structural proteins of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus grown in bovine embryo kidney cell cultures was concentrated and purified in ficoll density gradients. the polypeptide composition of the virus was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the mature virion was found to contain 18 structural proteins with molecular weights from 250,000 to 29,000 daltons; 8 of them were glycosylated. the similarity of ibr virus protein composition to proteins of other herpetoviruses is discussed.197720761
use of corticosteroids to isolate ibr virus from cattle in cyprus after respiratory disease and outbreak of ataxia, blindness, respiratory disease and kerato-conjunctivitis occurred in october 1972 in a beef feedlot in cyprus. fifteen animals died and 10 that were severely ataxic were slaughtered; many animals became blind. there was no opportunity to isolate virus when the disease was active but in march and october 1973 infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus was isolated from cattle after they had been treated corticosteroids to stimulate virus excretion. it is probable that ...197549119
in vitro transmission and propagation of the bovine leukemia virus in monolayer cell cultures.this study demonstrates that the bovine leukemia virus (blv) can infect in vitro cells of human, simian, bovine, canine, caprine, ovine, and bat origin. cultures of these cells, cocultivated with blv-infected cells or inoculated with cell-free blv preparations, continuoously showed the presence of cells with the internal blv antigen as well as blv-induced syncytia. virus replication was abundant and increased with passage in bat lung cells and was moderate but constant in fetal canine thymus cel ...197661801
contamination of primary embryonic bovine kidney cell cultures with parainfluenza type 2 simian virus 5 and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.two different viruses were isolated from bovine embryonic cell cultures after two subcultures from the primary cells. one virus was identified as parainfluenza type 2 simian virus 5 (sv-5), and the other was identified as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. six months later, stock cultures of pig kidney (pk-15) cells were found to be contaminated with sv-5 virus. we believe that the source of the sv-5 virus in the bovine cells was a cross-contamination from monkey kidneys during preparation ...197875889
the use of frozen cells in the microtitre serum neutralization test for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis.some parameters of the microtitre serum neutralization test were examined when using bovine fetal kidney cells derived from stocks stored in liquid nitrogen. in replicate tests with one serum there was no significant difference (p greater than 0.05) between titres calculated on the basis of cytopathic effect when either two or four wells were used per serum dilution. also, there was no significant difference between titres calculated on the basis of a cell staining method when either two or four ...1975163125
infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-infectious pustular vulvovaginitis viral isolates from cattle with epididymitis and vaginitis.infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (ibr-ipv) viral isolates were obtained from cattle affected with epididymitis-vaginitis. isolation of virus from the diseased animals indicated that the genital form of ibr-ipv virus infection exists in kenya and that epididymitis-vaginitis may be associated with ibr-ipv virus. serums prepared from cattle having the genital form of the disease did not always have detectable antibody titers.1975163602
correlation between the serum neutralization test and the indirect immunofluorescent test for the detection of specific antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.comparative titrations show that immunofluorescence on infected rabbit kidney cells is relatively as sensitive as the neutralization test for the detection of antibodies to the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. when calf testis cells infected with this virus are used for the detection of antibodies by the indirect immunofluorescent test nonspecific staining is high. this nonspecific reaction is absent when rabbit kidney cells are used.1975164993
antibody levels and immunity to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibr) infections in wisconsin dairy cattle.individual cows and calves in 7 holstein-friesian herds with a history of respiratory disease in green county, wisconsin, usa, were swabbed intranasally and bled monthly, some for periods over 1 year. virus isolation and serological procedures were completed on the samples in an attempt to recognize the problems and peculiarities that ibr virus continues to cause in dairy cows, in spite of, and possibly because of vaccines available for immunization against this agent. while ibr virus was isolat ...1975165127
infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. history and recent developments.the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus belongs to the group of herpes viruses. it causes in cattle a severe disease predominantly in the upper respiratory tract. morbidity rate is 100 percent, mortality - depending on hygienic and other factors - ranges from 0-15 percent. the ibr virus is serologically indistinguishable from the infect pustulat vulvovaginitis (ipv) virus which causes disorders of the genital tract in both male and female cattle. possibly the ipv virus is the older of ...1975165129
a serologic survey of pronghorns in alberta and saskatchewan, determine the exposure of free-ranging pronghorns (antilocapra americana ord) to selected pathogens, serum samples were obtained from 33 live-trapped animals from southwestern saskatchewan in 1970, and from 26 and 51 animals from southeastern alberta, in 1971 and 1972, respectively. antibodies were found to the agents of parainfluenza 3, bovine virus diarrhea, eastern and western encephalomyelitis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and the chlamydial group. no serologic reactors were found to ...1975167203
[i.b.r (author's transl)].the clinical pictures which may be produced by ibr/ipv virus in cattle are briefly reviewed. up to the autumn of 1972, infection occurred only sporadically in the netherlands, no typical cases of ibr having been reported up to the fall of that year. since the winter of 1972-1973 ibr has increasingly been diagnosed, particularly during the winter months. it may, however, be mistaken for other infections of the respiratory tract. the infection apears to be spreading. the clinical features, diagnos ...1975168664
synthesis and cell culture studies on the antiviral activity of 5-mercaptomethyl-2'-deoxyuridine.treatment of 5-mercaptomethyluracil (i) with trimethylsilyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine gave 2,4,5-tris-(trimethylsilyl)-5-mercaptomethyluracil (ii) which, upon coupling with 2-deoxy-3,5-di-o-(p-toluoyl)-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl chloride, furnished as anomeric mixture of fully substituted 2'-deoxy ribonucleosides. the nucleoside with beta configuration (iii) was predominantly formed and was isolated as a crystalline solid. the free nucleoside iv was obtained by removal of blocking ...1975169351
evaluation of inactivated infectious bovine rhinotracheitis vaccines.sixty-five calves of approximately three months of age and of mixed sex were vaccinated twice at four week intervals with either attenuated or inactivated infectious bovine rhinotracheitis vaccines. following initial vaccination there was no demonstrable serum infectious bovine rhinotracheitis titer in any of the calves receiving the inactivated vaccine with 20.7% of the calves receiving the attenuated vaccines having demonstrable titers. following a second administration of vaccine at eight wee ...1975169968
isolation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus from mustelidae.herpesviruses isolated from either domesticated or wild carnivores should be immunologically compared with known viruses of this group which could have been included in the diet of the animal before being considered to be previously undescribed herpesviruses native to the carnivore in question.1975170300
detection of bovine viruses in fetal bovine serum used in cell culture.this investigation employed a viral screening method detect endogenous bovine virus contaminants in commercially supplied fetal bovine serum. fifty-one lots of fetal bovine serum from 14 suppliers were examined. over 30% of the lots tested were found to contain bovine viruses; they included bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type3-like virus, bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine enterovirus type 4, and an unidentified cytopathogenic agent. of the 51 lots, 20 had been pretested by the suppliers ...1975172434
purification and buoyant density of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.a purification scheme for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus utilizing rate-zonal centrifugation in a 10-40% potassium tartrate gradient was described. the density of ibrv in the potassium tartrate gradient was found to be 1.22 g/cm3. electron microscopic examination of purified virus preparations revealed homogeneous populations of enveloped virions with minute projections on the envelope surface.1976175368
growth characteristics of bovine herpesvirus 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) in human diploid cell strain wi-38.ibr virus was found to replicate in wi-38 cells. at a high input multiplicity the virus yield was comparable to that obtained in bovine cells, but comparable degree of cpe took longer to achieve. at a low input multiplicity of ibr virus, such as may be encountered in virus contaminated bovine serum, virus yield was only about 1% of that in bovine cells, with 50% of the cells showing cpe, followed by cell regrowth. infectious virus was not recoverable from the regrown cells by 5 weeks after initi ...1976175382
[localization of viral antigen in cell cultures infected with the ibr-ipv virus].using the immunofluorescence method and fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labelled antibodies against the ibr-ipv virus the dynamics was followed up of the production of the viral antigen in primary cell cultures of calf kidney and a permanent cell line of calf kidney infected with ibr-ipv strains isolated in this country. to avoid nonspecific reactions in the fluorescence-and-serologic demonstration of the viral antigen a method was employed for the contrast staining with evans blue. a positive reacti ...1975175554
effects of crude extracts of various plants on infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-plaque production.extracts of 28 plants were tested without demonstable antiviral activity in an agar-overlay plaque-reduction antiviral assay system, using infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and bovine endocardial cell cultures. ethanolic extract of narcissus tazetta l bulb elicited antiviral activity by inhibition of viral plaque formation. antiviral activity was demonstrated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and equine rhinopneumonitis viruses. narcissus tazetta l bulb did not directly inactivate ...1976176907
effects of vaccination infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and simultaneous administration of levamisole on primary humoral responses in a study on the primary humoral response of calves vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) and simultaneously given levamisole, mild but consistent suppression of the group's geometric mean serum-neutralization titer to ibr virus occurred between 12 and 59 days later. the quantitative determination of circulating immunoglobulins (ig) over the same period indicated a slight decrease in the igg concentrations from an initial geometric mean concentration of 18.28 mg/ml before c ...1976176908
effects of swab materials on infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.the recovery rates of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus from swab materials were compared. the adsorptive and elutive properties of cotton, polyester, and calcium alginate wool were examined by direct exposure of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus to swab materials in buffered tissue culture medium. calcium alginate wool was virucidal; this was apparent after 2 hours' exposure. cotton and polyester swab materials exhibited little virucidal effects. the addition of wooden applicator st ...1976180853
[study of the immunogenic properties of inactivated vaccines prepared with the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibr)].tested were the chemical and physico-chemical means for the inactivation of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. formalin and saponin were shown to decrease the immunogenic activity of the virus. the inactivation of the virus, preserving its immunogenic properties, was achieved with the use of two inactivating factors (1 and 2), and the concentrated vaccines produced containing an oil adjuvant at amounts of 10 cu. cm per dose in the vaccination and revaccination at a 28-day interval prov ...1976181897
[local interferon production in cattle after intranasal infection with avirulent ibr/ipv virus and its effect on a subsequent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 1976183421
envelopment and the envelopes of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in ultrathin electron microsopic study of cell cultures and bovine foetal tracheal organ cultures infected with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus showed the following. a) the difference in the site at which the outer envelope is acquired in the infected cell is responsible for some morphological differences between the virions. where envelopment of the capsids occurs by budding into cytoplasmic tubules, dense material adjacent to the tubules is often incorporated between the capsid and the out ...1976183630
lymphocyte activation by cell separation procedures.cell separation techniques normally used to obtain subpopulations of lymphocytes were shown, under certain conditions, to render the cells cytotoxic towards a number of target-cells including autologous lymphocytes. to cause cytotoxicity, it was necessary to pass cells through glass wool and/or nylon wool columns equilibrated with media containing fresh plasma or serum. cells lost activation upon overnight in vitro culture or treatment with trypsin. in addition to direct cell cytotoxicity, cells ...1976186400
[the presence of antibodies to ibr/ipv virus in cattle in the environs of leyden (author's transl)].the appearance of ibr among cattle in the environs of leyden is reported. possible explanations of local differences in the incidence of ibr and possible effects on ibr immunisation of cattle in these areas are referred to in the discussion.1976189454
persistent infection with bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) in cultured hamster cells.bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in hamster embryo cells was found to be dependent upon input multiplicity; productive infection was achieved at input multiplicities greater than one, while persistent infection was established when input multiplicities were about 0.5. this persistence was characterized by a noncyclic, minimal degree of cytopathic effect with a low level of released virus. maintenance of the persistently infected cultures did not require external supportive measures. subcultivation ...1976190164
[corticoid activation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus--infectious pustular vulvovaginitis virus (ibr-ipv)].the course of infection and ibr virus reactivation was studied in three experimentally infected weaned calves and three cows from naturally invaded herds. the animals were infected intranasally, intratracheally, and by contact. after 20, 41, and 105 days from primary infection, both in calves and in cows, dexametazon was applied in a series of six to seven intramuscular injections. the presence of the virus was examined in the nasal, conjunctival, vaginal and/or preputial secretions and in blood ...1976190757
experimental infection of rabbits with the virus of infectious bovine and newborn rabbits were infected with the la strain of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. adult rabbits developed only mild, self-limiting conjunctivitis, but had microscopic inflammatory foci in the liver and adrenal glands. newborn rabbits developed a severe, sometimes fatal, generalized infection with focal and diffuse necrosis of the liver and adrenal glands.1977193550
investigation of causative agents of bovine respiratory tract disease in a beef cow-calf herd with an early weaning program.serum samples were collected from early weaned fall calves shortly after the onset of respiratory tract disease. antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus, parainfluenza type 3 (pi-3) virus, bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) virus, bovine adenovirus type 3 (bav-3), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) were determined on paired (acute and convalescent) serums. seroconversion rate (a fourfold or greater rise in antibody titer) for ibr virus was 4.3%, pi-3 virus--16.3%, bv ...1977201196
use of polyethyleneglycol-treated serum for animal cell cultures.although many proteins will be removed from sera by precipitation with 10% polyethyleneglycol (peg) the growth-promoting properties of such peg-treated sera for many cell lines and cell strains are hardly reduced. among the precipitated proteins are the macroglobulins which are difficult to remove from cell cultures and which may cause allergic reactions if incorporated into vaccines. the gammaglobulins are removed in this way as well. if the sera are contaminated with viruses or phages the titr ...1976201528
maternal immunity to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine viral diarrhea viruses: duration and effect on vaccination in young calves.the immune response to modified live-virus bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) vaccine and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) vaccine was examined in calves that had received passive maternal antibodies to these viruses. blood serum samples from vaccinated and control (nonvaccinated) calves were examined for more than 1 year to determine the rate of decline of passive anti-bvd and anti-ibr antibodies and the effect that vaccination had on these antibody titers. the control calves lost their antibod ...1978204233
an outbreak of the conjunctival form of infectious bovine outbreak of severe conjunctivitis involved approximately 30% of a dairy herd of 118 cattle. infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus was identified by cytopathic effects and fluorescent antibody techniques from conjunctival swabs of affected animals. the disease typically presented as a unilateral ocular disease with systemic signs of pyrexia, inappetance, decreased milk production, and some subsequent abortions.1978208813
identification of a herpesvirus isolated from cytomegalovirus-transformed human cells.human cells transformed by cytomegalovirus and transplanted to athymic nude mice yielded a cytopathic virus, hershey medical center virus, following prolonged in vitro passage of the tumor cells. the virus is a double-enveloped herpesvirus, is sensitive to ether, and is inhibited by iododeoxyuridine. no significant antigenic relationship to herpes simplex virus was detected using herpes simplex virus-immune sera in neutralization and immunofluorescence tests, but indirect immunofluorescence test ...1978212591
mechanisms of recovery from herpesvirus infections -a review.a variety of specific immunological mechanisms have been shown to be effective at neutralizing herpesviruses or destroying herpesvirus infected cells. these include both humoral and cell mediated immune responses or combinations thereof. thus, it is genarlly accepted that humoral immunity is probably responsible for preventing reinfection whereas cellular immunity, mediated by t lymphocytes or by the interaction of antibody and fc receptor bearing cells, is more important in recovery from infect ...1978217506
[immunization effectiveness of the inactivated vaccine against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) with an oily adjuvant].the adjuvant vaccine against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) was tested as to its innocuousness and immunogenicity. the immunity response induced by a single or double application of different vaccine doses was evaluated according to the content of neutralization antibodies (np) in the blood serum. a direct dependence was revealed between the size of the inoculum and np content in the blood serum, with np titres of 1 : 9.3; 1 : 26.6, 1 : 80 and 1 : 149 after doubled application of 1, 2, ...1979223270
immune response of cattle to antigens obtained from bovine herpesvirus 1-infected tissue culture.the ability of two antigens, termed ev and cm, derived from bovine herpesvirus 1 infected cultures to produce serum-virus neutralizing antibodies has been studied in cattle. both ev and cm when inoculated with adjuvant induced significant increases in serum-virus neutralizing antibody titers. control groups inoculated in a similar manner failed to induce significant increases in serum-virus neutralizing antibody. some of the animals were vaccinated, then were bred, challenged with a virulent str ...1979226245
[isolation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus from the tarsal joint of a bull (author's transl)].isolation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus from the tarsal joint of a bullinfectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus was isolated from the right tarsal joint of a bull who was showing signs of a systemic viral infection. the clinical signs manifested by 16 bulls of this herd are described, the laboratory methods used are listed and the results are analysed and discussed.1979227556
properties of human epithelioid cells established in vitro by a herpesvirus [ibrv(hmc)] isolated from cytomegalovirus-transformed human cells.infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus [ibrv(hmc)], a double-enveloped herpesvirus, was isolated from human embryo lung fibroblasts transformed by cytomegalovirus (cmv). this agent was identified as an ibrv strain that was antigenically related to human cmv. inoculation of a primary human kidney cancer cell culture with ibrv(hmc) resulted in persistent infection and subsequent establishment of a cell line [ibrv(hmc)hkc-1]. virus-related nuclear, cytoplasmic, and cell membrane antigens were dete ...1979229291
experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus caused acute keratoconjunctivitis and a fatal systemic infection. the clinical syndrome was characterized initially by blepharospasm and ocular discharge. the rabbits were markedly depressed on post-exposure day (ped) 5 and were dead or moribund on ped 6. the virus was readily recovered from liver and adrenal gland tissue on ped 6 and from conjunctival swabs on ped 1 to 6. hi ...1979230773
[production and study of the immunogenic properties of a bivalent inactivated vaccine against mucosal disease (bovine viral diarrhea and infectious rhinotracheitis)].bivalent inactivated vaccine against mucous disease (md) and infectious rhinotracheitis (ir) in cattle was produced from cell cultural md and ir virus suspensions. the vaccine was concentrated on aluminium hydroxide, inactivated by ethanol and is without residual virus. saponine in final 1:1500 dilution is added as supplementary adjuvant. immunogeneity of the vaccine was tested on 10-month-old calves, which had shown full resistance against experimental infection with virulent strains of both vi ...1979232586
neural changes in recurrent genital infection of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in calves treated with dexamethasone.recurrent genital infection with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus was induced in calves by dexamethasone (dm) treatment 3 months after primary infection. the virus was first recovered from vaginal secretions on the 3rd day after the initiation of dm treatment; however, the virus was not recovered at all from nasal secretions or from the cerebrospinal fluid of the dm-treated calves. the significant neural changes in all recurrent infected calves were nonsuppurative poliomyelitis in t ...1979444414
some lesions observed in calves born to cows exposed to the virus of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in the last trimester of gestation.sixteen pregnant cows were challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus intranasally. one had a mummified fetus, four aborted, one calf was stillborn, two live fetuses were taken at the abattoir and eight calves were born alive. of the eight born alive, five were dead by 12 days of age. four of these had the usual lesions of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis as well as lesions in the intestine and peritoneum and two of the four had a fibrinous pneumonia thought to be caused by aspirat ...1978743599
shipping fever pneumonia in yearling feedlot cattle.during each week of 1974, we surveyed, for illnesses and deaths, a continually changing population of yearling feedlot cattle that, for the year, totaled 407,000 animals. about 5.1% of the cattle sickened and, of these, 18.9% died. from the 3,943 fatalities, 1,988 necropsies were made. about 75% of the clinical diagnoses and 64% of the necropsy diagnoses were respiratory tract diseases; of the fatalities from respiratory tract diseases, 75% were attributed to shipping fever pneumonia. nearly 72% ...1976783102
pathological and microbiological observations made on spontaneous cases of acute neonatal calf diarrhea.the purpose of this report is to describe clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, bacteriological and immunofluorescence observations made on spontaneous cases of acute neonatal calf diarrhea (ncd) in dairy and beef herds. the following diagnostic tools were used: 1) direct smears of intestinal content, 2) escherichia coli counts, 3) aerobic bacterial cultures of the small intestine and other organs (the o serogroup and the enterotoxigenicity of the e. coli isolated was determined), 4) de ...1976793692
mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis in pneumonia and arthritis of the bovine.the pneumonic lungs of 42 cattle from 26 feedlots were examined for the presence of mycoplasma, pathogenic bacteria and viruses. four animals representative of two lots failed to yield mycoplasma. one of these yielded the virus of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and pasteurella hemolytica, the other yielded only p. p. multocida. nine animals in eight lots yielded mycoplasma sp.: five of these were m. bovirhinis, two were m. arginini and two were untypable. all of these animals yielded one or m ...1977832194
study of bovine herpesvirus type 1 strains with monoclonal antibodies.fourteen strains of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1, ibrv) representing all three groups of bhv-1 (bhv-1.1, bhv-1.2, bhv-1.3) were studied by elisa using 106 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) produced against bhv-1. on the basis of the elisa, the mabs could be divided into three groups. the first group (40 mabs, 38%) reacted with all strains, the second group (43 mabs, 41%) with the respiratory and genital strains (bhv-1.1 and bhv-1.2) while the third group (23 mabs, 22%) only with the respiratory s ...19921284321
anti-idiotypic antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1 inhibit virus infection in cell cultures.a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) was prepared. three of them were neutralizing mabs and reacted against 130/75/50 kda, 77 kda, or 97 kda glycoproteins (gp). a fourth non-neutralizing mab recognized the 97 kda gp. competition radioimmunoassay demonstrated that each of the four mabs reacted against a different virus epitope. anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-id) to the four mabs were produced in rabbits and purified by sequential immunoaffinity chromatog ...19921309639
latency and reactivation of a thymidine kinase-negative bovine herpesvirus 1 deletion mutant.a bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv 1) mutant variant with a deletion in the thymidine kinase (tk) gene was assessed for its ability to establish latency and be reactivated in cattle. after treatment with dexamethasone, reactivated tk- bhv 1 was isolated from one of four cattle that received virus by intravenous inoculation only, and from four of four cattle that received virus by intranasal, intravaginal, and intravenous inoculation. results prove that tk- bhv 1 will establish latency and can be reacti ...19921309641
glycoprotein iv of bovine herpesvirus 1-expressing cell line complements and rescues a conditionally lethal viral mutant.glycoprotein iv (giv) of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1), a homolog of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d, represents a major component of the viral envelope and a dominant immunogen. to analyze the functional role of giv during bhv-1 replication, cell line buiv3-7, which constitutively expresses giv, was constructed and used for the isolation of giv- bhv-1 mutant 80-221, in which the giv gene was replaced by a lacz expression cassette. on complementing giv-expressing cells, the giv- bhv-1 replica ...19921309917
release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha from bovine alveolar macrophages stimulated with bovine respiratory viruses and bacterial endotoxins.the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) from cultured bovine alveolar macrophages (bam) was evaluated following stimulation of bam with bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), escherichia coli 0111:b4 endotoxin, pasteurella haemolytica type 1 endotoxin, pasteurella multocida endotoxin, and virus/endotoxin combinations. a cytotoxic assay system using georgia bovine kidney cells as targets was used to measure tnf-alpha a ...19921312264
activation of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus expression by bovine herpesvirus type 1.bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (biv) is a recently identified lentivirus that infects cattle. the virus has structural and genetic similarities to human hiv. the present study demonstrates that biv can be activated by bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), a pathogen frequently associated with cattle diseases. activation of biv expression can be detected as increased biv reverse transcriptase activity, increased in the number of syncytia induced by biv, and increased in the steady state level of ...19921312280
characterization of dexamethasone-induced reactivation of latent bovine herpesvirus 1.synchronous reactivation of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in all latently infected rabbits was achieved following a single intravenous dose of dexamethasone. reactivated latent virus was first present in ocular secretions between 48 and 72 h post-dexamethasone treatment (pt). cell-free infectious virus, viral-antigen-containing neurons, and pathologic changes were detectable in trigeminal ganglia (tg) by 48 h pt. a shift from the viral transcriptional pattern characteristic of the latent state (late ...19921312639
establishment of a genomic bank of bovine herpesvirus 1 using a novel positive selection plasmid vector.a small positive selection cloning vector, designated psiig1, suitable for the construction of genomic banks in e. coli is described and used for the establishment of a bank of the bovine herpesvirus 1 genome. hybrid transformants are directly selected on agar plates containing ampicillin. the vector is based on the replicon of r1 and has a lambda pr promotor inserted upstream of the replication control genes. the vector has an uncontrolled (runaway) replication and is lethal to the host cell un ...19921313826
stable rescue of a glycoprotein gii deletion mutant of pseudorabies virus by glycoprotein gi of bovine herpesvirus 1.glycoproteins homologous to glycoprotein b (gb) of herpes simplex virus constitute the most highly conserved group of herpesvirus glycoproteins. this strong conservation of amino acid sequences might be indicative of a common functional role. indeed, gb homologs have been implicated in the processes of viral entry and virus-mediated cell-cell fusion. recently, we showed that pseudorabies virus (prv) lacking the essential gb-homologous glycoprotein gii could be propagated on a cell line expressin ...19921313900
immediate-early rna 2.9 and early rna 2.6 of bovine herpesvirus 1 are 3' coterminal and encode a putative zinc finger transactivator protein.bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) contains three major immediate-early (ie) genes involved in regulation of the productive cycle of replication. two spliced ie rnas, ier4.2 (4.2 kb) and ier2.9 (2.9 kb), are under the control of a single promoter; ier1.7 (1.7 kb) is transcribed from a different promoter in the opposite direction. examining the kinetics of transcription, we found that the ier4.2/2.9 promoter was turned off at the end of the ie period. an alternative promoter became active, directing sy ...19921313901
comparison of herpesviruses isolated from reindeer, goats, and cattle by restriction endonuclease analysis.a genomic comparison of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1), caprine herpesvirus (chv-2) and reindeer herpesvirus (rhv), was performed using 5 restriction endonucleases. cross neutralization of these three herpesviruses showed that bhv-1 and chv-2 had a relatively low degree of cross reaction with heterologous viruses. rhv showed a higher degree of such cross reactivity. the restriction endonuclease analyses showed that the migration patterns of the dna segments were different for the three groups of h ...19921314052
relationship of bovine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early, early, and late gene expression to host cellular gene transcription.bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) gene expression was examined by rna blot hybridization using clones representing immediate-early, early, and late genes. an immediate-early protein gene probe hybridized with two transcripts, 3.4 and 5.8 kb, expressed by infected cells in the presence of cycloheximide (ch). during infection of cells without metabolic inhibitors these transcripts were detected as early as 2 hr postinfection (p.i.) and accumulated to 8 hr p.i. the early gene probe, thymidine kinase, hy ...19921314450
induction of a mucosal barrier to bovine herpesvirus 1 replication in cattle.current vaccines for human and animal herpesviruses engender an immunity that may ameliorate disease but generally fails to prevent infection, latency, reactivation from latency, or spread through a population. by administering intranasally to cattle bovine herpesvirus type 1 virion envelope proteins combined with the potent mucosal immune system adjuvant, cholera toxin b subunit, we engendered a local antibody response that acted as a barrier to infection of mucosal epithelial cells and thereby ...19921314454
expression of porcine pseudorabies virus genes by a bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) vector.recombinant dna techniques were used to insert foreign genes into bovine herpesvirus-1 [infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv)] vectors which were attenuated by deletion and/or insertion mutations in the ibrv thymidine kinase (tk) gene. in one recombinant, the regulatory and coding sequences of the late pseudorabies virus (prv) glycoprotein giii gene, were inserted into the early ibrv tk gene. this recombinant efficiently expressed the prv giii gene indicating that immediate early ibrv p ...19921315133
effect of repeated intradermal injections of bovine herpesvirus type 1 antigen on seronegative cattle.forty-three cattle seronegative to bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) were given from one to five intradermal injections of bhv-1 inactivated antigen at four-week intervals. this delayed hypersensitivity test was assessed by the increase in skin thickness. the activity of the antigen was assessed in five animals which had a previous natural bhv-1 infection with clinical signs and seroconversion. anti-bhv-1 antibodies were detected by seroneutralisation and an enzyme-linked immunoassay. only one animal ...19921318596
an adventitious viral contaminant in commercially supplied a549 cells: identification of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and its impact on diagnosis of infection in clinical specimens.the isolation and identification of an adventitious viral agent, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, in one lot of a549 cells from a commercial supplier is described in this report. the presence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in a549 cells was unexpected and has caused problems in the diagnosis of infections in clinical specimens in three laboratories.19921320632
sequence and transcript analysis of the bovine herpesvirus 1 thymidine kinase locus.a detailed sequence and transcript analysis of the thymidine kinase (tk) gene of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv1, cooper strain) was carried out. a tk open reading frame (orf) of 1077 bp was identified and compared with tk orfs previously published for other strains of bhv1. the cooper sequence was in good agreement with that of strain q3932 but differed significantly from strains 6660 and la. reanalysis of the la tk sequence, however, failed to confirm this difference. except for five single base su ...19921322582
an in vivo study of a glycoprotein giii-negative bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) mutant expressing beta-galactosidase: evaluation of the role of giii in virus infectivity and its use as a vector for mucosal immunization.we constructed a recombinant bhv-1 in which the glycoprotein giii gene was replaced by the escherichia coli lacz gene. the resultant virus mimics the simple giii deletion mutant in its growth characteristics in cell culture; however, it expresses beta-galactosidase in virus-infected cells. further characterization of its virulence and the immune responses elicited by it was conducted in cattle. the mutant virus retained the ability to establish an infection when administered intranasally. infect ...19921322592
mechanisms of bovine herpesvirus type 1 neutralization by monoclonal antibodies to glycoproteins gi, giii and giv.we examined a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) glycoproteins gi, giii and giv for inhibition of virus attachment and interference with subsequent steps of infection. attachment of radiolabelled virions was partially prevented by 600 to 700 micrograms/ml of igm antibodies against gi and giii and one igg2a antibody against giv, but not by the majority of mabs against any of the three viral glycoproteins. productive infection following attachment was p ...19921322960
bovine herpesvirus 1 as a live virus vector for expression of foreign genes.dna sequence analysis and 5'-end mapping of mrna were used to identify and clone dna fragments which contain the presumptive promoter (pgl) and poly(a) site (an) of the bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv1) gl glycoprotein. to confirm the presence of these regulatory regions in the above fragments, they were cloned together with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) reporter gene into puc19. the recombinant plasmid formed, pec3, was capable of inducing cat activity when transfected into bovine cells d ...19921325699
sequencing and 5'- and 3'-end transcript mapping of the gene encoding the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from bovine herpesvirus type-1.the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (rnr) from bovine herpesvirus type-1 (bhv-1) was determined. the genomic dna fragment sequenced also represented regions corresponding to the carboxy termini of rnr large subunit and of a virion protein causing host shut-off. the small subunit polypeptide was constituted of 314 amino acid residues totalling 35.25 kda. the major transcription initiation and termination sites of the small subunit mr ...19921325701
localization of cis-acting sequences in the latency-related promoter of bovine herpesvirus 1 which are regulated by neuronal cell type factors and immediate-early genes.bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) establishes a latent infection in sensory ganglionic neurons of cattle. during a latent infection, a single latency-related (lr) transcript is expressed. this observation suggested that dna sequences in the lr promoter are positively regulated by neural cell type factors. the regulation of the lr gene was examined in neural cells as well as nonneural cells in transient assays. a 258-bp xbai-sphi fragment from the lr promoter cis activated the herpes simplex virus typ ...19921326660
structural, functional, and immunological characterization of bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein gl expressed by recombinant baculovirus.the major glycoprotein complex gl of bovine herpesvirus-1 was expressed at high levels (36 micrograms per 1 x 10(6) cells) in insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus. the recombinant gl had an apparent molecular weight of 116 kda and was partially cleaved to yield 63-kda (glb) and 52-kda (glc) subunits. this processing step was significantly less efficient in insect cells than the analogous step in mammalian cells, even though the cleavage sites of authentic and recombinant gl were shown to ...19921326809
sequences of the bovine herpesvirus 1 homologue of herpes simplex virus type-1 alpha-trans-inducing factor (ul48).a virion protein of herpes simplex virus type-1, called vmw65, alpha tif or vp16, interacts with cellular transcription factors to transactivate immediate early viral genes. we have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the homologous protein in bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1). the amino acid sequence of the bhv-1 protein is similar to that of alpha tif, except in the c-terminal one-third of the protein. since the ability of alpha tif to activate transcription is depend ...19921327963
blocking elisa for distinguishing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv)-infected animals from those vaccinated with a gene-deleted marker vaccine.a sensitive and specific blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to distinguish infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv)-infected animals from those immunized with a glycoprotein giii deletion mutant, ibrv(ng)dltkdlgiii. for this elisa, undiluted test sera are used to block the binding of an anti-ibrv giii monoclonal antibody (mabgiii)-horseradish peroxidase (hrpo) conjugate to giii antigen. tmb substrate is used for color development. negative s/n values (defined ...19921331160
characterization and transcript mapping of a bovine herpesvirus type 1 gene encoding a polypeptide homologous to the herpes simplex virus type 1 major tegument proteins vp13/14.using in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mrna, we have previously shown that bovine herpesvirus type 1 hindiii fragment m encodes an abundant 94k polypeptide. using immunoprecipitation and sequencing analyses, it has now been shown that the polypeptide is related to the major tegument protein vp8 and is homologous to the herpes simplex virus type 1 major tegument proteins vp13/14. the sequence of the vp8 gene (field isolate 34) is reported and compared to published data. several differences ...19921331296
[practice observations of cross protection between bovine and porcine herpesviruses].in many cattle herds in lower saxony the serologic ibr/ipv = bhv-1-status is known because since 1988 the bovine herpes virus infection (bhv 1), the infectious rhinotracheitis and pustular vulvovaginitis (ibr/ipv) are being fought. through extensive investigations in five districts in the weser-ems area, it was found that cows infected by bovine herpes virus (bhv 1) are also protected to a high degree against infection by porcine herpes suis virus (shv 1). an interpretation of the observed cross ...19921332217
the latency-related gene of bovine herpesvirus 1 inhibits the activity of immediate-early transcription unit 1.bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) establishes a latent infection in sensory neurons of infected animals. only one virus-encoded latency-related (lr) gene is expressed during a latent infection. the lr transcript overlaps immediate-early transcription unit 1 (ietu1) and is anti-sense with respect to ietu1. the transcriptional start site of the lr rna was mapped to position 724 of the lr gene, downstream from two putative tata elements. when lr promoter sequences were deleted from a plasmid containing ...19921333133
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to cervine herpesvirus-1.fourteen hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (mab) to cervine herpesvirus-1 (cerhv-1) produced following the fusion of nso myeloma cells with splenocytes of balb/c mice previously immunized with gradient purified cerhv-1 were selected using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) employing cerhv-1 antigen and tested by the elisa against four other ruminant alphaherpesviruses from cattle (bovine herpesvirus type 1.1 and 1.2) goat (caprine herpesvirus-2) and reindeer ...19921333671
viral agents and associated lesions detected in a 10-year study of bovine abortions and a 10-year survey started in 1980, specimens from 8,995 bovine abortions and stillbirths were submitted to the south dakota animal disease research and diagnostic laboratory. of these, 8,962 were suitable for some type of examination. viruses were associated with 948 (10.58%). bovine herpesvirus-1 (ibr) was detected in 485 (5.41%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) was detected in 407 (4.54%). in 1 year of the survey, bvdv was detected in 8/32 fetuses that had lesions of passive congestio ...19921333814
serological titers to bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and pasteurella haemolytica in feedlot calves with respiratory disease: associations with bacteriological and pulmonary cytological variables.acute and convalescent serum samples were taken from 59 calves with signs of respiratory disease (cases) and 60 clinically normal animals (controls) during their first month in the feedlot. sera were analyzed for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza 3 (pi3) virus by hemagglutination inhibition, to bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv1) by virus neutralization, and to pasteurella haemolytica by indirect agglutination (phia) and cy ...19921335831
target recognition by bovine mononuclear, mhc-unrestricted cytotoxic cells.a population of bovine non b/non t, cytotoxic lymphocytes with natural killer activity against virus-infected and non-infected embryonic kidney cells was functionally characterized. the data obtained in experiments of flow cytometry and immuno-peroxidase staining show that a cd2-, cd4-, cd8-, tcr gamma delta-, cd3+, cd45+, fcr+ lymphoid killer cell does exist within bovine peripheral blood leucocytes. this population can detect the down-regulation of class i mhc antigens or the expression of emb ...19921336249
interactions of bovine and caprine herpesviruses with the natural and the foreign hosts.bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv1) and caprine herpesvirus 1 (caphv1) are useful models to study virus-host interactions, as well as pathogenicity and latency, when comparing the outcome of infection in the natural and the foreign hosts. molecular seroepidemiological analyses revealed that cross-reacting antibodies were mainly induced by glycoprotein gi (gb analogue), by the major capsid protein and by nonstructural proteins, whereas the most virus-specific antibodies were elicited by glycoproteins gii ...19921336252
prevalence of antibodies to selected viruses in bovine embryo donors and recipients from brazil, and its implications in international embryo trade.the prevalence of serum antibody to enzootic bovine leukosis (ebl), blue-tongue (bt), bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv 1) and bovine virus diarrhoea (bvd) viruses in bovine embryo donors (d) and recipients (r) from minas gerais state, brazil was investigated. of 451 sera (130 d plus 321 r) tested for antibodies against ebl virus 104 (23.1%) were positive. of 410 sera (130 d plus 280 r) tested for antibody to bt, bhv 1 and bvd viruses the respective number of positive sera were 313 (76.3%), 209 (51.0%) ...19921339004
multiple administration with interleukin-2 potentiates antigen-specific responses to subunit vaccination with bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein iv.interleukin-2 has been described as an effective adjuvant for a number of antigens in different host species. previously, we demonstrated the adjuvant activity of recombinant bovine il-2 with a glycoprotein iv (giv) subunit vaccine from bovine herpesvirus type-1 (bhv-1). in the present study, primary antibody responses were assessed in cattle immunized with either 2 or 50 micrograms of giv, and treated with multiple doses of il-2 or combinations of il-2 and ifn-alpha or il-2 and ifn-gamma. il-2 ...19921373261
[viral agents as the cause of reproductive disorders in cattle and available vaccines].after a review on the viral agents playing a role in diseases of cattle those related to the occurrence in the genital tract are described. they may be causing abortion or local reactions leading to a reduced fertility and/or be of importance for the embryo transfer. bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv1) and the bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv) are the agents most widely distributed in europe. both are of economic importance, described in detail and vaccines available discussed.19921396167
susceptibility of a line of dolphin kidney cell culture to several herpesviruses.a cell line was established from cell cultures of kidney cortex of a pantropical spotted dolphin, stenella attenuate. the replication of 6 strains of herpesviruses was studied in the cells. five strains of them, herpes simplex virus type i and type ii, equine rhinopneumonitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and aujeszky's disease virus, were grown fairly well in showing clear cytopathic effects and plaques under agar overlay medium.19921460566
increased elastase activity in nasal mucus associated with nasal colonization by pasteurella haemolytica in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-infected calves.four healthy calves were inoculated with pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 by instillation of a broth culture into the middle nasal meatus of the left nostril. four weeks later, calves were exposed to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by aerosol into both nostrils. all calves became ill, from approximately day 3 through day 10 after virus exposure, and shed increased amounts of nasal mucus. two calves were induced to shed p haemolytica by the virus infection, and 2 calves required reinocu ...19921524285
constitutively expressing cell lines that secrete a truncated bovine herpes virus-1 glycoprotein (gpi) stimulate t-lymphocyte responsiveness.the desire to obtain authentically glycosylated viral protein products in sufficient quantity for immunological study has led to the use of eucaryotic expression vectors for protein production. an additional advantage is that these protein products can be studied individually in the absence of their native viral environment. we have cloned a complementary dna (cdna) encoding bovine herpes virus-1 (bhv-1) glycoprotein 1 (gpi) into the eucaryotic expression vector, pzipneo svx1. since this protein ...19921526647
colonization of the tonsils of calves with pasteurella haemolytica.tonsils of 10 calves were inoculated with pasteurella haemolytica (ph) and the degree of colonization was followed by collecting sequential tonsil. wash specimens. tonsils were colonized for at least 3 weeks after instillation of ph into the tonsillar sinus. calves with colonized tonsils responded with serum and nasal secretion antibody responses to ph and to leukotoxin. pasteurella haemolytica was detected in nasal mucus specimens of 2 calves during the week after inoculation of the tonsils, bu ...19921586016
bovine herpesvirus-1-induced pharyngeal tonsil lesions in neonatal and weanling calves.the potential involvement of the pharyngeal tonsil in the pathogenesis of bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) infection was examined in neonatal and weanling calves infected by intranasal aerosol. calves were monitored from days 1 to 5, and on day 6 (neonates) or 8 (weanlings) and, in a second trial at day 4.5, by histology, electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry and virus isolation. mucosal lesions of neonates were similar to, but less extensive than, those of weanling calves. loss of microvilli and ...19921602058
a comparison of serological relationships among five ruminant alphaherpesviruses by elisa.using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays the cross reactivity of bovine herpesvirus-1.1, bovine herpesvirus-1.2, caprine herpesvirus-2, cervine (red deer) herpesvirus-1 and rangiferine (reindeer) herpesvirus-1 has been examined using rabbit hyperimmune antisera and convalescent cattle and red deer field sera. significant cross-reactivity among all the five viruses was demonstrated. a detailed analysis showed that: (1) the two bovine herpesviruses are most closely related, (2) the cervine, caprin ...19921605741
etiologic agents detected in a 10-year study of bovine abortions and stillbirths.during a 10-year period, specimens from 8,995 bovine abortions were submitted to the south dakota animal disease research and diagnostic laboratory; 8,962 of these specimens were suitable for examination. a supportable diagnosis was made in 2,942 (32.82%) of the abortions examined. an infectious cause was determined for 2,723 (30.38%) and a noninfectious cause for 219 (2.44%). bacteria caused 1,299 (14.49%), viruses caused 948 (10.57%), and fungi caused 476 (5.31%). the infectious bovine rhinotr ...19921616982
influence of yeast culture on feeder calves and lambs.four experiments were conducted to determine the influence of yeast culture on 1) the health and performance of feeder calves, 2) the response of calves to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv) infection, and 3) nutrient utilization in lambs fasted for 3 d. in exp. 1, 108 feeder calves were transported from tennessee to texas (1,600 km) and fed receiving diets containing 0 or .75% yeast culture and .35 or .69% p in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. in exp. 2, 101 calves we ...19921634392
detection of cattle infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus using nucleic acid hybridization.a ribonucleic acid (rna) hybridization assay to identify cattle infected by bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is described. the rna probe was derived from the coding region at the 3' end of the genome of the nadl strain of bvdv. total rna from infected cell cultures or peripheral blood leukocytes from suspect animals was extracted and applied to nylon membranes with a slot blot apparatus. peripheral blood leukocytes were tested concurrently for bvdv by virus isolation. the results of hybridizat ...19911645592
the vaccination and challenge with bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) of calves previously infected with a non-cytopathic bvdv.four calves were infected with noncytopathic (ncp) new york-1 strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv). during the observation period of one month the calves remained clinically normal but the virus was repeatedly recovered from their pharyngeal swabbings and blood. thirty days following infection the four calves were vaccinated, together with two uninfected calves, with a modified-live vaccine containing cytopathic (cp) bvdv, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and parainfluenza-3 virus ...19911647929
comparative studies of bhv-1 variants by in vivo--in vitro tests.the new encephalitogenic bhv-1.3 and previously characterized bhv-1 strains were studied with reference to their immunogenic and protective potency and their antigenic relationships using "in vitro" and "in vivo" tests. the "in vitro" results obtained by neutralization kinetics showed that the los angeles (la) strain (bhv-1.1) and a vaginal isolate l-114 strain (bhv-1.2) had antigenic similarities. conversely, the behavior of the encephalitogenic strain a-663 (bhv-1.3), was significantly distinc ...19911648293
detection of bovine rhinotracheitis virus antibody by neutralizing test and elisa in experimentally infected rabbits.the antibody response of rabbit to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus was examined. two rabbits were inoculated with ibr virus strain los angeles into the trachea and intravenously, and intravenously two times, respectively. the patterns of antibody titers in the rabbits measured by neutralization test and elisa were similar to those in the case of bovine. the antibody was detected after the inoculation, and much more antibody was detected after the second inoculation. the fact sugges ...19911648294
changes in phospholipids of alveolar lining material in calves after aerosol exposure to bovine herpesvirus-1 or parainfluenza-3 virus.pulmonary lavage samples were collected from 90- to 130-day-old calves before and 6 days after aerosol inoculation with bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) or parainfluenza-3 (pi3) virus. alveolar lining material was separated from lavage fluids by high-speed centrifugation and phospholipids were extracted from alveolar lining material and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were 74.2 +/- 6.5% and 13.3 +/- 2.8%, respectively, of the total ...19911649560
[differentiation of strains of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis virus using restriction analysis].the virus of infectious rhinotracheitis of cattle (bhv-1) causes the respiratory diseases, encephalitis, vulvovaginitis, abortions, etc. in sensitive animals. the attempts to differentiate the viral strains by virology and serology methods were unsuccessful. the restriction analysis makes possible to divide the strains into the three main groups designated bhv-1.1, bhv-1.2 and bhv-1.3. majority of authors note the lack of correlation between the restriction pattern of dna and the syndromes cause ...19911649969
prevalence of antibody to bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) in tanzanian cattle. 19911650045
the virulence of british isolates of bovid herpesvirus 1 in relationship to viral genotype.six strains of bovid herpesvirus 1 isolated from british cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) were inoculated intranasally into calves. the clinical, virological and serological responses were measured and comparisons made between virus strains. calves infected with viruses of subtype 1 developed more severe clinical signs and excreted higher titres of virus than calves infected with subtype 2b strains. the findings could be related to the history of ibr in great britain.19911652347
iscom of bhv-1 envelope glycoproteins protected calves against both disease and infection.a subunit vaccine in the form of immunostimulating complex (iscom) was prepared to contain the envelope glycoproteins of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1). this iscom preparation was tested in a vaccination experiment on 4-month-old calves seronegative to bhv-1. in this experiment, four groups with three animals per group were used. two groups were vaccinated with the iscom preparation twice, four weeks apart, one group with 50 micrograms and the other with 100 micrograms per calf. the third gro ...19911653508
determination of ability of a thymidine kinase-negative deletion mutant of bovine herpesvirus-1 to cause abortion in cattle.the cooper isolate of bovine herpesvirus-1, which causes abortion in cattle, was used to construct a thymidine kinase-negative (tk-) deletion mutant virus. twelve heifers were inoculated iv at 25 to 29 weeks of pregnancy with either tk- or thymidine kinase-positive (tk+) cooper virus. all heifers developed fevers of 1 to 2 c during the first week after inoculation. temperatures of tk+ inoculates were slightly higher and remained above normal a few days longer than in tk- inoculates. viremia was ...19911654031
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