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experimentally induced respiratory syncytial viral infection in calves.calves exposed by intranasal (in) or intratracheal (it) or both routes of inoculation to bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus had a transient increase in body temperature for 2 days. histopathologic changes indicative of pneumonia, along with multinucleated giant cells, were observed in alveolar lumen. the virus was recovered from infected calves, and their serologic response was poor. in a limited serologic survey with 100 serums from cattle in maryland, low levels of serum-neutralizing (sn ...1975164807
investigation of causative agents of bovine respiratory tract disease in a beef cow-calf herd with an early weaning program.serum samples were collected from early weaned fall calves shortly after the onset of respiratory tract disease. antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus, parainfluenza type 3 (pi-3) virus, bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) virus, bovine adenovirus type 3 (bav-3), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) were determined on paired (acute and convalescent) serums. seroconversion rate (a fourfold or greater rise in antibody titer) for ibr virus was 4.3%, pi-3 virus--16.3%, bv ...1977201196
lesions in lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus was inoculated intratracheally into five 1-week-old lambs. three of the lambs responded clinically with fever, hyperpnea, and listlessness. pulmonary lesions consisted of multifocal areas of consolidation, with necrosis of individual epithelial cells of the airways and accumulation of necrotic debris, macrophages, and few neutrophils in terminal airways and alveoli. pulmonary septa in affected areas were infiltrated with numerous macrophages and lymphocytes. viral par ...1979525867
effect of serum and nasal neutralizing antibodies on bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves.calves exposed to a bovine respiratory syncytial virus showed mild clinical signs of respiratory illness and responded serologically. the disease occurred in the presence or absence of circulating antibodies, but there was no evidence of exacerbation of the disease due to preexisting serum antibody. nasal secretory antibody appeared to protect the calves against the disease. calves previously exposed to the virus were immune to challenge. the virus was recovered at a high frequency when specimen ...1976978005
sequence analysis of m2 mrna of bovine respiratory syncytial virus obtained from an f-m2 dicistronic mrna suggests structural homology with that of human respiratory syncytial virus.the nucleotide sequences of the f and m2 mrnas of strain a51908 of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) were determined by sequencing cdna of an intracellular dicistronic mrna. comparison of the f mrna sequence with those of other brsv strains showed that there was extensive sequence identity at both the nucleotide (95% identity) and amino acid (94% identity) levels. alignment of the nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequences of m2 mrna of brsv with those of human respiratory syncytial vir ...19921312130
release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha from bovine alveolar macrophages stimulated with bovine respiratory viruses and bacterial endotoxins.the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) from cultured bovine alveolar macrophages (bam) was evaluated following stimulation of bam with bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), escherichia coli 0111:b4 endotoxin, pasteurella haemolytica type 1 endotoxin, pasteurella multocida endotoxin, and virus/endotoxin combinations. a cytotoxic assay system using georgia bovine kidney cells as targets was used to measure tnf-alpha a ...19921312264
effect of macrophages and in vitro infection with parainfluenza type 3 and respiratory syncytial viruses on the mitogenic response of bovine lymphocytes.bovine blood lymphocytes, depleted of macrophages by absorption on plasma-gelatin coated plastic flasks, followed by passage through sephadex g-10 columns, failed to respond to pokeweed mitogen stimulation. adherent monocytes or alveolar macrophages added to purified lymphocyte preparations at 10% or less were able to restore the transformation response. exposure of alveolar macrophages or purified lymphocytes to 2 bovine respiratory syncytial virus strains for 24 hours substantially reduced the ...19921315492
bovine respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein gene: sequence analysis of cdna and expression using a baculovirus vector.the nucleotide sequence of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), atcc strain a51908 fusion (f) glycoprotein gene cdna was determined. the amino acid sequence deduced was then compared to those of two different isolates of bovine rsv, strains rb 94 and 391-2, and the a and b subtypes of human rsv, strains 18537 and a2. the bovine rsv f protein is highly conserved between the three isolates, a51908 has 97% amino acid identity to rb 94, and 99% identity to 391-2. the f proteins of both the a an ...19921318950
serological titers to bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and pasteurella haemolytica in feedlot calves with respiratory disease: associations with bacteriological and pulmonary cytological variables.acute and convalescent serum samples were taken from 59 calves with signs of respiratory disease (cases) and 60 clinically normal animals (controls) during their first month in the feedlot. sera were analyzed for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza 3 (pi3) virus by hemagglutination inhibition, to bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv1) by virus neutralization, and to pasteurella haemolytica by indirect agglutination (phia) and cy ...19921335831
sequence comparison between the phosphoprotein mrnas of human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses identifies a divergent domain in the predicted protein.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the phosphoprotein (p) mrna of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) strain a51908 have been determined. the p mrna is 860 nucleotides long with a single large open reading frame and the encoded polypeptide is 241 amino acids long. comparison with the corresponding sequences of human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) subgroups a and b revealed 72 to 74% identity at the nucleotide level, and 81% at the amino acid level. the p protein contain ...19921402819
effects of allergen challenge on plasma concentrations of prostaglandins, thromboxane b2, and histamine in calves infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.to examine the influence of allergen-induced type-1 hypersensitivity on the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infection, we sensitized calves by aerosol to micropolyspora faeni (mf) and challenge exposed them during infection with brsv. the development of mf-specific ige serum concentrations was confirmed by elisa. the dynamics of arachidonic acid metabolism and histamine release during a type-1 hypersensitivity reaction in the bovine lung were studied by quantitating the ...19921416375
field trials on a live bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in calves.field trials were carried out in calves using a live bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus vaccine prepared from the attenuated brs virus, strain rs-52. two hundred seventy-five and 353 calves were vaccinated intranasally and intramuscularly, respectively. no undesirable postvaccinal reactions were observed in the vaccinated calves. of the serum neutralizing (sn) antibody negative calves 89.7% (26/29) and 92.8% (90/97) developed sn antibody 1 month after intranasal and intramuscular vaccinati ...19921420579
bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific immune responses in cattle following immunization with modified-live and inactivated vaccines. analysis of proliferation and secretion of lymphokines by leukocytes in vitro.cattle were immunized with vaccines containing modified-live or inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) and lymphocyte proliferative responses and cytokine secretion were monitored sequentially. compared to pre-inoculated values, significant increases in proliferative responses to modified-live brsv were detectable by day 7 after the primary immunization with the vaccine containing inactivated brsv, and by 7 days after the second immunization with modified-live virus. after a third ...19921441227
bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific immune responses in cattle following immunization with modified-live and inactivated vaccines. analysis of the specificity and activity of serum antibodies.cattle were immunized with vaccines containing modified-live or inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) and serum antibody responses were analyzed. compared with preinculation values, at day 14 after two biweekly immunizations with modified-live or inactivated vaccines there were significant increases in brsv-specific titers in the sera of cattle that received both types of vaccines, as determined by a whole cell elisa. using a blocking elisa and radioimmune precipitation it was de ...19921441228
radiographic and radionuclide lung perfusion imaging in healthy calves and calves naturally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.nine calves between three and 18 weeks old with serologically confirmed natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined clinically, radiographically and by radionuclide lung perfusion imaging. the results were compared with those from seven healthy calves. the diseased calves were euthanased and examined pathologically, virologically and bacteriologically. the clinical signs indicated that the disease was in an acute stage. radiography of the diseased animals revealed cysts, c ...19921471325
comparison of three immunoassays for the rapid detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (eia) designed for the detection of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were evaluated for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) in bovine lungs and the results were compared with those obtained by a direct fluorescent antibody assay (dfa). the eia tests used were directigen eia, kallestad pathfinder eia, and abbott rsv eia. homogenates of lung tissues obtained from 64 cattle that had died of respiratory disease were used; 32 were ...19921501586
antibody response of calves to immunoaffinity-purified bovine respiratory syncytial virus vp70 after vaccination and challenge exposure.immunoaffinity-purified bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) fusion (f) protein elicited anti-brsv-specific antibody responses in brsv-seronegative calves. after primary vaccination, all calves seroconverted to brsv as determined by the virus neutralization (vn) test and developed anti-f protein antibodies detectable by protein immunoblot analyses. subsequent vaccinations induced greater than twofold increase in vn titer in 3 of 9 (33%) calves, and 1 calf became vn-negative, but still had n ...19921510306
evidence of immunosuppression by bovine respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a major respiratory pathogen in human infants and calves. calves and lambs infected with bovine rsv show mild clinical signs but they are more susceptible to secondary infection with pasteurella haemolytica. lambs infected with p. haemolytica 6 days after experimental infection with bovine rsv had significantly greater magnitudes of fever, higher disease and lesion scores and higher mortality rates than those infected with p. haemolytica or bovine rsv alone ( ...19921514055
effects of vaccination against 18 immunogens in beef replacement heifers at weaning.humoral immune responses to vaccination, mean daily body-weight gains, morbidity, and mortality were compared in groups of beef replacement heifers from weaning to 4 months after weaning. the only difference in management among groups of heifers was the number and type of vaccines they received. heifers were vaccinated at weaning (mean age, 205 days) and again 28 days later against 0, 1, 9, 10, 17, or 18 antigens, using commercially available monovalent and multivalent vaccines. the common vacci ...19921517133
class-specific antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus in experimentally infected lambs.enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (elisa) was used to titrate virus-specific igg, igm and iga levels in nasal secretions, lung lavage fluids and serum samples sequentially obtained from lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). virus-specific igg and igm responses were measured by the indirect double antibody sandwich elisa using anti-bovine rsv monoclonal antibody, as capture antibody, and peroxidase-conjugated anti-sheep igg and anti-sheep igm. virus-specif ...19921547834
reinfection of lambs with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.eight lambs which were experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) when they were six to eight weeks old were challenged with the same virus seven months later. after reinfection, lambs developed mild clinical disease and the virus was isolated from nasal swabs from three lambs and peripheral blood from two lambs. reinfection resulted in changes in peripheral blood cell populations. there was an early increase in the number of cd8+ t lymphocytes and b (lca p220+) lympho ...19921553439
respiratory syncytial virus infection reinforces reflex apnea in young lambs.to evaluate the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection on reflex apnea elicited by application of water on the laryngeal mucosa, 11 healthy, term lambs were chronically instrumented at 2 wk of age. six lambs were inoculated with bovine rsv, and five lambs were mock-infected. the lambs were studied awake and unsedated before and 4, 8, 14, and 21 d after infection. rsv infection was associated with slight rhinorrhea and with moderately increased tracheal mucous discharge. there was ...19921570205
identification of subgroups of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the occurrence of antigenic variation among nine isolates of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) was determined by examining their reaction patterns to human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) subgroup a and b monoclonal antibodies (mabs) by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoprecipitation with fractionation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by using mabs and polyclonal antisera to hrsv and brsv. shared epitopes were demonstrated on four of five structural protein ...19921583108
effect of "in vitro" exposure of bovine alveolar macrophages to different strains of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.a vaccine strain of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus and an isolate from pneumonic calves (ac2) were inoculated onto cultures of bovine alveolar macrophages recovered by lung lavage, and the functional properties of the cells observed over a period of 10 days. in most cultures no infectious virus was produced although immunofluorescence indicated the presence of virus antigens in some cells. no significant difference was noted between infected and control macrophage cultures in their capacity to ...19921595187
gene junction sequences of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the nucleotide sequences of seven gene junctions (n-p, p-m, m-sh, sh-g, g-f, f-m2 and m2-l) of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) strain a51908 were determined by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of cdnas from polytranscript mrnas and from genomic rna. by comparison with the consensus sequences derived from human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) mrnas, gene-start and gene-end sequences were found in all brsv mrnas. there was a perfect match between the brsv and hrsv in all gene-start sequen ...19921626423
bovine respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein: mrna sequence analysis and expression from recombinant vaccinia virus vectors.the nucleotide sequence of the mrna encoding the nucleocapsid (n) protein of bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus, strain 391-2, was determined. recombinant vectors containing a cdna of the complete n gene were constructed, and expression of the n protein in eukaryotic cells was demonstrated using two different vector systems. the brs virus n mrna was 1197 nucleotides in length, exclusive of poly(a), and had a single major open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 391 amino acids with ...19921634882
detection of cattle infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus using nucleic acid hybridization.a ribonucleic acid (rna) hybridization assay to identify cattle infected by bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is described. the rna probe was derived from the coding region at the 3' end of the genome of the nadl strain of bvdv. total rna from infected cell cultures or peripheral blood leukocytes from suspect animals was extracted and applied to nylon membranes with a slot blot apparatus. peripheral blood leukocytes were tested concurrently for bvdv by virus isolation. the results of hybridizat ...19911645592
replication of parainfluenza type-3 virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in isolated bovine type-ii alveolar epithelial cells.the objectives of our research were to determine whether bovine pulmonary type-ii alveolar epithelial cells could be isolated from bovine lung and maintained in tissue culture and to determine whether isolated bovine type-ii alveolar epithelial cells would support productive viral replication of bovine parainfluenza type-3 virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. type-ii alveolar epithelial cells were isolated from lungs of 4- to 7-day-old male holstein calves by enzymatic dissociation of p ...19911652906
depression of lymphocyte responses to phytohaemagglutinin in lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.eight lambs were experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) and the responses of their peripheral blood lymphocytes to the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin and brsv antigen compared with that of control lambs injected with tissue culture fluid. the lymphocyte transformation responses to phytohaemagglutinin were significantly reduced five and 10 days after experimental infection with brsv (p less than 0.05). it appears that these reductions were associated with cd4+ lymphoc ...19911674620
sequence comparison between the fusion protein of human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses.the nucleotide sequence was determined for the fusion (f) protein-coding mrna of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (strain rb 94) and the amino acid sequence of the f protein was deduced for comparison with the sequence of human respiratory syncytial virus subtypes a and b (rss-2 and 18537 strains). the human and bovine rs virus f proteins (excluding the cleaved signal peptide) share 83 to 84% homology. the greatest divergence occurred within the f2 subunit in the region preceding the cleav ...19901703214
monoclonal antibodies to the fusion protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.five monoclonal antibodies specific for bovine respiratory syncytial virus were characterized by western immunoblotting, radioimmunoprecipitation, and epitope mapping assays. the monoclonal antibodies were found to be specific for the fusion protein, and there were at least two antigen binding sites, one of which was neutralizing.19911723078
spontaneous pasteurellosis in captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis): clinical, laboratory, and epizootiological observations.we observed clinical signs, compared adrenal responses, and performed diagnostic tests on 12 captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) during a spontaneous outbreak of pasteurellosis. cortisol in urine and feces was measured for bighorns sampled three times between 20 october and 1 november 1986. by 6 november, four of these had developed pneumonia, four showed only mild rhinitis, and four remained clinically normal. bighorns that ultimately developed pneumonia showed ele ...19911758018
immune responses of lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus and pasteurella haemolytica.the immune responses of lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and pasteurella haemolytica were compared with lambs infected with bovine rsv or pasteurella haemolytica alone. superinfection with p. haemolytica aggravated the reduction in the number of cd5+, cd4+ and lca p220+ (b) lymphocytes caused by bovine rsv, but it had no effect on the neutralizing antibodies against p. haemolytica cytotoxin. serum samples obtained from lambs experimentally infected with ...19911779037
the role of passive immunity in bovine respiratory syncytial virus-infected calves.the role of passive immunity in bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infections in neonatal calves was evaluated. calves were divided into groups as follows: colostrum-deprived, sham-inoculated; colostrum-deprived, brsv-inoculated; and colostrum-fed, brsv-inoculated. calves were inoculated with a low-passage field isolate of brsv for 4 consecutive days by a combined respiratory tract route and were euthanized 6 days after receiving the last inoculation. arterial oxygen tension (pao2) decrea ...19911847400
nucleotide sequence analysis of a matrix and small hydrophobic protein dicistronic mrna of bovine respiratory syncytial virus demonstrates extensive sequence divergence of the small hydrophobic protein from that of human respiratory syncytial virus.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the matrix (m) and small hydrophobic (sh) proteins of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) have been determined from a dicistronic mrna. comparison of these sequences with the corresponding published sequences of human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) revealed extensive overall homology at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels in the m protein, but low overall homology at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels in the sh protein. th ...19911856698
experimental reproduction of respiratory tract disease with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.an experiment was conducted to reproduce respiratory tract disease with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) in one-month-old, colostrum-fed calves. the hypothesized role of viral hypersensitivity and persistent infection in the pathogenesis of brsv pneumonia was also investigated. for brsv inoculation a field isolate of brsv, at the fifth passage level in cell culture, was administered by a combined respiratory tract route (intranasal and intratracheal) for four consecutive days. four grou ...19911887565
cytotoxic t cell responses in lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the role of cell-mediated immune response in the immunopathogenesis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infection is not well established. in the present study, cytotoxic t cell responses of brsv-infected lambs were examined using the chromium release assay. lambs experimentally infected with brsv developed cytotoxic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the spleen, which lysed brsv-infected but not uninfected cells. peak cytotoxic activity occurred 10-14 days after infection. pretrea ...19911949569
effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus on airway function in neonatal calves.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection causes severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and calves. neonatal respiratory tract infection in children often produces persistent changes in lung function. the specific objective of this study was to determine whether neonatal calves have transient or persistent alterations in pulmonary function and airway reactivity following rsv infection. six 2- to 3-day-old holstein bull calves were inoculated with 10 ml of bovine respiratory syncytia ...19911952323
an igm specific elisa for the serodiagnosis of viral bovine respiratory infections.a capture elisa for the detection of igm antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) and to bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) viruses was developed. in these assays, the first monoclonal antibody to bovine igm is used as the catching antibody while the second monoclonal detects specific antiviral antibodies. the test was evaluated on serum samples originating from both experimentally and naturally infected animals. from these studies, it has been shown that primary ibr and brs virus i ...19901963838
clinical and immunologic response of cattle to administration of a vaccine containing modified-live bovine respiratory syncytial virus.healthy yearling beef and dairy cattle were inoculated with a vaccine containing modified-live bovine respiratory syncytial virus (ml-brsv), and sequential changes in clinical signs of disease, blood leukocyte subsets, brsv-specific antibody titer, and in vitro lymphocyte blastogenic responses were monitored. vaccination with ml-brsv did not cause pyrexia, local or systemic hypersensitivity reaction, or respiratory tract disease. episodes of leukopenia, abnormalities in lymphocyte subsets, or de ...19901968056
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus mrna encoding the major nucleocapsid protein.the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the major nucleocapsid (n) protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) has been determined. the n mrna is 1196 nucleotides long with a single, large open reading frame. the derived polypeptide has 391 amino acids corresponding to a calculated molecular weight of 42,600 da. this is in agreement with the molecular weight of 43,000 da determined for the brsv n protein by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). comparison of the nucleotide ...19911984667
nucleotide sequence analysis of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein mrna and expression from a recombinant vaccinia virus.bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus is an important cause of serious respiratory illness in calves. the disease caused in calves is similar to that caused by human respiratory syncytial (hrs) virus in children. the two viruses, however, have distinct host ranges and the attachment glycoproteins, g, have no antigenic cross-reactivity. the fusion glycoproteins, f, of the hrs and brs viruses, however, have some antigenic cross-reactivity. to further compare the brs virus and hrs virus fusion p ...19911994571
human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus: immunopathologic mechanisms.human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) is the major respiratory tract pathogen of infants and young children. bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) is recognised as an important cause of respiratory tract disease in calves. both of these viruses and their respective diseases share many similarities. immunopathologic mechanisms have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections. this review examines the current understanding of the role of ...19912021054
nutritional and dietary interrelationships with diseases of feedlot cattle.feedlot economics dictate that highly fermentable rations be fed, leaving the ruminant constantly on the edge of lactic acidosis. consequently, a number of subtle changes in feed, environment, or management can tip the balance, causing ruminal acidosis. even though the animal may not die from the immediate effects of a metabolic acidosis, there are sequelae such as mycotic rumenitis, hepatic abscesses, cauda vena cava thrombosis, and pulmonary arterial thromboemolism that may cause subsequent lo ...19912049665
increased susceptibility to pasteurella haemolytica in lambs infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.groups of conventionally reared, 6- to 8-week-old lambs were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with either bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) or brsv followed by pasteurella haemolytica 6 days later or with p. haemolytica alone. lambs infected with p. haemolytica 6 days after experimental infection with brsv had significantly higher disease scores, greater magnitudes of fever, and higher mortality rates than those infected with brsv alone or with p. haemolytica alone (p less tha ...19902079556
[serological survey concerning the ibr, chv2, bvd, pi3, brs and rinderpest viruses in small ruminants in zaire].more than 400 small ruminant sera from zaïre were screened for antibodies to ibr, chv2, bvd, bovine and ovine pi3, brs and rinderpest viruses. sera from local animals were negative for bvd, pi3 and rinderpest viruses: 8% of sera were positive for ibr virus, all with higher titers to chv2; 31% of sera were positive to brs virus.19902132781
lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the lymphocyte subpopulations of peripheral blood of normal lambs and lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were analysed by flow cytometry, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against specific lymphocyte epitopes. experimental infection with bovine rsv was characterized by a significant rise in sbu-t8+ (cd8+ or cytotoxic) t cells and a significant reduction in sbu-t4+ (cd4+ or helper) t cells and b (lca p220+) lymphocytes (p less than 0.05). the helper/s ...19902140217
pulmonary lesions induced by 3-methylindole and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in calves.our objectives were to describe the ultrastructural morphogenesis of pulmonary lesions induced by 3-methylindole in 30- to 45-day-old holstein calves and to determine whether toxic exposure to 3-methylindole exacerbates pulmonary lesions induced by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. administration of 3-methylindole (0.25 g/kg) to calves resulted in interstitial edema and ultrastructural swelling of type-i alveolar epithelial cells and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells as early as 4 to 6 ...19902173450
immunity to human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus.human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses resemble each other closely. during annual winter outbreaks, they cause similar respiratory tract disease in infants and calves. the disease is most severe in children and calves between 1 and 3 months old, when maternal antibodies against the virus are usually present. reinfections, which are common, are accompanied by progressively milder illnesses in children, but are symptomless in calves. because maternal antibodies suppress serum and mucosal a ...19902196033
nucleotide sequence analysis and expression from recombinant vectors demonstrate that the attachment protein g of bovine respiratory syncytial virus is distinct from that of human respiratory syncytial virus.bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus causes a severe lower respiratory tract disease in calves similar to the disease in children caused by human respiratory syncytial (hrs) virus. while there is antigenic cross-reactivity among the other major viral structural proteins, the major glycoprotein, g, of brs virus and that of hrs virus are antigenically distinct. the g glycoprotein has been implicated as the attachment protein for hrs virus. we have carried out a molecular comparison of the glyc ...19902214024
[seroconversion to bovine respiratory syncytial virus in goats with pneumonia in zaire].coupled sera were taken among goats suffering from pneumonia in zaire. the presence of antibodies to bovine syncytial respiratory virus was investigated by a seroneutralization test. out of 26 animals, 9 already had antibodies at the time of the first blood sampling, 9 presented a seroconversion and 8 remained seronegative during the two months of observation. these results suggest it would be useful to study the frequency of the infection of small ruminants with this virus and its clinical and ...19902218031
systemic and secretory antibody responses to sequential bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections in vaccinated and nonvaccinated calves.to investigate the influence of humoral immunity on the severity of disease caused by infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), an experimentally induced infection study was performed on vaccinated and nonvaccinated calves. fifteen weanling calves were allotted to 3 groups: 1 group of 6 calves was exposed to 2 live virus aerosols, 35 days apart; another group of 6 calves was vaccinated prior to the same aerosol exposures; and the remaining 3 calves served as controls. clinical si ...19902240782
[epidemiologic studies of the detection of viral infection agents in calf losses in the weser-ems region].in 961 calves up to an age of 6 months which were sent to the animal health center in oldenburg between march 1987 and march 1990 for necropsy the results of determination of different viruses were calculated: bvd-, rota-, corona-, parainfluenza-3- (pi-3)-, bovine herpes-1 (bhv-1)- and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). in 122 and 104 randomly collected health calves of 22 farms antibodies against brsv and bovine adeno virus-types 5, 7 and 8 were determined. 50.1% of the necropsied calve ...19902245783
analysis of polypeptides synthesized in bovine respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells.ten virus-specific polypeptides ranging in molecular weight from approximately 200k to 11k were identified in bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv-)infected cells. time course analysis of the induction of the viral polypeptides indicated that they could be detected as early as 30 min post-infection and their synthesis reached a plateau 12 h after infection. cell free translation of total infected-cell mrna in a rabbit reticulocyte system yielded 7 proteins corresponding in size to virus-spec ...19902248551
immunoglobulin e responses and lung pathology resulting from aerosol exposure of calves to respiratory syncytial virus and micropolyspora faeni.bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infection of calves has been associated with a type-i hypersensitivity syndrome not unlike respiratory syncytial virus-associated pulmonary symptomatology in humans. to study the mechanism of pulmonary pathology in calves and define the relationship with both viral-specific ige response and ige titers to concurrent aerosol of micropolyspora faeni (mf) we subjected groups of calves to inhalation of mf during acute brsv infection. the calves were divided i ...19902276846
a seroepidemiologic study of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) in turkey.in this study, a survey of cattle for neutralizing antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in turkey is presented. 490 serum samples were collected from several state farms and some private flocks in different regions of turkey. the serologic examination was done by the microtiter serum-neutralization technique. in this report, a positive serum antibody titer at dilutions of 1:2 was demonstrated in 226 (46.12%) of the 490 sera tested.19902311535
[seroepidemiologic studies of the agent of respiratory diseases in cattle].in a period of three years epidemiological studies were carried out in styria concerning the occurrence of antibodies against brsv (bovine respiratory syncytial virus), adeno i species 3-virus, adeno ii species 8-virus, pi-iii (parainfluenza 3-virus), ibr/ipv-virus and chlamydia. a total of 1376 serum samples were examined and showed different titers of specific antibodies against respiratory pathogens. 449 blood samples were submitted to serological examinations in the year 1984, 525 in 1985 an ...19902387232
establishment of an attenuated strain of bovine respiratory syncytial virus for live virus vaccine.to develop a live virus vaccine for the prevention of bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus infection in calves, an attempt was made to produce an attenuated virus. the rs-52 strain of brs virus, isolated from the nasal secretions of a naturally infected calf, was subjected to serial passages in adult hamster lung established (hal) cells at 30 degrees c and the attenuated rs-52 strain as a live virus vaccine was established. the rs-52 strain multiplied better at 30 degrees c than at 34 or 37 ...19902391771
pathogenesis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in experimentally infected lambs.twenty-four 6-8-week-old conventionally reared lambs were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with bovine respiratory syncytial virus. infected lambs showed mild clinical signs characterized by slight serous nasal discharge, coughing, lachrymation and bronchovascular sounds on the middle part of the lung 5-9 days post-inoculation (pi). virus was isolated in nasal swabs from 9 of 24 lambs between 3 and 7 days pi. however, virus was recovered from tracheal and lung tissue of all lambs kill ...19902402874
murine cytotoxic t cells specific to respiratory syncytial virus recognize different antigenic subtypes of the virus.the aim of this study was to establish whether cytotoxic t cells (tc), raised against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in the mouse, are specific to the strain of immunizing virus, or cross-reactive between virus strains. several recent studies using monoclonal antibodies have begun to define the antigenic variation among strains of rsv. it is likely that a successful rsv vaccine will need to contain antigenic determinants from more than one subtype, but since only the highest levels of neutral ...19862420922
association of bovine respiratory syncytial virus with atypical interstitial pneumonia in feedlot cattle.thirty-three cattle with fatal respiratory tract disease were examined for gross and histologic lesions and for the presence of viral and bacterial agents in the lungs. fifteen cattle had lesions characteristic of atypical interstitial pneumonia (aip), and 18 had other respiratory tract diseases, including infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, shipping fever pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, pulmonary abscess, and edema of the trachea. gross necropsy findings in the cattle with aip were uncollapsed and ...19882458690
detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus using a heterologous antigen-capture enzyme immunoassay.based on the marked antigenic similarities that exist between antigens of the human and bovine strains of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), an enzyme immunoassay (eia) designed to detect human rsv was used to detect bovine rsv. the commercial test kit (rsv eia) consists of a solid phase (beads) coated with a capture antiserum prepared against the long strain of human rsv. the rsv eia test was compared with the method of inoculation of cell cultures and fluorescent antibody (fa) staining of lung ...19892488346
a blocking elisa for the detection of specific antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus.a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been adapted to detect specific antibodies in bovine sera to respiratory syncytial virus using a horseradish peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody to the fusion protein of the virus. this assay plus an indirect blocking elisa and indirect elisa were used to detect antibodies to the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) in 159 field-origin bovine sera. results of these assays were compared with serum antibody titers measured by the ser ...19892488716
evaluation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, tetrasodium salt dihydrate (edta)-tween 20 treatment versus protease digestion of formalin-fixed tissue sections for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus antigen in infected ovine lung.the efficacy of protease and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, tetrasodium salt dihydrate (edta)-tween 20 in unmasking bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) antigens in formalin-fixed lung tissue was compared using avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase procedure. tissues were taken from experimentally infected lambs. brsv antigen stained in both techniques. treatment with edta-tween 20 resulted in more intense staining of brsv infected cells, more uniform cytoplasmic staining, less non-specific back ...19892503919
priming for local and systemic antibody memory responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus: effect of amount of virus, virus replication, route of administration and maternal antibodies.we studied the conditions under which calves can be primed for mucosal and serum antibody memory responses against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), and the relationship between such responses and protection against the virus. calves were primed via the respiratory tract with a low or high amount of live virus, with killed virus, or intramuscularly with live virus. calves were challenged via the respiratory tract. priming with live virus via the respiratory tract induced primary antibod ...19892530685
a neutrophil-derived antiviral protein: induction requirements and biological properties.polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (pmn) have been implicated as playing a role in antiviral defense. in addition to having phagocytic and cytotoxic activities, pmn may produce an antiviral substance with interferon (ifn)-like activity. the product, for which the name polyferon (pf) has been coined, is produced upon direct encounter of pmn with bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1)-infected bovine cells or membranes thereof. exposure to purified virus only does not induce pf. the intimate intera ...19892539494
efficacy of viral components of a nonabortigenic combination vaccine for prevention of respiratory and reproductive system diseases in cattle.efficacy and safety of components of an im-administered vaccine for prevention of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv), parainfluenza type-3 (pi-3) virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections and campylobacteriosis and leptospirosis were evaluated in cattle, including calves and pregnant cows. challenge of immunity tests were conducted in calves for ibrv, pi-3 virus, or bvdv vaccinal components. all inoculated calves developed serum-neutr ...19892542202
ribavirin inhibits proliferation of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in vitro.bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) is an important pathogen in bovine respiratory diseases in the united states. proliferation of the disease can reach epidemic proportions with mortality reaching as high as 20%. in vitro work shown here suggests that the antiviral compound ribavirin will be effective in the treatment of infected animals. treatment at three dose levels with ribavirin have shown significant inhibition of brsv proliferation. bovine turbinate cells were host cells for this s ...19892582739
a severe outbreak of respiratory tract disease associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus probably enhanced by vaccination with modified live vaccine.a severe outbreak of respiratory tract disease associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) on a large beef-fattening farm is described. the outbreak started two days after five- to seven-month-old calves were vaccinated with a modified live brsv vaccine. the disease ran a very severe course among five- to seven-month-old vaccinated calves, but disease was absent in eight-month-old an older non-vaccinated calves. the presence of igm antibodies in sera of non-vaccinated calves indica ...19892603358
infectious diseases of new-world camelids (nwc).although there are notable infectious conditions that are capable of producing clinical disease in the nwc, overall, these species are quite healthy. of the bacterial diseases, enterotoxemia caused by clostridium perfringens types c and d would be deemed the most significant in north america, while type a also would be regarded as important in south america. other important bacterial infections of potential concern are tuberculosis, johne's disease, anthrax, malignant edema, actinomycosis, tetan ...19892647231
[atypical interstitial pneumonia (aip) in calves and young cattle in schleswig-holstein in conjunction with an infection by the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv)].it is reported on atypical interstitial pneumonia (aip) in 16 mostly holstein-frisian calves and feeders from 13 different farms in schleswig-holstein in association with an infection by the respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). all animals were submitted with identical clinical histories. macroscopically the lung lesions were characterized by alveolar and interstitial edema and emphysema. microscopically there was a diffuse interstitial pneumonia with formation of hyaline membranes and multinucle ...19892653786
detection of ige antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the role of ige antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus has attracted attention for both human and bovine disease. to detect such antibodies, we have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) specific for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). firstly, antiserum strongly positive for brsv-specific ige was produced by immunizing a levamisole-treated calf with brsv. the presence and specificity of brsv-specific ige in this animal was confirmed with the praunitz-kustner (pk) ...19892718372
experimental polyvalent iscoms subunit vaccine induces antibodies that neutralize human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the purpose of the present study was to evaluate experimentally, in guinea-pigs, the immunogenicity of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus subunit vaccines. immunostimulating complexes (iscoms), made from the surface proteins of both human (long) and bovine (a-51908) rs strains adsorbed to the adjuvant quil a, were assayed for their capacity to induce neutralizing antibodies, in comparison to experimental live virus vaccines. serums from animals vaccinated with either the human or bovine rs subunit ...19892718604
pathogenesis of naturally acquired bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves: morphologic and serologic findings.lesions in 32 calves that died or were euthanatized during the course of severe natural infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) are described. all calves had been dyspneic for 1 to 2 days. at necropsy, lesions that could be related to dyspnea included congested and cyanotic mucosae and widespread petechiae. the lungs had various lesions in the cranioventral (cv) and caudodorsal (cd) portions. the cv portion of the lungs was consolidated, firm, and edematous. histologically, the ...19892729714
analysis of the antibody response to bovine respiratory syncytial virus proteins in calves.the antibody response in calves to natural infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) was analysed by radioimmunoprecipitation assays. antibodies to virus proteins of mr 200k (l), 87k (g), 46k (f1), 41k (n), 35k (p), 28k and 24k (f2), 27k (m), 22k and less than 14k could be identified. recovery of 6- to 7-month-old calves from severe brsv-associated disease was accompanied by the development of an antibody response to the virus, which was directed mainly o the f and n proteins. ca ...19892732702
polypeptides of pneumonia virus of mice. i. immunological cross-reactions and post-translational modifications.a murine polyclonal antiserum and monoclonal antibodies have been employed to identify pneumonia virus of mice (pvm) polypeptides in infected cells and to study post-translational modifications. immunoprecipitation experiments using a murine polyclonal antiserum and a monoclonal antibody directed against a 39k protein have established an antigenic relationship between two pvm proteins and the n and p proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus. although 20 virus-specific polypeptides have been ...19892732719
the frequency, distribution and effects of antibodies, to seven putative respiratory pathogens, on respiratory disease and weight gain in feedlot calves in ontario.during 1983-85, 279 calves requiring treatment for bovine respiratory disease and 290 comparison (control) animals from 15 different groups of feedlot calves were bled on arrival and again at 28 days postarrival. their sera were then analyzed for antibodies to seven putative respiratory pathogens. on arrival, the prevalences of indirect agglutination titers to pasteurella haemolytica, p. haemolytica cytotoxin, mycoplasma bovis and m. dispar were greater than 50%, the prevalence of titers to bovi ...19892766158
the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in formalin fixed bovine lung with commercially available monoclonal antibodies and avidin biotin complex immunohistochemistry.eight commercially available monoclonal antibodies directed against respiratory syncytial virus antigens were tested for ability to detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) antigen in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded bovine lung using avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining. monoclonal antibodies from clone 18b2 purchased from biosoft, paris, france and those from clone 8g12 purchased from the department of veterinary sciences, university of nebraska, lincoln, nebraska staine ...19892766160
prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in plasma and lung lavage fluids during sequential infection of vaccinated and nonvaccinated calves with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the potential action of immunologic reactions and mediators released during the course of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in pathogenesis of the ensuing disease process was examined in an experimental infection study. prostaglandin (pg) e2, pgf2 alpha 6-keto-pgf1 alpha, and thromboxane b2 (txb2) concentrations were quantitated in plasma and lung lavage fluid by radioimmunoassay at 3- to 4-day intervals during a primary and secondary virus infection of vaccinated, nonvaccinated, and ...19892782709
pathogenesis of naturally acquired bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves: evidence for the involvement of complement and mast cell mediators.indicators of immune-mediated disease were studied in calves with severe natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection. although antigen and antibody were detected concurrently in most calves, immune complexes were not detected by use of immunofluorescence, elisa, and binding of the 1q component of complement. complement component c3, however, was observed by immunofluorescence in the cranioventral, virus-infected portion of the lungs of 19 of 25 calves. reductions in the amount of histam ...19892786355
activation of complement by bovine respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells.because complement activation is probably involved in the pathogenesis of as well as in recovery from the disease induced by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), we studied the activation of complement by brsv-infected cells in vitro in a homologous system. binding of c3 on the surface of infected cells was measured in a biotin-streptavidin amplified elisa, and complement-mediated lysis was measured in a 51cr release assay. without antibody, infected cells activated and bound more c3 than ...19892800328
comparison of caprine, human and bovine strains of respiratory syncytial virus.a new continuous ovine kidney cell line allowing the growth of caprine, human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus was used to minimize host cell related variations for the direct comparison of the viral ultrastructures, serological relationships and structural protein profiles. results show that all three strains are closely related although a closer relationship was found between bovine and caprine rs.19892803001
[infectious respiratory tract diseases in cattle in the winter of 1985/86: detection of infection by bovine respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 by immunofluorescence in nasal swab samples and by antibody titer increase in serum (elisa)]. 19872827303
serological investigations for some bacterial and viral pathogens in fallow deer (cervus dama) and wild boar (sus scrofa) of the san rossore preserve, tuscany, italy.sera of 43 fallow deer (cervus dama) of the san rossore preserve (tuscany, italy) were examined for antibodies against eight pathogens; one proved positive for brucella sp., 21 for listeria monocytogenes, 34 for chlamydia psittaci, three for coxiella burnetii, one for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, 11 for parainfluenza-3 virus, 25 for bovine viral diarrhea virus and six for bovine respiratory syncytial virus. no age and sex difference in the positivity rates and titers was evidenced, w ...19882832622
prevalence of antibodies to seven viruses in a flock of ewes in minnesota.blood samples were collected from a flock of healthy ewes at a university of minnesota research station. sera from these blood samples were tested for antibodies against 7 viruses, using 3 tests (eg, virus-neutralization test for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine adenovirus type 3, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus; hemagglutination inhibition test for parainfluenza virus type 3; and agar-gel immunodiffusion test for lentivirus of ovine progressive ...19882837112
associations between viral infection and respiratory disease in young beef bulls.blood samples were taken from bull calves at two meat and livestock commission performance testing centres, just after weaning at six months of age and at six weekly intervals until the end of the performance test seven months later. sera were assayed by specific elisas for antibodies to bovine herpes virus 1 (bhv1), respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza 3 (pi3) and adenoviruses a and b. seroconversions between each sampling were related to the occurrence of clinical respiratory disease usi ...19882842921
serologic survey of selected pathogens in white-tailed and mule deer in western nebraska.exposure of free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in western nebraska to selected livestock pathogens was determined by serology and attempted virus isolation. antibodies to bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus were present in both species of deer. no serologic reactors to brucella or anaplasma were found. attempts to isolate bluetongue virus were negative.19862845156
characterization of bovine respiratory syncytial virus proteins and mrnas and generation of cdna clones to the viral mrnas.we have characterized the proteins and mrnas of bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus strain 391-2 and constructed cdna clones corresponding to 9 of the 10 brs virus mrnas. the proteins of brs virus-infected cells were compared with the proteins from human respiratory syncytial (hrs) virus-infected cells. nine proteins specific to brs virus-infected cells, corresponding to nine hrs virus proteins, were identified. only a brs virus polymerase protein remains to be identified. the brs virus g g ...19892911122
failure to detect antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial virus in bovine fetal serum.sera obtained from 147 bovine fetuses estimated to be between 120 and 270 days of gestation at an abattoir were tested for antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial virus. antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial virus was not detected in any of the sera examined. based on the results of this study and a review of the literature, it appears that transplacental infection by bovine respiratory syncytial virus does not occur, or is uncommon.19892914217
role of ige in the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in sequential infections in vaccinated and nonvaccinated calves.a study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of ige in the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infection. fifteen calves were allotted at random to 3 treatment groups. one group of 6 calves was vaccinated with attenuated brsv vaccine before live-virus challenge exposure, another group of 6 was not vaccinated before challenge exposure, and the remaining 3 calves served as controls (nonvaccinated, nonchallenge exposed). calves of the 2 experimental groups were exposed ...19892930022
study of prolonged virus infection in cattle stocks infected by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. 19862953213
local and systemic antibody response to bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection and reinfection in calves with and without maternal antibodies.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of immunoglobulin m (igm), iga, igg1, and igg2 antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) were used to measure antibody responses of calves after experimental or natural infection with brsv. serially collected sera, lung lavage samples, nasal and eye secretions, and feces were tested for the presence of these antibodies. lung lavage fluids and nasal secretions were further examined for the presence of virus. after experimenta ...19872954996
clinical signs following experimental lungworm infection and natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves.similar clinical signs have been reported in calves infected either by dictyocaulus viviparus or bovine respiratory syncytial virus. three experiments were carried out to establish the clinical picture and the course of the disease in animals with these infections. the clinical signs of calves infected with lungworm included coughing, nasal discharge, tachypnoea, abdominal breathing and pyrexia, and auscultation of their lungs revealed increased bronchial sounds. similar signs were also observed ...19882973675
serosurvey for selected pathogens in hunter-killed pronghorns in western nebraska.exposure of pronghorns (antilocapra americana) in western nebraska in 1983 to selected livestock pathogens was examined by serology and attempted virus isolation. antibodies were present to the agents of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. there were no serologic reactors to brucella, and attempts to isolate the viruses of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease were negative.19863005667
effect of recombinant dna-derived bovine and human interferons on replication of bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory syncytial viruses.antiviral effects of recombinant dna-derived bovine (bo) and human (hu) interferons (ifn) on the replication of bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory syncytial viruses were studied. bovine monolayer cultures were treated with recombinant dna-produced bo ifn-alpha 1, bo ifn-beta 2, hu ifn-alpha a, or hu ifn-alpha a/d and then challenge exposed with bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, or vesicular stomatitis virus. treatment with ...19863008606
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay used to monitor serum antibodies to bovine respiratory disease viruses.an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was applied to the detection of serum antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr), parainfluenza-3 (pi3), adenovirus type 3 (adeno 3) and bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) viruses. paired serum samples from calves vaccinated with live attenuated virus vaccines were tested. the elisa compared favorably with the virus neutralization test for detecting serologic responses to ibr, brs, and adeno 3 viruses or with the hemagglutination inhib ...19863014711
the association between serological titers in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus and treatment for respiratory disease in ontario feedlot calves.a seroepidemiological study of the association between antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease was conducted. a total of 322 calves from five different groups were bled on arrival, then one month later all cases (cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease) were rebled together with an equal number of controls (cattle not treated for any disease). titers t ...19863017529
a bovine respiratory virus vaccination trial.a respiratory virus vaccination trial was carried out in a commercial calf-rearing unit with a history of virus pneumonia. the effects of vaccination on the incidence of virus respiratory disease and growth rate were assessed. forty-four bought-in calves were allocated to groups and treated as follows: a, unvaccinated controls; b, intranasal temperature-sensitive infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) vaccine at three and 10 weeks; c, intranasal temperature-sensitive combined ibr and parainflue ...19863026078
diseases of wapiti utilizing cattle range in southwestern alberta.specimens from 28 wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) were collected by hunters in southwestern alberta in 1984. various tests were performed to detect infections and conditions that could affect cattle sharing the range or cause disease in wapiti. serum antibodies were present against leptospiral serovars autumnalis (25%), bratislava (4%), and icterohaemorrhagiae (8%), and the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea (52%), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (45%), and parainfluenza type 3 (13%). no sero ...19873029443
non-neoplastic pulmonary multinucleate giant cells. comparative study of multinucleate giant cells in porcine dermatosis vegetans and other polykaryocytic conditions.pulmonary multinucleate giant cells (mgcs) in porcine dermatosis vegetans (dv) were compared with virus-induced and inflammatory-associated mgcs, with particular attention to mechanisms involved in the formation of such cells. ultrastructurally, pigs with dv showed numerous pulmonary mgcs with transversely-sectioned interdigitating microvillous structures. microvilli were observed closely apposed to type-ii pneumocytes and with morphological characteristics of membrane bridge formation. rabbits ...19883044400
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