node extracts on lymphoblast proliferative capacity of blood mononuclear cells in cattle with chronic paratuberculosis.dialyzable lymph node extracts (dle) containing transfer factor prepared from calves sensitized to mycobacterium paratuberculosis and keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (klh) were administered to 4 adult cows with chronic paratuberculosis. cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity, lymphocyte blastogenesis, monocyte migration-inhibition, and lymphoblast proliferative capacity as a reflection of interleukin-2 (il-2) activity were measured in response to m bovis purified protein derivative, johnin, and klh before ...19921497195
composition and immunological properties of the protein fraction of a36, a major antigen complex of mycobacterium paratuberculosis.tma (thermostable macromolecular antigens) are major mycobacterial complexes present in all mycobacteria. we have purified a36, the tma complex of m. paratuberculosis, the etiological agent of paratuberculosis (johne's disease), and shown by the immune electron microscopy approach its presentation at the cell surface. the immunodominance of the a36 complex in johne's disease was suggested by comparative elisa analysis of infected bovine sera, using either a36 or m. paratuberculosis total soluble ...19921380177
paratuberculosis vaccine in a large dairy herd.on a 500-cow dairy farm a total of 866 young calves less than one month old were vaccinated with a heat-killed oil-adjuvated bacterin against mycobacterium paratuberculosis over a period of five years. the vaccinated calves were tested by faecal microscopy, bacteriology and serology on the day of vaccination, at the age of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, at breeding age, and on the day of calving. a total of 721 bull calves and 379 female calves served as unvaccinated controls in two groups. the results ...19921298162
use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to estimate prevalence of paratuberculosis in cattle of florida.a survey was conducted from 1986 through 1987, for which an elisa was used to obtain information on the prevalence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in cattle of florida. results revealed prevalence of 8.6% in beef cattle and 17.1% in dairy cattle. in beef and dairy cattle, prevalence increased with increasing herd size. it was concluded that elisa-detectable circulating antibodies to m paratuberculosis are widespread in cattle of florida.19902332370
treatment of mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in ruminants.paratuberculosis is a chronic, debilitating, fatal condition that usually is clinically undetectable until the onset of copious diarrhea. paratuberculosis is caused by an acid-fast organism, m. paratuberculosis. successful eradication of paratuberculosis depends on the early detection of infected animals, thereby allowing removal of carrier animals from the herd. treatment for paratuberculosis is therefore rarely indicated or undertaken; however, treatment may be considered for animals of except ...19911760762
evaluation of conventional and radiometric fecal culture and a commercial dna probe for diagnosis of mycobacterium paratuberculosis infections in cattle.radiometric (rcm) and conventional fecal culture (hey) and a commercial polymerase chain reaction/dna probe were evaluated as diagnostic tests for subclinical paratuberculosis in dairy cattle using fecal specimens from a repository of paratuberculosis specimens. the case definition of subclinical bovine paratuberculosis was isolation of mycobacterium paratuberculosis, by conventional or radiometric culture, from fecal samples or internal organs of dairy cattle without diarrhea or chronic weight ...19921591658
temporal effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on intracellular survival of mycobacterium paratuberculosis.the causative agent in johne's disease is mycobacterium paratuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen which causes enteritis in ruminants. little is known about interactions between the host cell (macrophage) and m. paratuberculosis; however, this bacterium is able to evade normal host immune defenses and cause a chronic infective state. in the present study, we evaluated whether activation of a murine macrophage cell line (j774.16) by pretreatment with recombinant murine tumor necrosis factor alp ...19957676613
the effect of vaccination on the prevalence of paratuberculosis in large dairy herds.eight hundred and sixty-six one-month-old female calves were vaccinated using heat-killed mycobacterium paratuberculosis in oil during a five-year period. seven hundred and twenty-one bull calves and 379 female calves served as nonvaccinated controls. two large herds were used in the study. the calves were tested by faecal culture and by serologic tests on the day of vaccination, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, at breeding and on the day of parturition. the results were evaluated by trend analy ...19947801515
mycobacterial cell wall components induce the production of tnf-alpha, il-1, and il-6 by bovine monocytes and the murine macrophage cell line raw 264.7.johne's disease is characterized by a chronic enteritis that results in granulomatous inflammation, cachexia, and eventual death of cattle infected with mycobacterium paratuberculosis. the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha), interleukin-1 (il-1), and interleukin-6 (il-6) have been associated with granuloma formation and wasting in other disease syndromes. the potential role of these cytokines in the development and progression of johne's disease has not been investigated. freshly ...19947830527
paratuberculosis.paratuberculosis (johne's disease) is a chronic, wasting, widespread mycobacteriosis of ruminants. it involves extensive mycobacterial shedding, which accounts for the high contagiousness, and ends with a fatal enteritis. decreases in weight, milk production, and fertility produce severe economic loss. the dna of the etiological agent (mycobacterium paratuberculosis) has a base composition (66 to 67% g+c) within the range of that of mycobacteria (62 to 70% g+c), a size (4.4 x 10(6) to 4.7 x 10(6 ...19947923053
evaluation of the abilities of three diagnostic tests based on the polymerase chain reaction to detect mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cattle: application in a control program.three assays for the specific detection of mycobacterium paratuberculosis by dot spot hybridization of polymerase chain reaction products were applied to fecal samples of dairy cattle. the first two tests used polymerase chain reaction primers and a dna probe derived from m. paratuberculosis-specific sequences of the 16s rrna gene and insertion element is900, respectively. these two tests were carried out on spiked fecal samples to determine the detection limits. the 16s rrna test was able to de ...19921583122
effects of altered dietary iron intake in mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected dairy cattle: sequential observations on growth, iron and copper metabolism and development of paratuberculosis.twenty calves were orally inoculated with mycobacterium paratuberculosis at six weeks old. at six months old, 10 of these, plus four uninfected controls were maintained on limited dietary copper and supplemented iron intake for a further 27 months. during this time all these animals, together with a further four untreated controls, were bred before being killed and examined for evidence of paratuberculosis. despite significant reduction in weight gain, attributable to both iron supplementation a ...19892740623
[use of the in vitro enzymatic amplification method for the detection of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in feces].a polymerase chain reaction was developed, using as target sequence an insertion element of 1,451 base pairs (is 900), specific for mycobacterium paratuberculosis (15-20 copies per genome). the test was performed in three stages: (1) extraction of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (dna), from faeces stored at +4 degrees c, -20 degrees c, in 70% ethanol or in a buffer solution; (2) amplification of the target dna by means of thermostable dna polymerase; (3) detection of the amplified dna by electro ...19938400396
comparison of polymerase chain reaction tests and faecal culture for detecting mycobacterium paratuberculosis in bovine faeces.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) test for m. paratuberculosis was developed based on a 218 bp segment of a dna insertion sequence, is900, that is specific for this organism. the method involved two consecutive amplification reactions, with the second set of primers being nested inside the first set. the method reliably detected 50 organisms/g faeces. this pcr test was applied to 32 bovine faecal specimens containing high, moderate or low numbers of m. paratuberculosis organisms as determined by ...19937794290
nucleotide sequence analysis and seroreactivities of the 65k heat shock protein from mycobacterium paratuberculosis.mycobacterium paratuberculosis is the causative agent of johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in ruminants. it has also been implicated as a possible cause of crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. the mycobacterial 65k heat shock proteins (hsp-65k) are among the most extensively studied mycobacterial proteins, and their immunogenic characteristics have been suggested to be the basis for autoimmunization in chronic inflammatory diseases. in this context, we isolated ...19958574825
associations between subclinical paratuberculosis and milk production, milk components, and somatic cell counts in dairy determine associations between subclinical mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection and milk production, milk components, and somatic cell counts of dairy cattle.19968675477
effect of combination therapy in mycobacterium paratuberculosis infected rabbits.rabbits, infected with m paratuberculosis of caprine origin, were treated with streptomycin sulphate and rifampicin in combination with levamisole hydrochloride for a period of 2 months. marked clinical response including significant rise in total serum protein, albumin and globulin were recorded in treated groups. highly significant higher leucocyte migration inhibition indicating enhanced cmi reaction, occurred in rabbits treated for 4 weeks. complete elimination of m. paratuberculosis from fa ...19947927524
distribution and hybridization patterns of the insertion element is900 in clinical isolates of mycobacterium paratuberculosis.reference strains and 31 clinical isolates of m. paratuberculosis, mainly from goats, were analysed for restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp). restriction digests of bacterial dna were hybridized with a repetitive insertion sequence, is900, to obtain banding patterns for comparison of strains. twenty-five of the 31 field-strains hybridized with is900, and five hybridization patterns were identified. it was not possible to identify specific patterns for goat strains of m. paratuberculos ...19947941294
immunohistochemical distribution of s-100 alpha-positive cells in bovine mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial means of immunohistochemistry, the distribution of the alpha-subunit (s-100 alpha) and the beta-subunit (s-100 beta) of s-100 protein was studied in bovine granulomas caused by actinomyces bovis, actinobacillus lignieresi, actinomyces (corynebacterium) pyogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium paratuberculosis. s-100 alpha-positive epithelioid cells or dendritic cells were scattered among the predominantly s-100 alpha-negative cells of the ...19938315057
cost-benefit analysis of vaccination against paratuberculosis in dairy cattle.paratuberculosis is an infectious and incurable disease which causes considerable economic losses in dairy cattle, due mainly to premature disposal and losses of milk production. in 1984 the animal health service north-netherlands started a vaccination trial in which young calves were vaccinated once, to test whether vaccination reduced the production losses and whether the overall costs of vaccination were outweighed by the benefits. vaccination against paratuberculosis reduced the number of cl ...19969123788
application of the direct leukocyte-migration agarose test in cattle from a mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected herd.using johnin as the specific antigen, the direct leukocyte-migration agarose test was applied to 10 cows from a mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected herd. nine of the cows did not have signs of paratuberculosis; 1 cow was clinically affected. the cows were slaughtered and, on the basis of histopathologic and cultural examinations of the intestines, were classified as infected or noninfected. six of the healthy cows from which the bacterium was not isolated and the clinically affected cow reac ...1977596700
molecular techniques in the diagnosis and control of paratuberculosis in cattle. 19968756870
antigen-specific b-cell unresponsiveness induced by chronic mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle results in a chronic granulomatous enteritis. clinical disease (i.e., cachexia, diarrhea, and high fecal bacterial counts) is preceded by a lengthy subclinical stage of disease. the immunologic mechanisms associated with the progression of infected cattle from subclinical to clinical disease are unclear. in this study, a cell proliferation assay was used in combination with flow cytometry to compare peripheral blood lymphocyte respo ...199910084991
molecular characterization of mycobacterium paratuberculosis isolates from sheep, goats, and cattle by hybridization with a dna probe to insertion element is900.mycobactin j-dependent mycobacterial isolates from sheep, goat, and cattle herds with johne's disease in morocco, south africa, the united states, and germany were tested for the repetitive insertion sequence is900 of mycobacterium paratuberculosis by pcr. the is900 pcr target sequence was detected in 90 of 93 fecal culture isolates tested (96.8%). restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps) and in vitro growth characteristics were studied in 46 of the is900-positive isolates and in two bo ...19968784556
experimental paratuberculosis (johne's disease)--studies on biochemical parameters in cattle.ten male holstein-friesian calves naturally infected by mycobacterium paratuberculosis were experimentally re-infected orally at an average of 17 days. monthly measurements were conduced of the following activities, in the period between post infection days 160 and 400: total protein (tpr), albumin (alb), cholesterol (chol), triglycerides (trig), zn and cu concentrations as well as sorbitol dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (alpha-hbdh), gamma-glutam ...19892774844
isolation and partial characterization of glycolipid fractions from mycobacterium avium serovar 2 (mycobacterium paratuberculosis 18) that inhibit activated macrophages.glycolipid fractions from mycobacterium avium serovar 2 (mycobacterium paratuberculosis 18) inhibited the killing of candida albicans by activated bovine peripheral-blood-derived macrophages. fractions were derived by using the matrix solid-phase dispersion technique, which is a new method of simultaneous lysis and partial fractionation of components of bacterial cells. further purification of active fractions was performed by concanavalin a affinity chromatography, centrifugal filtration, and d ...19938418031
epithelial antibiotic induced in states of disease.epithelial defensins provide an active defense against the external microbial environment. we investigated the distribution and expression of this class of antimicrobial peptides in normal cattle and in animals in varying states of disease. beta-defensin mrna was found to be widely expressed in numerous exposed epithelia but was found at higher levels in tissues that are constantly exposed to and colonized by microorganisms. we observed induction in ileal mucosa during chronic infection with myc ...19979238038
johne's disease: a hidden threat.paratuberculosis, which is also known as johne's disease, is a chronic, progressive enteric disease of ruminants caused by infection with mycobacterium paratuberculosis. cattle become infected with m. paratuberculosis as calves but often do not develop clinical signs until 2 to 5 yr of age. the clinical disease is characterized by chronic or intermittent diarrhea, emaciation, and death. although animals with clinical disease are often culled from the herd, animals with subclinical paratuberculos ...19989493105
long-term sequelae to foodborne disease.most of the concern about foodborne disease has been focused on the immediate effects of acute infection. recent information has shown that many of these foodborne infections also have long-term sequelae with serious health effects and a significant economic impact. to increase the awareness of animal health professionals to these sequelae, the authors discuss two groups of sequelae which are strongly associated with preceding infection (reactive arthritides, including reiter's syndrome, and the ...19979501346
rapid detection of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in clinical samples from ruminants and in spiked environmental samples by modified bactec 12b radiometric culture and direct confirmation by is900 pcr.the suitability of a radiometric culture medium consisting of bactec 12b with panta plus, mycobactin j, and egg yolk was evaluated for detection of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in feces, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestinal walls from cattle, sheep, and goats. in addition, a simple method that would enable the rapid identification of mycobacterium paratuberculosis by is900 pcr in the primary cultures was sought so that subculture to secondary egg-free radiometric medium could be avoided. an ...19989508299
granulomatous enteritis following oral inoculation of newborn rabbits with mycobacterium paratuberculosis of bovine assess the rabbit as a model for the study of paratuberculosis infection, two groups of newborn rabbits were orally inoculated at one to two days of age with mycobacterium paratuberculosis (atcc 19698 or field strain 22206) and compared to uninoculated controls. nine of thirteen rabbits (69%) inoculated with atcc 19698, and all three rabbits inoculated with 22206, experienced episodes of intermittent diarrhea starting four months after inoculation. multifocal granulomas containing acid-fast o ...19902379110
epidemiological study of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in scotland.a survey of 22 farms confirmed the presence of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in scotland. regional differences were apparent in the prevalence of the disease in rabbits, with a significantly higher incidence occurring in the tayside region. statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between a previous history or current problem of paratuberculosis in cattle and the presence of paratuberculosis in rabbits on the farms. molecular genetic typing techniques could not discriminate betw ...199910325318
distribution and environmental risk factors for paratuberculosis in dairy cattle herds in determine prevalence of paratuberculosis among dairy cattle herds and to identify associated soil-related risk factors.199910328429
interferon-gamma and interleukin 4 gene expression in cows infected with mycobacterium determine whether clinical progression of paratuberculosis in cattle was associated with alterations in cytokine gene expression in affected tissues.19989659548
comparative study of mycobacterium paratuberculosis strains isolated from crohn's disease and johne's disease using restriction fragment length polymorphism and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain obtain insights into the pathogenic mechanisms involving mycobacterium paratuberculosis in crohn's disease (cd) we questioned if the strains of m. paratuberculosis isolated from cd are distinguishable from those involved in johne's disease (jd), a chronic granulomatous enteritis in cattle. accordingly we compared human and animal strains at the dna level, both by the analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) in and around the insertion sequence is 900 and by the arbitrarily ...19979207733
possible role of mycobacteria in inflammatory bowel disease. ii. mycobacterial antibodies in crohn's unclassified mycobacterium species has been isolated from two patients with crohn's disease (cd). antibodies to the unclassified mycobacteria cross-reacted with mycobacterium paratuberculosis. because of this cross-reactivity, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to examine the sera of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) patients, both cd (n = 56), and ulcerative colitis (uc) (n = 34), for antibodies to m. paratuberculosis, mycobacterium kansasii, and mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...19846437775
epidemiology of paratuberculosis in wild ruminants studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism in the czech republic during the period two studies carried out during the period 1995-1998, paratuberculosis was diagnosed in domestic and wild ruminants in the czech republic. the isolated mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains were analysed by standardised restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) [pavlik, i., horvathova, a., dvorska, l., bartl, j., svastova, p., du maine, r., rychlik, i., 1999. j. microbiol. methods 38, 155-167]. in december 1992, 19 late pregnant charolais heifers were imported to the cz ...200011118709
detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in infected tissues by new species-specific immunohistological procedures.we have previously described the cloning and sequencing of a gene portion coding for the terminal part of a 34-kda protein of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the etiological agent of johne's disease (p. gilot, m. de kesel, l. machtelinckx, m. coene, and c. cocito, j. bacteriol. 175:4930-4935, 1993). the recombinant polypeptide (a362) carries species-specific b-cell epitopes which do not cross-react with other mycobacterial pathogens (m. de kesel, p. gilot, m.-c. misonne, m. coene, a ...19989665946
prevalence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in ileocecal lymph nodes of cattle culled in the united states.during 1983 and 1984, ileocecal lymph node specimens were obtained from clinically normal cattle at 76 us department of agriculture-inspected cull cattle slaughterhouses in 32 states and puerto rico. mycobacterium paratuberculosis was isolated from the lymph nodes of 119 of 7,540 cattle. the prevalence of bovine paratuberculosis was 1.6% overall, with 2.9% in dairy culls and 0.8% in beef culls. the prevalence for females and males did not appear to differ significantly.19873570918
immunohistochemical distribution of ferritin, lactoferrin, and transferrin in granulomas of bovine paratuberculosis.granulomatous lesions of bovine paratuberculosis contained ferritin, lactoferrin, and a small amount of transferrin, as demonstrated by the immunohistochemical method. macrophages in the normal bovine ileum did not contain lactoferrin and transferrin; however, ferritin was found in individual macrophages of peyer's patches. these results may help elucidate the relationship between intracellular growth of mycobacterium paratuberculosis and the presence of iron-binding proteins in the granulomas.19863699898
parallel faecal and organ mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis culture of different productivity types of cattle.faecal (at least 3 months before slaughtering) and organ examinations were carried out in 611 animals (497 dairy, 69 dual-purpose and 44 beef cattle) originating from eight paratuberculosis infected cattle herds. the diagnosis in cattle was established by routine intestinal culture (ileum and the adjacent lymph nodes) after slaughter. in selected 132 animals, post-mortem intensive culture was performed on tissue samples collected from the gastrointestinal tract (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ileocec ...200011118716
identification of a gene unique to mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and application to diagnosis of paratuberculosis.mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (m. paratuberculosis) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis (johne's disease), a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. currently, there is a need for improved diagnostic tests because of the lack of methods for accurate, rapid and reliable detection of m. paratuberculosis infection. a m. paratuberculosis gene (hspx) was cloned, sequenced, and a 30 bp species-specific oligonucleotide was synthesized. as an internal control to identify m ...19989664574
in vitro studies of leucocyte migration in cattle infected with mycobacterium johnei. 19685716379
mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle in austria, diagnosis with culture, pcr and elisa.serum samples from healthy, infected (n=11) and diseased (n=2) cattle as well as positive (n=17) and negative (n=41) reference sera were tested for antibodies to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis with two elisa-methods (a-elisa, allied monitors, fayette, usa; h-elisa, institute of microbiology and animal diseases, veterinary university hannover). fecal samples of these animals were examined by pcr and culture. also field serum samples found to be positive (n=664) or inconclusive (n=158 ...200011118719
effect of glucocorticoids on cows suspected of subclinical infection with m. paratuberculosis.glucocorticoids were administered to 10 heifers suspected of subclinical infection with mycobacterium paratuberculosis. three animals remained untreated. m. paratuberculosis was isolated from the internal organs of 2 animals after this treatment but not from any of the control group. delayed type hypersensitivity and lymphocyte reactivity towards johnin and purified protein derivates of m. avium and m. bovis were depressed. a sharp increase in total leucocyte count, due to an increase in neutrop ...19883376411
infection of dairy cattle with mycobacterium johnei in a partially vaccinated herd. 19715166580
lipoarabinomannan and lipid-free arabinomannan antigens of mycobacterium paratuberculosis.lipoarabinomannan (lam) and lipid-free arabinomannan (am) were prepared from mycobacterium paratuberculosis. purification of lam was done by ultracentrifugation of the phenol-water-extracted crude polysaccharide, followed by affinity and anion exchange chromatography. am was purified from the supernatant of the ultracentrifuged polysaccharide or from alkaline-extracted material by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. chemical analysis revealed arabinose and mannose in lam (1.4:1) an ...19873818096
bovine paratuberculosis iii. an evaluation of a whole blood lymphocyte transformation test.a whole blood lymphocyte transformation test was used to examine cattle with varying degrees of infection with mycobacterium paratuberculosis. minimally infected animals characteristically responded to johnin purified protein derivative in the lymphocyte transformation test but did not routinely react on serological and/or skin testing. heavily infected animals showed considerable variation in their lymphocyte transformation responses to antigen and some of them were consistently unresponsive. a ...19817340913
standardisation of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.dna from 1008 strains of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, digested by restriction endonucleases psti and bsteii, was hybridised with a standard is900 probe prepared by pcr and labelled non-radioactively by ecl. dna fingerprints were scanned by ccd camera and analysed using the software gel compar (applied maths, kortrijk, belgium). thirteen restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) (psti) types were detected, which where designated as a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l and ...199910520596
bulk-tank milk elisa antibodies for estimating the prevalence of paratuberculosis in danish dairy herds.paratuberculosis (johne's disease) has been widespread in danish dairy herds for a long time but the herd-level prevalence has never been determined precisely. to evaluate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in danish dairy herds in various regions, an elisa based on a commercially available antigen was adapted for testing bulk-tank milk for the presence of antibodies to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. bulk-tank milk samples were collected from six milk-collecting centres from six di ...200010727740
mycobacterium paratuberculosis in the semen and genital organs of a semen-donor bull.mycobacterium paratuberculosis, the cause of johne's disease, was isolated from the feces of a donor bull in an artificial insemination stud. during isolation and observation for 21 months, the organism was recovered from all of 26 fecal samples and from 8 of 31 semen samples. at necropsy, it was isolated from the intestine and adjacent lymph nodes, lung, spleen, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland but not from the testicles. we concluded that routine fecal cultures at bull studs will reveal in ...19817263470
comparative lymphocyte stimulation studies on whole blood from vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle with paratuberculosis.the lymphocyte stimulation test was evaluated in the diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis, using whole blood samples from cattle. these samples were incubated with a purified protein derivative of mycobacterium paratuberculosis. samples from vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle from paratuberculosis-free herds and from paratuberculous herds were used. vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups from the paratuberculous herds each included fecal culture-positive cattle, fecal culture-negative cattle, and ...19817271016
cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cows infected with mycobacterium compare cytokine secretion patterns of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from healthy cows and cows subclinically and clinically infected with mycobacterium paratuberculosis.200010895895
specificity of four serologic assays for mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis in llamas and alpacas: a single herd investigation was conducted for mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis infections in a research herd of llamas and alpacas. herd culture-negative status was established over a 23-month period by screening any individuals with any signs compatible with paratuberculosis (n = 1), high serology values (n = 8), or other health and research related reasons (n = 24). there were no m. avium ss paratuberculosis isolates from radiometric cultures of multiple tissue and fecal samples from these individ ...200010907864
reduced formation of granulomata in gamma(delta) t cell knockout balb/c mice inoculated with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.the role of gamma(delta) t cells in the bovine immune response to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (m. paratuberculosis) infection is poorly understood. accordingly, using balb/c mice that are innately susceptible to m. paratuberculosis, we compared wild-type and gamma(delta) t cell knockout balb/c mice to study the protective roles of gamma(delta) t cells in m. paratuberculosis infection. ten-week-old mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with either a low dose (4 x 10(6) colony-for ...200011055864
biosecurity practices of beef cow-calf evaluate biosecurity practices of cow-calf producers.200010909456
paratuberculosis recognized as a problem at last: a review.this article attempts to review briefly current opinions on johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, in ruminants caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. paratuberculosis has been known to be prevalent in domestic livestock, such as cattle, goats, and sheep, for more than a century. despite this knowledge only minor efforts have been made to control the disease and, with the attention being focussed on the eradication of other diseases, the problem of paratuberculosis has been neglec ...200011087130
eastern white-tailed deer as a reservoir of ruminant paratuberculosis.ten white-tailed deer were shot and killed at a connecticut farm that had a 6-year history of bovine paratuberculosis, and organs from these animals were examined for evidence of paratuberculosis. mycobacterium paratuberculosis was isolated from the cecal lymph node, terminal ileum, and ileocecal valve of 1 deer and from the cecal lymph node of another. characteristic lesions and acid-fast bacilli were not observed. it was concluded that infected deer could serve as sources of infection for dome ...19836826436
herd-level risk factors for infection with mycobacterium paratuberculosis in us dairies and association between familiarity of the herd manager with the disease or prior diagnosis of the disease in that herd and use of preventive evaluate associations among herd infection status, herd management practices, and familiarity of the herd manager with mycobacterium paratuberculosis (johne's disease) or prior disease diagnosis in that herd to support development of johne's disease-control programs.200010800519
disseminated mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in a cow.a cow with chronic diarrhea and weight loss caused by localization of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in the intestinal tract (johne's disease) had gross and microscopic changes indicative of a disseminated infection. a direct association between the remote lesions and the intestinal infection was shown by isolation of m paratuberculosis from renal tissue, detection of intracellular m paratuberculosis antigen(s), using an indirect immunoperoxidase method, and by the characteristic granulomatous n ...19873553118
quality control and optimized procedure of hybridization capture-pcr for the identification of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces.nucleic acid sequence capture techniques are used to improve both the sensitivity and specificity of pcr for the diagnosis of plant, animal and human diseases. hybridization capture-pcr (hc-pcr) was first reported as a method for the detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in 1995 and was successfully trialed on a small number of faecal samples from cattle with johne's disease. a locally optimized hc-pcr method was evaluated on faeces from infected and non-infected animals. howe ...200010970726
in situ hybridization method for studies of cell wall deficient m. paratuberculosis in tissue samples.cell wall deficient forms of mycobacteria may be important in the pathogenesis of crohn's disease and sarcoidosis. however, no method has been available to localize this type of organisms in tissue sections. we developed an in situ hybridization method for the demonstration of mycobacterium paratuberculosis spheroplasts (cell wall deficient forms) in paraffin embedded tissue sections.m. paratuberculosis spheroplasts were prepared by treatment with glycine and lysozyme. pieces of beef were inject ...200011118736
review article: mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as one cause of crohn's disease.a number of theories regarding the aetiology of crohn's disease have been proposed. diet, infections, other unidentified environmental factors and immune disregulation, all working under the influence of a genetic predisposition, have been viewed with suspicion. many now believe that crohn's disease is a syndrome caused by several aetiologies. the two leading theories are the infectious and autoimmune theories. the leading infectious candidate is mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis ( ...200111207508
use of long-term vaccination with a killed vaccine to prevent fecal shedding of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in dairy determine whether vaccination with a killed vaccine prevents fecal shedding of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, to compare effectiveness of a culture and cull program in vaccinated and nonvaccinated herds, and to compare paratuberculosis-related preventive management in vaccinated and nonvaccinated herds.200111212038
on-farm batch pasteurization destroys mycobacterium paratuberculosis in waste milk.a recent dairy survey conducted in 1996 by the national animal health monitoring system suggests between 20 and 40% of dairy herds in the united states have some level of johne's disease. this figure will continue to increase unless producers implement management regimes that will help control the spread of this disease within their herds. the neonatal calf is the target for infection with mycobacterium paratuberculosis, the causative agent of johne's disease. calves become infected via exposure ...200111233038
evaluation of a commercial elisa for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in evaluate sensitivity and specificity of a new elisa for antibodies against mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.200111318370
progress towards understanding the spread, detection and control of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in animal review and interpret aspects of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of paratuberculosis (johne's disease) for veterinarians involved in current johne's disease control programs.200111349414
biochemical characteristics of various strains of mycobacterium paratuberculosis.biochemical activities of 20 wild-type strains and of 2 laboratory strains of mycobacterium paratuberculosis were evaluated. biochemical activities evaluated were growth at 30 c, 37 c, and 42 c; production of urease, niacin, pyrazinamidase, arylsulfatase, and catalase; hydrolyzation of tween 80; reduction of nitrate and tellurite; and growth in 5% nacl. antimicrobial susceptibility to thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide (10 micrograms/ml), neotetrazolium chloride (1:40,000), streptomycin (2 mi ...19863740613
maximum-likelihood estimation of sensitivity and specificity of elisas and faecal culture for diagnosis of paratuberculosis.the accuracy of three diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis was evaluated using maximum-likelihood estimation of sensitivity and specificity. we also explored the variety of estimates that can be obtained if the tests are to be used in populations of different composition with regard to infection and disease states. two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) were evaluated separately with the faecal culture (fc). the study was carried out as a cross-sectional field study to cover all likely ...200211830293
economic aspects of disease monitoring with special reference to bovine paratuberculosis.monte carlo simulation models were used to evaluate the feasibility and potential results of a proposed national survey of the prevalence of bovine paratuberculosis (ptb) in dairy herds in norway. the expected herd prevalence was assumed to be 0.2% in the simulations. infected herds were classified as detected if 1 animal was sero-positive. with a sample size of 6000 herds at least 1 truly infected herd was detected in 99% of the iterations. the low sensitivity of the elisa test, the assumed low ...200111875849
diagnostic value of mammalian, avian and johnin ppd tuberculins in cattle herds infected by mycobacterium paratuberculosis. 19883254082
application of the c(18)-carboxypropylbetaine specimen processing method to recovery of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from ruminant tissue specimens.the causative agent of johne's disease is mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. this is a chronic, debilitating gastrointestinal disorder that affects ruminants and is responsible for significant economic loss. the specimen processing method that combines c(18)-carboxypropylbetaine (cb-18) treatment and lytic enzyme decontamination has been shown to improve the diagnosis of mycobacterioses. this processing method was applied to the isolation of m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from rumina ...200211980960
analysis by elisa and western blotting of antibody reactivities in cattle infected with mycobacterium paratuberculosis after absorption of serum with m phlei.preabsorption of cattle serum with mycobacterium phlei was of value in eliminating falsely positive reactions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies against m paratuberculosis. specific antibody titres from 16 animals naturally infected with m paratuberculosis were unaffected by absorption. analysis by western blotting indicated that a different set of antigens of m paratuberculosis were recognised by serum from falsely positive reactors compared with tha ...19873296062
detection of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis specific is900 insertion sequences in bulk-tank milk samples obtained from different regions throughout switzerland.since mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) was isolated from intestinal tissue of a human patient suffering crohn's disease, a controversial discussion exists whether map have a role in the etiology of crohn's disease or not. raw milk may be a potential vehicle for the transmission of map to human population. in a previous paper, we have demonstrated that map are found in raw milk samples obtained from a defined region in switzerland. the aim of this work is to collect data abou ...200212097144
the experimental infection of cattle with mycobacterium johnei. iv. adult cattle maintained in an infectious environment. 196214490277
development of a peptide-mediated capture pcr for detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.based on phage display technology, a peptide-mediated magnetic separation technique was developed to facilitate selective isolation of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (m. paratuberculosis) from bulk milk of naturally infected dairy herds. nine recombinant bacteriophages binding to m. paratuberculosis were isolated from a commercial phage-peptide library encoding random 12-mer peptides. nucleotide sequencing revealed the deduced sequence of the binding peptides. one peptide with the s ...200212409405
evaluation of the long-term immune response in cattle after vaccination against paratuberculosis in two dutch dairy the past decades, vaccination against paratuberculosis in cattle was performed in the netherlands only on a limited scale. because of its interference with the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis, vaccination was restricted to herds with a high prevalence of clinical cases of paratuberculosis and was meant to aid in the economical survival of the farm. recently, a voluntary paratuberculosis certification program has started, based in part on serological screening of cattle of at least 3 years of ...200211900960
sensitivity of test strategies used in the voluntary johne's disease herd status program for detection of mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle evaluate sensitivities at the herd level of test strategies used in the voluntary johne's disease herd status program (vjdhsp) and alternative test strategies for detecting dairy cattle herds infected with mycobacterium paratuberculosis.200212420786
variance components of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of igg antibodies in milk samples to mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle.milk samples from 120 cows were tested up to 10 times in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of antibodies to mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. the purpose of the study was to estimate variance components of the assay attributable to laboratory factors using mixed model theory. because of significant interaction between the between-run, between-day and between-plate variables, the elisa-plate variable was nested in run-number and run-number was nested in day-numbe ...200212449247
improved detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk by immunomagnetic pcr.the potential use of a novel immunomagnetic pcr (ims-pcr) technique as a rapid method to screen milk samples for the presence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (m. ptb) was assessed. immunomagnetic separation (ims) for m. ptb, developed at queen's university, belfast, was applied to milk samples prior to is900 pcr in order to selectively concentrate any m. ptb cells present and, at the same time, separate the cells from constituents of milk likely to inhibit subsequent pcr. this inc ...200011118722
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