starvation, staphylococcosis, and vitamin a deficiency among mallards overwintering in saskatchewan.during january to march 1991, 38 mallards (anas platyrhynchos) found dead from a group of approximately 600 overwintering on the south saskatchewan river were examined. thirty birds died from starvation, four had disseminated staphylococcus aureus infection, and the cause of death of four birds was not determined. all six birds from which the esophagus was examined microscopically, including the four birds with staphylococcosis, had squamous metaplasia of the submucosal glands, a lesion pathogno ...19921602572
non-immune fab- and fc- mediated interactions of avian ig with s. aureus and group c and g streptococci.serum samples from 19 avian species representing 8 orders were tested for their capacity to inhibit the fab- and fc-mediated immunoglobulin binding to protein a-carrying s. aureus and protein g-carrying group c and g streptococci. four species (mallard, dunlin, starling and blackbird) belonging to three different orders showed a high degree of fc-mediated protein a- and protein g-reactivity. five species demonstrated a high level and nine species exhibited a low level of fab-mediated protein a-r ...19883126785
amino acid and nucleotide sequence, adjacent genes, and heterologous expression of hiracin jm79, a sec-dependent bacteriocin produced by enterococcus hirae dch5, isolated from mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos).the primary structure of a bacteriocin produced by enterococcus hirae dch5 was determined by combined amino acid and dna sequencing. nucleotide analysis of a 2838-bp dna fragment of e. hirae dch5 revealed five putative orfs. the first orf (hirjm79) encodes a 74-amino-acid peptide containing an n-terminal signal peptide of 30 amino acids, followed by the amino acid sequence of the mature bacteriocin, hiracin jm79 (hirjm79), of 44 amino acids. the second orf (hirijm79) encodes the putative immunit ...200717326750
antimicrobial activity of the anseriform outer eggshell and cuticle.the avian eggshell is a complex, multifunctional biomineral composed of a calcium carbonate mineral phase and an organic phase of lipids and proteins. the outermost layer of the eggshell, the eggshell cuticle, is an organic layer of variable thickness composed of polysaccharides, hydroxyapatite crystals, lipids and glycoprotein. in addition to regulating gas exchanges, the eggshell cuticle may contain antimicrobial elements. in this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of eggshell c ...200818289902
comparative antibacterial activity of avian egg white protein extracts.1. egg white proteins from the eggs of domestic chicken (gallus gallus), turkey (meleagris gallopavo), duck (anas platyrhynchos) and goose (anser anser) were analysed in order to compare the antimicrobial activity of these products. 2. albumen from each species was sampled and analysed by sds-page and western blotting. antimicrobial activity and lysozyme activity were measured. 3. ovotransferrin and ovalbumin were identified in all species while c-type lysozyme was present in chicken, turkey and ...200818409086
antimicrobial activity of cuticle and outer eggshell protein extracts from three species of domestic birds.1. the eggshell cuticle is the proteinaceous outermost layer of the eggshell which regulates water exchange and protects against entry of micro-organisms. in this study, we investigated the hypothesis that the cuticle may also reduce microbial contamination by providing a chemical defence. 2. outer eggshell and cuticle protein was extracted from domestic chicken (gallus gallus), duck (anas platyrhynchos) and goose (anser anser) eggs by hcl and urea treatment, respectively. antimicrobial activity ...200818409087
sexual ornamentation reflects antibacterial activity of ejaculates in mallards.bacteria present in ejaculates can impair sperm function and reduce male reproductive success. thus, selection should favour the evolution of antimicrobial defences to limit the detrimental effects of sperm-associated bacteria. additionally, current hypotheses suggest that ornamental traits may signal information about the infection status of an individual or the ability of an individual to resist bacterial-induced sperm damage. however, despite the evolutionary implications of ejaculate antimic ...201121490006
tissue distribution, expression, and antimicrobial activity of anas platyrhynchos avian β-defensin this study, a novel avian β-defensin (avbd) was isolated from the chaohu duck. the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene contained a 204-bp open reading frame that encoded 67 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide of 20 aa, a propiece of 5 aa, and a mature peptide of 42 aa. the homology, characterization, and comparison of this gene with avbd from other avian species confirmed that it was duck avbd6. also, the preproprotein of avbd6 from chicken, goose, and duck was highly conserved ...201323243235
body temperature responses of pekin ducks (anas platyrhynchos domesticus) exposed to different pathogens.poultry, like mammals and other birds, develop fever when exposed to compounds from gram-negative bacteria. mammals also develop fever when exposed to the constituents of viruses or gram-positive bacteria, and the fevers stimulated by these different pathogenic classes have discrete characteristics. it is not known whether birds develop fever when infected by viruses or gram-positive bacteria. therefore, we injected pekin ducks with muramyl dipeptide, the cell walls of heat-killed staphylococcus ...201121597064
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