tropical theileriosis in bos taurus and bos taurus cross bos indicus calves: response to infection with graded doses of sporozoites of theileria annulata.this work extends basic knowledge of tropical theileriosis in taurine and crossbred cattle. infection of bos taurus and bos taurus cross bos indicus (sahiwal) calves with graded doses of sporozoites of theileria annulata (hissar), an indian stock of the parasite, showed the following to be dose dependent in both cattle types: the time to appearance and population size of macroschizonts, microschizonts and piroplasms, time and severity of pyrexia, anaemia manifested by erythrocyte counts and haem ...19921439213
immunoprophylaxis against theileria annulata with protein from plasma membrane of infected lymphoblasts.cross-bred (bos taurus male x bos indicus female) calves were protected against the homologous sporozoite-induced challenge of theileria annulata when immunised with protein from the plasma membrane of macroschizont-infected lymphoblasts of allogeneic origin. however, such protection was parasite-strain specific with the plasma membrane originating from lymphoblasts infected and transformed by the same isolate of t. annulata sporozoites. no protection ensued when the infected lymphoblasts and sp ...19911910224
[presence of theileria annulata in mauritania].a fatal case of bovine theileriosis by theileria annulata is reported from mauritania in a friesian cow born in a dairy farm in nouakchott. the farm was originally established with cattle imported from france. specific diagnosis was based on piroplasm morphology and on high specific antibody titres in some of the animals. the only tick found in the herd was hyalomma dromedarii. four of 49 local zebus sampled at random in the south of the country had high specific antibody titres to t. annulata, ...19902132789
chemoimmunoprophylaxis against bovine tropical theileriosis in young calves: a comparison between buparvaquone and long-acting oxytetracycline.eighteen seven to 21-day-old crossbred (bos taurus cross bos indicus) calves were allocated to four groups (a to d). groups a and b each consisted of six calves and groups c and d three calves each. each calf in groups a, b and c was inoculated with ground-up tick supernate (guts) equivalent to two infected acini prepared from theileria annulata-infected hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. each calf in group a was also given a single intramuscular injection of buparvaquone, 2.5 mg kg-1 bodyweight si ...19902382047
effect of treatment of chronic theileriosis with buparvaquone on milk yields.chronic, undulating theileria annulata infection was diagnosed as the cause of severely depressed milk yields in a herd of 44 friesian cows in egypt. the herd was divided at random into two groups of 22; one group was injected intramuscularly with a single dose of the experimental antitheilerial drug, buparvaquone, while the other remained untreated. over the subsequent seven weeks milk yield in the treated group increased to double that of the untreated group (p less than 0.05). pyrexia was con ...19892617675
immunization of neonatal bovines against theileria annulata by an infection and treatment method.sixty three cross-bred (bos taurus x bos indicus) 4-5-day-old calves were divided into 16 groups (a-p). each calf in groups a and b was given ground-up-tick supernate prepared from theileria annulata-infected or non-infected hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (guts) equivalent to 5 ticks (50 infected acini). groups d and e received infected guts equivalent to 2 ticks (20 infected acini) and groups g and h were given infected guts equivalent to 1 tick (10 infected acini). each calf in groups j, k and ...19873113041
treatment of experimentally induced theileria annulata infection in cross-bred calves with buparvaquone.twenty cross-bred (bos taurus x bos indicus) calves, 7-21 days old, were infected by a ground-up tick supernate of hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum infected with the hisar isolate of theileria annulata. six calves acted as untreated controls and they all died of theileriosis within 17 days of infection. the remaining 14 calves were divided into group a and b, each consisting of seven calves. all the calves of groups a and b were treated intramuscularly with buparvaquone (bw 720c) on day 11 post-in ...19883369076
non-specific immunization against bovine tropical theileriosis (theileria annulata) using killed corynebacterium parvum.killed corynebacterium parvum was used as an adjuvant for the production of non-specific resistance against theileria annulata in cattle. groups of cross-bred (bos indicus x bos taurus) calves were administered c. parvum adjuvant subcutaneously and were then challenged with t. annulata-infected ticks on 45, 60 or 90 days later. the challenge caused mild reactions in the protected calves. none of the 10 immunized calves died due to theileriosis, whereas all three paris of susceptible control calv ...19836685397
[descriptive epidemiology of bovine theileriosis caused by theileria annulata in mauritania, subsaharian west africa].tropical bovine theileriosis due to theileria annulata has been discovered recently in mauritania. an epidemiological study performed in the dry season allowed to better determine the serological prevalence of t. annulata infection and its associated factors. the sex does not seem to have any influence, the role of the breed could not be clearly established, whereas, the age, the geographical origin and the management of the herd have a significant influence on the serological prevalence. these ...19947863061
theileria annulata schizonts found in calf kidney cell culture.mononuclear cells infected with theileria annulata schizonts were isolated at 4 different times from monolayer cultures of primary kidney cells derived from apparently healthy, 2 to 6 weeks old zebu calves. the presence of such an organism could interfere with the manufacturing procedure of rinderpest tissue culture vaccine if it is to be carried out in calf kidney cell culture.19968983133
detection of theileria annulata by the pcr in ticks (acari:ixodidae) collected from cattle in mauritania.we report on the detection of theileria annulata in infected hyalomma ticks by the pcr using primers derived from the gene encoding the 30 kda major merozoite surface antigen (tamsi-1). no inhibition of the pcr was observed and as little as 0.1 pg of parasite dna, corresponding to 12 sporozoites, could be detected in non-infected tick dna samples, spiked with t. annulata genomic dna. hyalomma dromedarii ticks, fed on a calf experimentally infected with t. annulata, were used to validate the pcr ...19979203350
immunization of cattle with nymphal hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum extracts: effects on tick biology.antigens derived from partially engorged nymphs of hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum were used in immunizing crossbred (bos indicus x bos taurus) cattle against larval, nymphal and adult h. a. anatolicum and h. dromedarii. the cattle were either infected with theileria annulata at low parasitaemia or were uninfected. whole nymphal extract (wne), nymphal membrane antigens (nma) and nymphal soluble antigens (nsa) were used for immunization. the group immunized with wne showed significant and better r ...19989719836
quantitative analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokine mrna expression in theileria annulata-infected cell lines derived from resistant and susceptible cattle.the pathogenic mechanisms involved in tropical theileriosis, caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite theileria annulata, are unclear. pathology is associated with the schizont stage of the parasite, which resides within bovine macrophages. breed-specific differences in pathology have been observed in cattle, several bos indicus breeds are relatively resistant to tropical theileriosis whilst bos taurus cattle are highly susceptible. infected cells express pro-inflammatory cytokines and it has ...200415113657
bos taurus and bos indicus (sahiwal) calves respond differently to infection with theileria annulata and produce markedly different levels of acute phase proteins.disease-resistant livestock could provide a potentially sustainable and environmentally sound method of controlling tick and tick-borne diseases of livestock in the developing world. advances in the knowledge and science of genomics open up opportunities to identify selectable genes controlling disease resistance but first, breeds and individuals with distinguishable phenotypes need to be identified. the bos indicus breed, sahiwal, has been exploited in dairy breeding programmes, because it is r ...200515722085
resistance and susceptibility to a protozoan parasite of cattle--gene expression differences in macrophages from different breeds of cattle.cattle infected with the tick-borne protozoan, theileria annulata, usually undergo severe morbidity, and mortality ensues in a high proportion of animals. however, we have shown that a bos indicus breed, the sahiwal, which originates in a t. annulata endemic area, is more resistant to the parasite. although sahiwals become infected, the breed exhibits fewer clinical signs and recovers from a dose of parasite which is fatal in the holstein b. taurus breed. the sahiwals have a significantly lower ...200717727964
laboratory rearing of theileria annulata-free hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks.hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum is a three-host tick which transmits theileria annulata infection in indian cattle. laboratory rearing of ixodid ticks is an essential requirement of any laboratory engaged with research on ticks and tick borne diseases. the entomology laboratory of indian veterinary research institute is fully equipped with all the facilities and skilled manpower to maintain a homogenous h. a. anatolicum population throughout the year. the continuous supply of eggs, larvae and adu ...200717851768
differences in the transcriptional responses induced by theileria annulata infection in bovine monocytes derived from resistant and susceptible cattle breeds.tropical theileriosis is a cattle disease of global economic importance, caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite theileria annulata. conventional control strategies are failing to contain the disease and an attractive alternative is the use of pre-existing genetic resistance or tolerance. however, tropical theileriosis tolerant cattle are less productive than some susceptible breeds. breeding for combined resistance and production traits requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved i ...200817949724
seroprevalence of tick-borne diseases among cattle in the sudan.this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of theileria annulata, theileria mutans, babesia bigemina, and anaplasma marginale antibodies among cattle in the sudan. a total of 600 serum samples were collected from indigenous (zebu) and crossbred cattle (zebu x friesian) of both sex and different age groups. indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess antibodies against tick-borne diseases in apparently healthy cattle. the overall prevalence rates of t. annulata, t. m ...200919030878
evaluation of indirect tasp enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in cattle (bos indicus) and water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) in egypt.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of theileria annulata surface protein (tasp)-elisa, in comparison with traditional microscopic test, for the diagnosis of t. annulata infection among egyptian baladi cattle (bos taurus) and water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis). molecular confirmation of infection using t. annulata merozoite surface (tams-1) target amplification by pcr was used as a gold standard. a total of 76 clinically suspected animals including 64 baladi cattle and 12 wa ...201122136769
pcr diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in maharashtra state, india indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.tick-borne pathogens (tbp) are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. this is particularly true in countries like india where tbp constrain rearing of high yielding bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (tbd), most notably tropical theileriosis caused by theileria annulata. this has led to a programme of cross breeding bos taurus (holstein-friesian or jersey) with native bos indicus (numerous) breeds to generate cattle that are m ...201728358861
detection of theileria annulata carriers in holstein-friesian (bos taurus taurus) and sistani (bos taurus indicus) cattle breeds by polymerase chain reaction in sistan region, iran.theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. in iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. the aim of present study is comparison of the number of t. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (holstein-friesian and sistani) in sistan of iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods. during winter 2013, 160 native cattle, ...201627876911
global gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells challenged with theileria annulata in crossbred and indigenous cattle.bovine tropical theileriosis is an important haemoprotozoan disease associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. it is one of the major constraints of the livestock development programmes in india and southeast asia. indigenous cattle (bos indicus) are reported to be comparatively less affected than exotic and crossbred cattle. however, genetic basis of resistance to tropical theileriosis in indigenous cattle is not well documented. recent st ...201727840256
control and therapeutic management of bovine tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle.bovine tropical theileriosis (btt) is a disease of worldwide economic importance in cattle, caused by theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite, and transmitted cyclically by ticks. the disease is one of the serious constraints to dairy industry in endemic areas like india, leading to fatal infections in exotic cattle and significant mortality in cross-bred cattle and zebu cattle. the present report demonstrates the clinical manifestation, haematological alteration and therapeutic management of t ...201627065628
the mrna expression of immune-related genes in crossbred and tharparkar cattle in response to in vitro infection with theileria annulata.tropical theileriosis is a major protozoan disease of cattle and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. indigenous cattle (bos indicus) are less affected by this disease than exotic and crossbred cattle. genetic basis of resistance to tropical theileriosis in indigenous cattle is not well studied. recent reports suggest that number of immune response genes expressed differentially in exotic and indigenous breeds play an important role in breed specific resistance to tropical t ...201525697418
targeting tams-1 gene results in underestimation of theileria annulata infection in diseased cattle in egypt.tropical theileriosis is considered one of the most economically important tick borne diseases that cause significant mortality and morbidity to livestock. in the context of epidemiological studies on livestock in egypt, this report investigated the spread of theileria annulata among diseased farm cows (bos indicus) over one year. blood samples collected from 130 cows were investigated by routine staining and 64 samples were investigated by pcr assay using two different probes targeting tams-1 g ...201424570053
vaccine potential of recombinant antigens of theileria annulata and hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum against vector and an attempt to develop vaccine against hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and theileria annulata, three antigens were expressed in prokaryotic expression system and protective potentiality of the antigens was evaluated in cross bred calves. two groups (grs. 1 and 4) of male cross-bred (bos indicus × bos taurus) calves were immunized with rhaa86, a bm86 ortholog of h. a. anatolicum, while one group of calves (gr. 2) were immunized with cocktails of two antigens viz., surface antigens of t. annulata ...201222546546
living with the enemy or uninvited guests: functional genomics approaches to investigating host resistance or tolerance traits to a protozoan parasite, theileria annulata, in cattle.many breeds of cattle with long histories of living in areas of endemic disease have evolved mechanisms that enable them to co-exist with specific pathogens. understanding the genes that control tolerance and resistance could provide new strategies to improve the health and welfare of livestock. around one sixth of the world cattle population is estimated to be at risk from one of the most debilitating tick-borne diseases of cattle, caused by the protozoan parasite, theileria annulata. the paras ...201222482839
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