naturally occurring orthopoxviruses: potential for recombination with vaccine vectors.orthopoxviruses are being increasingly used as live recombinant vectors for vaccination against numerous infectious diseases in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. for risk assessments and surveillance, information about the occurrence, distribution and ecology of orthopoxviruses in western europe is important but has mainly been based on serological investigations. we have examined kidneys, lungs, spleens, and livers of norwegian small rodents and common shrews (sorex araneus) for the prese ...19989705389
patterns of orthopox virus wild rodent hosts in south germany.although cowpox virus (cpxv) infections in a variety of dead-end hosts have been investigated in germany for more than 50 years, data on species and geographical distribution of cpxv in reservoir hosts are sparse. here we present the first comprehensive study of 825 rodents that have been collected in bavaria, southern germany. in summary, six different rodent species (apodemus flavicollis, myodes glareolus, microtus arvalis, apodemus sylvaticus, microtus agrestis, and arvicola amphibius) were t ...200919492947
serological survey for viral pathogens in turkish rodents.wild rodents (n = 330) were trapped around the villages of altindere and coşandere (maçka, trabzon province), ayder, ortan, and yolkiyi (camlihemşin, rize province), and bozdag (odemiş, izmir province) in northeastern and western turkey during april 2004. samples were tested for arenavirus, hantavirus, and cowpox virus (family poxviridae, genus orthopoxvirus, cpxv) antibodies by using immunofluorescence assays (ifas). antibodies against arenaviruses were found in eight of 330 (2.4%) rodents. are ...200617092901
transmission dynamics of a zoonotic pathogen within and between wildlife host species.the transmission dynamics of the cowpox virus infection have been quantified in two mixed populations of bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) and wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus), through analyses of detailed time-series of the numbers of susceptible, infectious and newly infected individuals. the cowpox virus is a zoonosis which circulates in these rodent hosts and has been shown to have an adverse effect on reproductive output. the transmission dynamics within species is best described as frequ ...199910584336
the effect of cowpox virus infection on fecundity in bank voles and wood mice.although epidemic infectious diseases are a recognized cause of changes in host population dynamics, there is little direct evidence for the effect of endemic infections on populations. cowpox virus is an orthopoxvirus which is endemic in bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus) and field voles (microtus agrestis) in great britain. it does not cause obvious signs of disease nor does it affect survival, but in this study we demonstrate experimentally that it can reduc ...19979364786
serological evidence for the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus in british wildlife.the reservoir host of cowpox virus in western europe is not known, but epidemiological evidence from human and feline infections indicates that the virus is probably endemic in small wild rodents. therefore, serum and tissue samples were collected from a variety of wild british mammals and some birds, and tested for evidence of orthopoxvirus infection. antibody reacting with cowpox virus was detected in 9/44 (20%) bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), 8/24 (33%) field voles (microtus agrestis), ...19957641833
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