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cryptosporidium ryanae n. sp. (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (bos taurus).a new species, cryptosporidium ryanae, is described from cattle. oocysts of c. ryanae, previously identified as the cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and recorded as such in genbank (ay587166, eu203216, dq182597, ay741309, and dq871345), are similar to those of cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium bovis but smaller. this genotype has been reported to be prevalent in cattle worldwide. oocysts obtained from a calf for the present study are the smallest cryptosporidium oocysts reported in ma ...200818583057
prevalence and molecular characterization of bovine cryptosporidium in qazvin province, iran.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, variability with host age, and the genotypes of species of cryptosporidium in cattle from 15 dairy farms in qazvin province, iran. fecal samples, collected from 272 cattle during may 2006 to december 2007, were characterized microscopically. oocysts from 51 positive samples were analyzed using pcr assay of 18s ssu rrna, restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) and sequencing. we identified 72.6% of the positive samples as cryptosporid ...200919091477
a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay to simultaneously distinguish cryptosporidium species of veterinary and public health concern in cattle.four species of cryptosporidium are routinely found in cattle: cryptosporidium parvum, cryptosporidium bovis, cryptosporidium ryanae, and cryptosporidium andersoni. it is important to determine the species of cryptosporidium in infected cattle because c. parvum is the only serious pathogen for humans as well as cattle. identification of cryptosporidium species and genotypes currently relies on molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (pcr) followed by restriction fragment length polym ...200919713046
[identification of calf-origin cryptosporidium bovis shanghai isolate by nested pcr].to identify a strain of cryptosporidium in the feces of naturally infected calf in shanghai.200919856502
molecular characterisation of cryptosporidium isolates from swedish dairy cattle in relation to age, diarrhoea and region.cryptosporidium positive samples from 176 preweaned calves, young stock and cows of 48 herds were subjected to molecular characterisation of the 18s rrna gene to determine which species are present in swedish dairy cattle. in addition, samples characterised as cryptosporidium parvum were further analysed at the gp60 gene to investigate distribution and zoonotic potential of subtypes. the 18s rrna gene was successfully sequenced in 110 samples, with cryptosporidium bovis in 83, c. parvum in 15, c ...201020138705
molecular characterization and assessment of zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidium from dairy cattle in west bengal, india.few studies in the past have examined the genetic diversity and zoonotic potential of cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in india. to assess the importance of these animals as a source of human cryptosporidium infections, fecal samples from 180 calves, heifers and adults and 51 farm workers on two dairy farms in west bengal, india were genotyped by pcr-rflp analysis of the 18s rrna gene of cryptosporidium followed by dna sequencing of the pcr products. phylogenetic analysis was carried out on the d ...201020356678
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. in native calves in nigeria.most studies on the distribution of cryptosporidium species in cattle were done with dairy breeds in industrialized nations. in this study, 65 fecal samples from randomly selected 12-24-week-old diarrheic calves in four white fulani herds in southwestern nigeria were screened for cryptosporidium spp. using polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of the small subunit rrna gene. thirty-four (52.3%) of the samples were positive for cryptosporidium. r ...201020644959
cryptosporidium infection in herds with and without calf diarrhoeal problems.a case-control study was designed to investigate the role of different cryptosporidium spp. in swedish dairy herds with and without calf diarrhoeal problems. faecal samples were collected from preweaned calves, young stock and cows. cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by sodium chloride flotation and epifluorescence microscopy. molecular diagnostics were used to identify cryptosporidium species. samples containing c. parvum were further analysed to determine subtypes. calf faecal samples were ...201020714750
the potential for zoonotic transmission of giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. from beef and dairy cattle in ontario, canada.the objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and the genotypes and species of giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. in beef and dairy cattle from farms in the regional municipality of waterloo, ontario, in an effort to determine the potential for zoonotic transmission from these animals. pooled manure samples were collected from 45 dairy cattle farms and 30 beef cattle farms. the presence of giardia cysts and cryptosporidium oocysts was determined by immunofluorescence microsc ...201020971563
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned dairy calves in the czech republic: absence of c. ryanae and management-associated distribution of c. andersoni, c. bovis and c. parvum subtypes.a total of 750 faecal samples of dairy calves at up to 2 months of age kept in various housing systems were screened for cryptosporidium spp. infection using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. dna was extracted from cryptosporidium positive samples and from 150 randomly selected microscopically negative samples. nested pcr was performed to amplify the partial ssu rrna gene of cryptosporidium that was subsequently digested by sspi, vspi and mboii restriction enzymes to determine th ...201021168973
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. in native breeds of cattle in kaduna state, nigeria.despite numerous molecular epidemiologic studies of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle in industrialized countries, there are very few studies on the diversity and public health significance of cryptosporidium species in native cattle in developing countries. in this study, a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of the small-subunit (ssu) rrna gene was used to detect and identify cryptosporidium spp. in 194 fecal specimens from 2 to 365 days old ...201121277091
cryptosporidium infection in non-human hosts in malawi.of 1346 faecal samples from the chikwawa and thyolo districts of malawi, analysed for the presence of cryptosporidium oocysts between october 2001 and may 2003, 61.3% were from cattle (29.8% of these were from calves <6 months old). cryptosporidium oocysts were detected during all three seasons studied in chikwawa and thyolo. in chikwawa, 13.6% of adult cattle and 11.7% of calves were infected, compared to 28.9% of adult cattle and 36.7% of calves in thyolo. dependent on season, between 7.8% and ...200921344786
a whole water catchment approach to investigating the origin and distribution of cryptosporidium species.aims:  investigating the distribution and origin of cryptosporidium species in a water catchment affected by destocking and restocking of livestock due to a foot and mouth disease epidemic. methods and results:  surface water, livestock and wildlife samples were screened for cryptosporidium and oocysts characterised by sequencing ssu rrna and cowp loci, and fragment analysis of ml1, ml2 and gp60 microsatellite loci. oocyst concentrations in water samples (0 to 20.29 per 10l) were related to rain ...201121649804
real-time pcr assay targeting the actin gene for the detection of cryptosporidium parvum in calf fecal samples.cryptosporidium parvum infection is very important with respect to public health, owing to foodborne and waterborne outbreaks and gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. in cattle, infection with this species manifests either as a subclinical disease or with diarrheal illness, which occurs more often in the presence of other infectious agents than when alone. the aim of this study was to develop a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay for the detectio ...201122042503
occurrence of cryptosporidium and giardia on beef farms and water sources within the vicinity of the farms on prince edward island, canada.the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and assemblages of giardia and species of cryptosporidium on beef farms in prince edward island (pei), canada, including the water sources associated with the farms, and to determine risk factors for infection of cattle with these parasites. twenty beef farms were selected based on the presence of surface water<500m from the barn. prevalence was determined by direct immunofluorescence microscopy, while genotyping and species determina ...201122112978
Evaluation of factors associated with the risk of infection with Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy calves.Objective-To identify risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium parvum infection in dairy calves. Animals-108 case animals and 283 control animals. Procedures-Case animals were calves infected with C parvum, and controls were infected with Cryptosporidium bovis (n = 67) or calves not infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Fecal samples were tested via the flotation concentration method for Cryptosporidium spp. Samples were genotyped by sequencing of the 18s rRNA gene. Associations between hos ...201222204291
prevalence and molecular typing of cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in england and wales and examination of potential on-farm transmission routes.an average of 70 samples were collected from 80 dairy farms in england and wales, from cattle, co-grazed sheep, wildlife and farm wastes, to investigate prevalence, potential sources and transmission routes of cryptosporidium. at least one positive sample was detected on 74 of the farms (92.5%) by ifat microscopy. the prevalence in cattle was 10.2% (95% ci 9.4-11.1%), with greater prevalences detected in calf samples, especially from those under 1 month (45.1%). young calves were also more likel ...201424909077
giardia and cryptosporidium on dairy farms and the role these farms may play in contaminating water sources in prince edward island, canada.cattle represent a reservoir for giardia and cryptosporidium and may contaminate water sources.201622489682
cryptosporidium andersoni is the predominant species in post-weaned and adult dairy cattle in china.dairy industry plays an important role in the agricultural economy of china. to estimate the prevalence and public health significance of cryptosporidiosis in post-weaned and adult dairy cattle in china, during four consecutive years (from 2006 to 2009), a total of 1315 fecal samples from 22 dairy cattle farms in ten prefectures in henan province were examined for the presence of cryptosporidium oocysts. the overall prevalence of cryptosporidium was 7.9%, with the highest infection rate (11.3%) ...201020884374
first description of cryptosporidium bovis in japan and diagnosis and genotyping of cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic pre-weaned calves in hokkaido.eighty fecal samples from pre-weaned calves with diarrhea were collected in the tokachi area in northern japan to investigate the prevalence of cryptosporidium species in such animals. oocysts from fecal samples collected from each animal were concentrated using sucrose gradient centrifugation. genomic dna was extracted from each sample and processed by nested pcr to amplify the partial ssu rrna gene of cryptosporidium. cryptosporidium infections were detected in 75% of the samples. sequence ana ...201020149546
prevalence and molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in south bohemia, the czech republic.a total of 995 samples from slaughtered dairy cattle (6 months and older) were collected during two consecutive years (from 2007 to 2008), stained by aniline-carbol-methyl violet and examined microscopically. dna was extracted from cryptosporidium positive samples and from 200 randomly selected microscopically negative samples. nested pcr was performed to amplify the partial ssu rrna and gp60 genes of cryptosporidium that were subsequently digested by sspi, vspi and mboii restriction enzymes to ...200919616383
detection and molecular characterization of cryptosporidium bovis-like isolate from a newborn lamb in spain.species of cryptosporidium infect a broad variety of animals. because morphological features of the secreted oocysts are not useful in identifying the parasite at the species level, molecular tools were used to accomplish this task, leading to discovery of new cryptosporidium species. with the use of this approach, cryptosporidium bovis has recently been described as a new species infecting bovines and several other hosts, but clearly distinct from c. parvum. in this report, we present a descrip ...200718314710
prevalence of cryptosporidium species and genotypes in mature dairy cattle on farms in eastern united states compared with younger cattle from the same locations.feces collected from 541 milking cows on two dairy farms each in vermont, new york, pennsylvania, maryland, virginia, north carolina, and florida were examined for the presence of cryptosporidium oocysts. oocysts were concentrated from 15 g of feces from each cow and dna was extracted. a two-step nested pcr protocol was used to amplify an 830 base pair fragment of the ssurrna gene. pcr-positive products were purified and sequenced. pcr-positive findings were obtained from cows in all seven state ...200717287086
wide geographic distribution of cryptosporidium bovis and the deer-like genotype in bovines.recent studies in the united states reported that approximately 85% of pre-weaned dairy calves were infected with zoonotic cryptosporidium parvum, whereas only 1-2% of post-weaned calves and 1-2-year-old heifers were infected with this species. cryptosporidium bovis and cryptosporidium deer-like genotype were much more prevalent in the post-weaned animals. it is not clear whether the same infection pattern also occurs in other geographic areas. in this study, to determine whether the same crypto ...200717097231
risk factors associated with cryptosporidium infection on dairy farms in a new york state watershed.a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidium parvum-like oocyst shedding on dairy farms in a watershed in new york state and to identify the factors that put animals at risk. a proportional sample of dairy herds in the targeted area was obtained, and animals were selected using a stratified sampling design to ensure representation of the population at risk. fecal samples were collected per rectum and analyzed for the presence of c. parvum-like oocysts us ...200617033009
genotypes and subtypes of cryptosporidium spp. in neonatal calves in northern ireland.cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic calves less than 30 days old from farms across northern ireland were examined over a year period by microscopic, genotyping, and subtyping techniques to characterize the transmission dynamics. cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 291 of 779 (37.4%) animals. the prevalence rates of rotavirus, coronavirus, and escherichia coli k99+ were lower as seen in 242 of 806 (30.0%), 46/806 (5.7%), and 16/421 (3.8%) of animals, respectively. of the 224 cryptosporidium-po ...200717031699
prevalence of species and genotypes of cryptosporidium found in 1-2-year-old dairy cattle in the eastern united states.the prevalence of cryptosporidium species in 1-2-year-old heifers was determined for 571 animals on 14 dairy farms in seven states on the east coast of the united states. a fecal specimen collected directly from each heifer was processed to concentrate oocysts that were then examined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). for every pcr-positive specimen the 18s rrna gene of cryptosporidium was sequenced. cryptosporidium was identified by pcr from heifers on 13 of 14 farms. on all except four farms ...200616159697
cryptosporidium bovis n. sp. (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (bos taurus).a new species of cryptosporidium, c. bovis, is described. oocysts of c. bovis, previously identified as cryptosporidium genotype bovine b (genbank ay120911), are morphologically indistinguishable from those of c. parvum. they are excreted fully sporulated and contain 4 sporozoites, but lack sporocysts. oocysts measure 4.76-5.35 microm (mean = 4.89 microm) x 4.17-4.76 microm (mean = 4.63 microm), with a length-to-width ratio of 1.06 (n = 50). oocysts were not infectious for neonatal balb/ c mice, ...200516108557
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium isolates from high-excreting young dairy calves in dairy cattle herds in western france.ninety-two cryptosporidium sp.-positive fecal samples of dairy diarrheic or non-diarrheic calves from 30 cattle herds in normandy (france) were selected. here, the aim was to investigate the species of cryptosporidium excreted as well as the subtypes of cryptosporidium parvum found in 7-17-day-old dairy calves. excretion levels were comprised between 2 × 10(4) and 4 × 10(7) oocysts per gram of feces. here, a nested 18s ssu rrna pcr associated with sequencing was performed for identification of c ...201323820609
prevalence and characterization of cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in nile river delta provinces, egypt.molecular characterizations of cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in industrialized nations have mostly shown a dominance of cryptosporidium parvum, especially its iia subtypes in pre-weaned calves. few studies, however, have been conducted on the distribution of cryptosporidium species and c. parvum subtypes in various age groups of dairy cattle in developing countries. in this study, we examined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in four nile rive ...201324036320
occurrence and molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. and enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in china.cryptosporidium spp. and enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. cattle are considered potential reservoirs of cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of e. bieneusi is not clear. in the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in china were examined for the presence of cryptosporidium spp. and e. bieneusi using nested pcr ta ...201525541482
prevalence and molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle, northwest china.cryptosporidium spp. cause enteric diseases in a wide range of animals, including dairy cattle. however, limited information is available regarding prevalence and molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in gansu province and ningxia hui autonomous region (nxhar), northwest china. a total of 2945 dairy feces samples (1257 from gansu province and 1688 from nxhar) were collected between december 2012 and march 2014 and were tested by pcr amplification of the small subunit ...201526002827
factors associated with shedding of cryptosporidium parvum versus cryptosporidium bovis among dairy cattle in new york state.to isolate and speciate cryptosporidium dna from fecal samples obtained from dairy cattle in new york state and identify factors associated with whether cattle were shedding cryptosporidium parvum versus cryptosporidium bovis.200617107320
molecular identification of cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of felines, canines and bovines in the state of são paulo, brazil.the objective of this study was to obtain information of epidemiological nature through genotypic characterization of cryptosporidium isolates from dogs, cats and bovines from the state of são paulo, brazil. the extraction of dna from oocysts was carried out and polymerase chain reaction was accomplished using specific primers to 18s rrna gene. the amplicons were directed sequenced. seven cat samples, nine dog samples and nine bovine samples were analysed. from the seven cat samples the genotypi ...200717996373
cryptosporidium xiaoi n. sp. (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae) in sheep (ovis aries).a new species, cryptosporidium xiaoi, is described from sheep. oocysts of c. xiaoi, previously identified as the cryptosporidium bovis-like genotype or as c. bovis from sheep in spain, tunisia, united kingdom, and the united states are recorded as such in genbank (eu408314-eu408317, eu327318-eu327320, ef362478, ef514234, dq991389, and ef158461). oocysts obtained from naturally infected sheep were infectious for a lamb and oocysts from that lamb were infectious for three other lambs. the prepaten ...200919501967
high prevalence of cryptosporidium bovis and the deer-like genotype in calves compared to mature cows in beef cow-calf operations.recent studies have identified the novel, host adapted cryptosporidium bovis and the deer-like genotype in dairy cattle from farms in the united states, china, india and europe. this novel species and genotype appear to be more prevalent in older, post-weaned dairy cattle than previously thought. however, little information is available on their prevalence in beef cow-calf operations. in the present study, we determined the prevalence of cryptosporidium species in 98 calves (6-8 months old) and ...200818063483
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