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suppression of antibody response to leptospira biflexa and brucella abortus and recovery from immunosuppression after berenil treatment.zebu cattle infected with either trypanosoma congolense eatro 1800 or trypanosoma vivax eatro 1721 had suppressed humoral immune responses to leptospira biflexa injected intravenously and to attenuated brucella abortus injected subcutaneously. t. congolense infections were more suppressive than t. vivax infections. in cattle infected with t. vivax, the suppression of immune responses to both bacterial immunogens was abrogated when the animals were treated with berenil at the time of antigen admi ...1979118933
trypanosomiasis in different breeds of cattle from benin.blood of different breeds of cattle, namely lagune from the atlantic province, borgou and borgou x zebu from the borgou province, and somba and zebu from the atacora province of benin, were examined for trypanosome infection. thick and thin blood smears for trypanosomes, the card agglutination test (catt), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) and trypanolytic test for antibodies to trypanosomes were used. trypanosomes were detected in 19.3% (range 9.8-31.4%) of animals by examination ...19911763478
comparative study of clinical signs, haematology and prevalence of trypanosomiasis in holstein friesian and white fulani zebu cattle exposed to natural infection in a rain forest zone of nigeria.a comparison of the symptomatology, haematology and prevalence of trypanosomiasis in holstein friesian and white zebu cattle exposed to natural infections on a ranch in a rain forest zone of nigeria is presented. 23 (44%) of the adult friesians had trypanosome infections with a generally heavy parasitaemia. infection was light in the friesian calves and the zebus with infection rates of 2 (6.9%) and 3 (15%) respectively. trypanosoma vivax was the sole species encountered on the farm. there was a ...19911888077
[experimental infection of the guyanese zebu with trypanosoma vivax].the guyanese strain of trypanosoma vivax is pathogenic for the local brahman zebu; the experimental infection of 19 one-year old cattle was followed by a moderate and transitory fever, a drop in packed cell volume (pcv) and a quick and marked weight loss of 10 to 17 kg one month after as compared to the 16 non-infected animals. other symptoms were associated with the parasitaemia: diarrhoea, swollen haematic glands on the neck and the flank, lachrymation, weakness. despite a trypanocidal treatme ...19901983439
differences in sensitivity of kenyan trypanosoma vivax populations to the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of isometamidium chloride in boran cattle.isometamidium chloride was administered as a single prophylactic dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 body weight to each of 10 boran (bos indicus) steers. at monthly intervals following drug administration, groups of five cattle each were challenged with one of two different trypanosoma vivax populations transmitted by infected glossina morsitans centralis; one with a stock (il 2982) from galana, kenya and the other with a stock (il 2986) from likoni, kenya. prophylaxis was afforded for less than one month agai ...19912038768
effect of novidium (homidium chloride) chemotherapy on genital lesions induced by trypanosoma vivax and trypanosoma congolense infections in zebu bulls.zebu bulls chronically infected with trypanosoma vivax and t. congolense were treated at the 12th week post-infection with novidium and slaughtered at different times after treatment to determine histological evidence of healing of the genital lesions. though trypanosomes disappeared from the blood soon after chemotherapy, there was incomplete resolution of genital lesions even 10-18 weeks later. where there is severe degeneration of the testes and epididymes chemotherapy may be ineffective in l ...19902331596
comparative haematological changes following trypanosoma vivax and t. congolense infections in zebu bulls.a comparative study of haematological changes subsequent to trypanosoma vivax and trypanosoma congolense infections was carried out using 24 zebu bulls during a period of 12 weeks. eight bulls were infected with t. vivax, another eight with t. congolense and eight served as controls. infected bulls developed chronic trypanosomiasis which was characterized by many clinical manifestations including intermittent pyrexia. elevated rectal temperatures of up to 105 and 106 degrees f were recorded, res ...19902343522
serum haemolytic complement activity and c3 levels in bovine trypanosomosis under natural conditions of challenge--early indications of individual susceptibility to disease.twenty-five baoule (bos taurus) and 12 zebu (bos indicus) cattle, which were part of an experiment aimed at characterizing cattle for resistance to trypanosomosis under natural challenge in burkina faso, were monitored for complement levels. total haemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway and c3 in sera taken weekly were estimated. the results were analysed in relation to the course of the disease, parasitological data, packed red cell volume (pcv) and body weight. all the animal ...19902343531
[tabanus importunus, experimental mechanical vector of trypanosoma vivax in french guiana].the pathogen of american bovine trypanosomiasis trypanosoma vivax was transmitted between zebu bull calves by blood meal interruption and immediate resumption of female tabanus importunus horse flies. transmission was achieved by 44 transfers from the donor animal to the recipient animal carried out from 8 to 10 days after experimental inoculation of the donor animal. parasitemia was detected in the recipient animal 10 days after transfer beginning.19902344135
effect of chemotherapy on elevated ejaculation time and deteriorated semen characteristics consequent to bovine trypanosomiasis.the effect of the trypanocidal drug novidium on elevated ejaculation time and deteriorated semen characteristics was studied in zebu cattle infected with t. vivax and t. congolense. two groups, comprising six bulls per group, were infected with trypanosoma vivax or trypanosoma congolense while three bulls served as controls. chemotherapy was carried out 12 weeks post-infection on three bulls from each group, leaving three bulls untreated while three bulls served as uninfected controls. blood sam ...19902397378
[globular resistance in bovine erythrocytes].an analysis of red blood cells resistance has been conducted by exposing red corpuscles of zebu, baoule and metis zebu x baoule, to different saline concentrations. the statistical results show no sex influence for all breeds. in zebu, there is a difference according to the type of hemoglobin concerned. the last ones differ also from these in taurine and metis. the data analysis were realised by calculating the mean of hemolysis percentages for all samples, as with nacl concentrations in respect ...19892485552
the effect of trypanosoma vivax and trypanosoma congolense infections on the reaction time and semen characteristics in the zebu bull. 19883167554
effect of pregnancy on clinical manifestation of bovine trypanosomiasis.four groups of non-pregnant, first second and third trimester pregnant zebu heifers were used to study and compare the clinical manifestations of trypanosoma vivax infection. all the infected heifers developed clinical trypanosomiasis manifested by massive parasitaemia, fluctuating pyrexia, anaemia, dull hair coat, emaciation, jugular pulse and enlarged superficial lymph nodes. there were group variations in the severity of signs shown. infected non-pregnant heifers and heifers in the third trim ...19873590610
self-cure in zebu calves experimentally infected with trypanosoma vivax.the course of an experimental infection of zebu calves (6-12 months old) with trypanosoma vivax was studied. three of eight (38%) infected calves died, two within the first three weeks of infection and the other at 17 weeks. the remaining animals were self-cured. it would appear that self-cure of the infection was related to the ability of the calves to control parasitaemia as well as the severity of anaemia.19863788020
[comparative studies on experimental trypanosoma vivax and trypanosoma brucei infections in zebu cattle]. 19724553493
haematological and serum protein changes caused by trypanosoma vivax infections in east african zebu cattle. 19734784093
susceptibility to african trypanosomiasis of n'dama and zebu cattle in an area of glossina morsitans submorsitans challenge.the use of trypanotolerant livestock is considered to be an important strategy for the control of african animal trypanosomiasis. in order to define the extent of the differences in susceptibility and productivity, 10 zebu cows (a breed considered trypanosusceptible) and 10 n'dama cows (a breed recognised for trypanotolerance) were exposed to a natural field challenge from glossina morsitans submorsitans newstead. the animals were two-and-a-half to three years old and had not been previously exp ...19817340084
hemolytic complement and serum c3 levels in zebu cattle infected with trypanosoma congolense and trypanosoma vivax and the effect of trypanocidal treatment.total hemolytic complement and c3 levels were found to drop to 6.25% and 50% of preinfection levels, respectively, during trypanosome infections. chemotherapeutic elimination of the trypanosomes with berenil led to recovery of preinfection levels within 7 days and 11 days when cattle infected with trypanosome congolense and trypanosoma vivax, respectively, were treated 37 days after onset of infection. recovery was slower in t. vivax-infected cattle treated on day 50. berenil treatment had no ef ...19807380555
comparative study of trypanosomosis in zebu and n'dama cattle in the gambia.an experiment was conducted in the gambia to compare trypanosomosis incidence between zebu and n'dama cattle. it was considered important to compare the 2 breeds under identical management conditions and the animals were maintained together at 3 locations, traditionally managed and under a range of tsetse challenges. the results show that trypanosomosis incidence was significantly higher in zebu than in n'dama. titre of antibody against trypanosoma vivax measured by an ifat showed a significant ...19947809985
[epidemiology of bovine trypanosomiasis (trypanosoma vivax) in french guiana].about 3,000 european and zebu cattle sera from various rearing areas of french guiana were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of specific circulating antigens of trypanosoma vivax and for detection of antibodies to trypanosoma species with reagents provided by ilrad. for the whole country, the seroprevalence rate is 29%. infection was detected everywhere in french guiana, but seroprevalence rates were different from place to place, depending on the epidemiologica ...19937910693
pathogenesis and pathology of african trypanosomosis in baoulé, n'dama/baoulé cross bred and zebu cattle in burkina faso. 1. clinical performance under high natural tsetse challenge.the pathogenesis and pathology of african animal trypanosomosis (aat) in baoulé, n'dama/baoulé-cross-bred and zebu cattle was studied from 1987 to 1991 in a series of experiments conducted under natural and artificial conditions of challenge at the centre de recherches sur les trypanosomoses animales (crta) in burkina faso. this first paper reports on the clinical performance of 64 baoulé, 10 n'dama/baoulé-cross-bred and 20 zebu cattle, which were transferred to the pastoral zone of satiri, 50 k ...19938367674
the effect of experimental infection of boran cattle in early and mid-pregnancy with trypanosoma vivax.six susceptible galana and five trypanotolerant orma boran (bos indicus) cattle were infected experimentally with trypanosoma vivax ketri 2501 by cyclical transmission using glossina morsitans during early and mid-pregnancy. four pregnant animals, two of each boran type were used as controls and remained uninfected throughout the study period. three out of the six infected susceptible galana borans aborted, whilst one had a stillborn calf. none of the trypanotolerant orma boran cattle aborted an ...19968791852
nitric oxide synthesis is depressed in bos indicus cattle infected with trypanosoma congolense and trypanosoma vivax and does not mediate t-cell suppression.infection with african trypanosomes causes the diseases sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle in sub-saharan africa. suppression of cellular immune responses is a feature of trypanosomiasis in bovine, human, and murine hosts. some aspects of immunosuppression in the murine model are mediated by nitric oxide (no) produced by gamma interferon (ifn-gamma)-activated macrophages. we have investigated whether a similar mechanism is responsible for t-cell unresponsiveness in bovine trypanoso ...19968926077
reduced ovulatory and oestrous activity in zebu heifers following trypanosoma vivax infection.this paper describes a study on the oestrous and ovarian activity and responses to prostaglandin f2 alpha (pgf2 alpha) administration and artificial insemination in zebu heifers. four cycling heifers were artificially infected with 5 x 10(6) trypanosoma vivax organisms. two heifers served as controls. two injections of pgf2 alpha were given 11 days apart, commencing at the peak of parasitaemia in the infected animals, followed by artificial insemination 72 and 96 h after the second administratio ...199910399817
occurrence of concurrent trypanosomosis, theileriosis, anaplasmosis and helminthosis in friesian, zebu and sahiwal cattle in uganda.an epidemiological investigation was conducted on farms in tororo and soroti districts of uganda from january to february 2000 to determine the cause of reported persistent mortality of cattle. blood and faecal material of 98 cattle comprising of 33 friesians, 58 zebu and 7 sahiwal were examined. results revealed that seven (7.1 %) cattle had trypanosome infection, mainly due to trypanosoma vivax and t. brucei, 17 (17.3%) fasciola infection, 28 (28.6%) gastrointestinal nematode infection, 33 (33 ...200212233999
studies on trypanosoma vivax. viii. observations on the incidence and pathogenicity of t. vivax in zebu cattle in nigeria. 195313125267
the curative effect of ethidium bromide against trypanosoma vivax infections of zebu cattle in west africa, with observations on the toxicity of the drug. 195413208151
further observations on the curative effect of ethidium bromide against trypanosoma vivax infections of zebu cattle in west africa. 195413208152
characterization of sialidase from bloodstream forms of trypanosoma vivax.sialidase (ec: 3.2.1.18) from trypanosoma vivax (agari strain) was isolated from bloodstream forms of the parasite and purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. the enzyme was purified 77-fold with a yield of 32% and co-eluted as a 66-kda protein from a sephadex g 110 column. the t. vivax sialidase was optimally active at 37 degrees c with an activation energy (e(a)) of 26.2 kj mole(-1). the ph activity profile was broad with optimal activity at 6.5. the enzyme was activated by dithiothr ...200615898128
studies on effects of lactose on experimental trypanosoma vivax infection in zebu cattle. 2. packed cell volume.the ability of intravenously administered lactose in normal saline to prevent a decline in packed cell volume (pcv) during experimental trypanosomosis was studied in zebu cattle. during the lactose infusion period, the pcv was stable up to day 5 post-infection (p.i.) in a lactose-infused group, compared to that in an uninfused group in which the pcv dropped significantly (p < 0.05) as shown by the values of cumulative percentage change. furthermore the mean rate of change in pcv was significantl ...200819040132
constraints to estimating the prevalence of trypanosome infections in east african zebu cattle.abstract:201020815940
mechanical transmission of trypanosoma congolense in cattle by the african tabanid atylotus agrestis.the trypanosomes pathogenic to livestock in africa (trypanosoma congolense, trypanosoma vivax, and trypanosoma brucei) are mainly cyclically transmitted by tsetse (glossina). however, t. vivax, can also be mechanically transmitted by haematophagous insects. laboratory studies have demonstrated the mechanical transmission of t. congolense, but confirmation of this under natural conditions was necessary. an experiment was therefore carried out in lahirasso, burkina faso, in a corral completely cov ...200314990316
trypanosomiasis challenge estimation using the diminazene aceturate (berenil) index in zebu in gabon.a longitudinal study was conducted within a cattle ranch in gabon to determine the diminazene aceturate (berenil) index (dai) in a group of zebu, raised under low tsetse density; this measure providing an assessment of trypanosomiasis risk. the objective was to evaluate the trypanosomiasis pressure thus informing trypanosomiasis control methods and cattle management. twenty female adult zebu were monitored for 24 weeks during the dry season. blood samples were collected on a weekly basis and sub ...201728194625
comparative clinico-pathological observations in young zebu (bos indicus) cattle experimentally infected with trypanosoma vivax isolates from tsetse infested and non-tsetse areas of northwest ethiopia.the northwest region of ethiopia is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis with a huge impact on livestock productivity. the objective of this experimental study was to determine clinical and pathological findings in young zebu cattle experimentally infected with trypanosoma vivax isolates from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest ethiopia. a total of 18 cattle (bos indicus) aged between 6 and 12 months, purchased from a trypanosome-free and confi ...201526700867
effects of trypanosoma vivax and trypanosoma congolense infections on the reaction time and semen characteristics of zebu (bunaji) x friesian crossbred bulls.the effect of trypanosomosis on reaction time and semen characteristics of 12 zebu (bunaji) x friesian crossbred bulls aged between 3 and 5 years was studied for a duration of 12 weeks. four of the bulls were infected with trypanosoma vivax, another four with trypanosoma congolense and the remaining four bulls served as controls. rectal temperatures and haematological parameters were monitored twice weekly. the pre-infection mean value of the rectal temperature was 38.3 degrees c, and this rose ...200414643861
a comparative study on the clinical, parasitological and molecular diagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in uganda.the clinical, parasitological and molecular diagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis were compared using samples from 250 zebu cattle exposed to natural trypanosome challenge in uganda. clinical examination, molecular and parasitological diagnoses detected 184 (73.6%), 96 (38.4%) and 36 (14.4%) as diseased, respectively. the sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination were 87.5% and 35%, and 78 % and 27 % based on molecular and parasitological diagnoses, as gold standards, respectively. of the ...200314621317
the area-wide epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis and its impact on mixed farming in subhumid west africa; a case study in togo.this paper reports on an area wide study of all major variables determining the expression of trypanosomosis in cattle in the subhumid eco-zone of west africa, taking togo as an example. to enable systematic area-wide sampling, the country was divided in 311 grid-squares of 0.125 x 0.125 sides. cross-sectional surveys were then conducted to generate maps or digital layers on cattle density, herd structure, ownership and breed. these data layers, except for the breed data, were subjected to a clu ...199910435788
susceptibility to trypanosomosis of three bos indicus cattle breeds in areas of differing tsetse fly challenge.studies to assess the differences in susceptibility to trypanosomosis among bos indicus cattle breeds (maasai zebu, orma boran and galana boran) were conducted under conditions of varying tsetse fly challenge at the nguruman escarpment in south-western kenya, for a period of 1 year. it was found that under tsetse challenge quantified as high, maasai zebu and orma boran were less susceptible than galana boran to trypanosome infections, as judged by the significantly lower incidence of infection, ...19989777722
leukocyte response in experimental trypanosoma vivax infection in cattle.eight zebu cattle were infected with trypanosoma vivax stock y58, while 8 served as uninfected controls. the infected animals developed early leukopenia due to concomitant lymphopenia and neutropenia. it is suggested that an increase in trypanosomal antigens and neuraminidase in the infected cattle at this time may have an effect on peripheral leukocytes.19836863606
maintaining zebu maure cattle in a tsetse infested area of mali.a study was initiated to evaluate two trypanocidal drugs, the prophylactic isometamidium chloride (trypamidium) and the curative diminazene aceturate (berenil) as to their potential for long-term maintenance of zebu cattle in a tsetse infested area of mali. trypamidium was administered quarterly and berenil was administered only as animals were found to be positive for trypanosomes. during the 21-month study trypanosomiasis was the most frequently encountered disease in the cattle in the berenil ...19846729998
concurrent outbreak of pseudo-lumpy skin disease and acute trypanosoma vivax infection in cattle.pseudo-lumpy skin disease and acute trypanosoma vivax infections occurred simultaneously in a dairy herd which had no previous history of trypanosomiasis. the onset of the outbreak was sudden and 29 out of the 40 adult friesian and exotic x zebu cattle were found to have skin lesions. five out of the nine animals sampled had fulminating t. vivax parasitaemias with packed red cell volumes ranging from 0.09 to 0.28 litres/litre. whereas carried tsetse may have introduced t. vivax, the failure to t ...19863020750
determination of the prevalence of trypanosome species in cattle from monduli district, northern tanzania, by loop mediated isothermal amplification.bovine african trypanosomosis (bat) remains one of the major vector-borne diseases with serious impediment to cattle production and economic advancement in sub-saharan africa. the present study evaluated the performance of the trypanosome-species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp), using parasite dna obtained from 295 indigenous tanzanian short horn zebu (tshz) and boran crosses in monduli district within northern tanzania, against routine microscopy on giemsa-stained blood f ...201525953023
analysis of host genetic factors influencing african trypanosome species infection in a cohort of tanzanian bos indicus cattle.trypanosomosis caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus trypanosoma is a major health constraint to cattle production in many african countries. one hundred and seventy one bos indicus cattle from traditional pastoral maasai (87) and more intensively managed boran (84) animals in tanzania were screened by pcr for the presence of african animal trypanosomes (trypanosoma congolense, trypanosoma vivax and trypanosoma brucei), using blood samples archived on fta cards. all cattle sc ...201121377802
prevalence and incidence of bovine trypanosomosis in an agro-pastoral area of southwestern burkina faso.the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and incidence of trypanosomosis and to investigate some factors influencing them in an agro-pastoral area of southwestern burkina faso. a total of 363 crossbred cattle (baoule-zebu peul), which were bred under natural trypanosomosis challenge, were monitored monthly for parasitaemia, packed cell volume (pcv) and serological analyses over 2years. the parasitological prevalence estimated at the beginning of the survey using the buffy coat ...201020044115
studies on effects of lactose on experimental trypanosoma vivax infection in zebu cattle. 1. plasma kinetics of intravenously administered lactose at onset of infection and pathology.lactose in normal saline was administered intravenously to a group of zebu cattle infected with trypanosoma vivax to determine the blood plasma kinetics at onset of an experimental infection and its ability to protect tissues against damage as part of preliminary studies to determine its suitability for use in the treatment of trypanosomosis. significantly (p < 0.01) higher lactose concentrations were observed in the t. vivax-infected bulls at 30 min and 1 h (p < 0.05) post-infection (p.i.) and ...200818788210
sequential testicular and epididymal damage in zebu bulls experimentally infected with trypanosoma vivax.six zebu bulls aged between 31 and 34 months exhibiting good libido were used to study sequential testicular and epididymal damage in trypanosoma vivax infection. three bulls were infected with t. vivax, while the other three served as controls. all infected bulls became parasitaemic by day 5 post-infection and developed clinical trypanosomosis with rapidly developing anaemia. representative bulls, one from each of the infected and control groups, were sacrificed on days 14, 28 and 56 post-infec ...200716935425
response of trypanosoma vivax and trypanosoma congolense in zebu cattle in north cameroon to prophylactic treatment with two formulations of isometamidium.we tested the efficacy of two formulations of isometamidium in a tsetse-infested farm in north cameroon from 20 august 2000 to 5 january 2001. a total of 90 adult cattle were used in three groups of 30 each corresponding to two treated and one untreated control. drug efficacies were evaluated in terms of reduction of parasite incidence in the host's blood, maintenance of packed-cell volume (pcv) and weight gains. both drugs reduced the incidence of parasites even though re-infections 2 weeks aft ...200616777250
the effect of trypanosomosis on pregnancy in trypanotolerant orma boran cattle.a study was undertaken to investigate the influence of trypanosomosis on the outcome of pregnancy in trypanotolerant orma boran (bos indicus) exposed to natural tsetse challenge in an area of kenya infested predominantly with glossina pallidipes. of 73 pregnant orma heifers, 58 (79.5%) produced live calves at term, 13 (17.8%) aborted and 2 (2.7%) died of trypanosomosis. of the 71 surviving animals, 22 (31%) were infected with trypanosoma vivax , 21 (29.6%) t. congolense, and 26 (36.6%) had mixed ...199616727912
elevation of morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa in the semen of zebu bulls consequent to trypanosoma vivax and trypanosoma congolense infections.twenty-four zebu bulls were used in a 12-wk long study. eight bulls were infected with t. vivax , eight others with t. congolense and eight bulls served as controls. all the infected bulls developed chronic trypanosomiasis. mean percentage base-line values prior to infection for acrosomal, sperm-head, detached heads, proximal cytoplasmic droplets, distal cytoplasmic droplets, sperm-tail, midpiece and total sperm morphological abnormalities ranged between 0.1+/-0.1 for acrosomal and 8.7+/-3.4 for ...199016726788
mechanical transmission of trypanosoma vivax in cattle by the african tabanid atylotus fuscipes.an experiment was carried out in burkina faso to evaluate the potential for mechanical transmission of trypanosoma vivax by the african tabanid atylotus fuscipes. the experiment was carried out in a corral (10 m x 10 m) completely covered by a mosquito net (12 m x 12 m and 2.5m high). eight heifers (cross-bred zebu x baoulé), free of trypanosome infection, were kept together with two heifers experimentally infected with a local stock of t. vivax. an average of 539 a. fuscipes per day, freshly ca ...200415036572
the effects of trypanosomosis on sperm morphology in zebu x friesian crossbred bulls.detailed studies of sperm morphological abnormalities were carried out on 12 zebu x friesian crossbred bulls used in a study of the effects of trypanosomosis. four bulls were infected with t. vivax, another four with t. congolense, while four served as controls. the infected bulls developed chronic trypanosomosis. all the bulls initially had very low sperm morphological abnormalities that were within acceptable limits for fertile animals. after infection there was a rapid and progressive increas ...200414979559
the trypanocidal activity of nucleocidin against trypanosoma vivax in west african zebu cattle. 196013834368
drug sensitivity of trypanosome populations from cattle in a peri-urban dairy production system in uganda.cattle from 50 farms in mukono county, uganda, were monitored for trypanosomes every second month over an 18-month period (1995-1996) by mini-anion exchange chromatography and haematocrit centrifugation techniques. eighteen trypanosome isolates collected from cattle during this period were characterised in cattle, goats and mice for their sensitivity to homidium, isometamidium and diminazene; 10 of the isolates were selected randomly, 8 were from animals that had the highest serum isometamidium ...200212387907
the incidence of new and the prevalence and persistence of recurrent trypanosome infections in cattle in southwest ethiopia exposed to a high challenge with drug-resistant parasites.a method is described for calculating new infection incidence from monthly field data collected between april 1994 and february 1998 from an average of 770 ethiopian highland zebu cattle maintained under traditional management in the ghibe valley, southwest ethiopia and exposed to a high challenge with drug-resistant parasites. each month cattle with a packed cell volume (pcv)<26% and detected as parasitaemic, or cattle showing clinical signs of trypanosomosis, were treated with diminazene acetu ...200111369308
natural and acquired resistance to trypanosoma vivax in cattle.zebu x european (z x e) crossbred cattle suffered a more severe course of disease than boran cattle when infected with trypanosoma vivax (likoni) by glossina morsitans. all z x e animals in this study required berenil treatment while all borans self-cured the infection without treatment. the more severe disease in z x e animals was characterized by longer periods of patent infection and fever, more severe anaemia and greater likelihood of haemorrhage. cattle previously infected and cured with be ...19892619393
animal trypanosomosis in clinically healthy cattle of north cameroon: epidemiological implications.the control of animal trypanosomosis consists, amongst other things, of the punctual treatment of new cases, primarily diagnosed by pastoralists on the basis of clinical signs. this practice suggests that many apparently healthy infected animals are left untreated. in this study animal trypanosomosis in clinically healthy zebu cattle was evaluated, the distribution of the vectors established and the epidemiological implications discussed.201627075986
a novel qpcr assay for the detection of african animal trypanosomosis in trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle breeds.this study was conducted to (i) determine the prevalence of african animal trypanosomosis (aat) in tsetse challenged areas, (ii) compare conventional with qpcr detection systems and (iii) evaluate the host genetic background and biology as risk factors. aat prevalence studies are often confronted with low levels of parasitaemia. hence, we designed a novel qpcr assay using primers and species specific probes amplifying the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) gene. thereby all three aat species c ...201323967357
bovine trypanosomosis in the upper west region of ghana: entomological, parasitological and serological cross-sectional surveys.baseline surveys were conducted in the upper west region of ghana to assess the distribution and densities of tsetse species, as well as the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. the entomological survey was designed to cover the suitable tsetse habitats along the three main rivers in the study area (i.e. black volta, kulpawn and sissili). results indicated the presence of glossina tachinoides in all three river basins, whilst glossina palpalis gambiensis was only found close to the southern limi ...201121550616
evaluation of parameters related to libido and semen quality in zebu bulls naturally infected with trypanosoma vivax.trypanosomiasis is a disease caused by trypanosoma (dutonella) vivax, a hemoprotozoa that can affect bovines. in south america, the sanguineous form is mechanically transmitted from one mammalian host (ruminant) to another by the bite of a blood-sucking insect or by needles contaminated with infected blood. the negative impact of the parasitosis caused by t. vivax infection on the reproductive activity of male and female ruminants is known to reduce fertility. in males, alterations such as degen ...201526467756
comparative clinico-haematological analysis in young zebu cattle experimentally infected with trypanosoma vivax isolates from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest ethiopia.ethiopia, particularly in the northwest region, is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis, with significant impact on livestock productivity. the aim of this study was to determine and compare clinical findings and haematological values between experimental infections induced by trypanosoma vivax isolates from areas of either transmission mode. sixteen young (aged between 6 and 12 months) zebu cattle (bos indicus), purchased from a trypanosome-free area and confirm ...201525986858
in vivo experimental drug resistance study in trypanosoma vivax isolates from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest ethiopia.ethiopia, particularly in the northwest region, is affected by both tsetse fly and non-tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. the control of trypanosomosis in ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (da) or isometamidium chloride (ism), respectively. however, since these two trypanocides have been on the market for more than 40 years, this may have resulted in drug-resistance. therefore, ...201525792418
comparative biochemical changes in young zebu cattle experimentally infected with trypanosoma vivax from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest ethiopia.trypanosomosis is a vector-borne protozoan disease of animals and humans in sub-saharan africa. in ethiopia, particularly the northwest region is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis. the aim of the present study was to determine the effects and compare differences in virulence of trypanosoma vivax infection between tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest ethiopia on the basis of serum biochemical values in zebu cattle. eighteen cattles purchased from trypa ...201425283093
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