epidemiological features of dengue and chikungunya infections in burma.a serological survey for antibody to dengue and chikungunya was carried out in all 14 divisions and states and 2 border towns in burma during 1973-74. dengue hi antibody prevalence rate of less than 10% was observed in arakan and shan states, 10 to 30% in the irrawaddy, pegu, mandalay divisions and kachin, mon and karen states, 31 to 60% in sagaing division, and over 60% in rangoon, magwe and tenasserim divisions. similarly, chikungunya hi antibody prevalence rate of less than 10% was observed i ...1975126493
insecticide susceptibility of some vector fleas and mosquitoes in burma.rat fleas and mosquitoes are insect vectors of public health importance in burma. plague is endemic in central burma and ddt has been the principal insecticide used for its control to date. dengue haemorrhagic fever, recently introduced and transmitted by aedes aegypti, has been spreading to major towns since 1971. the rodents, rattus rattus, r. exulans, bandicota bengalensis, mus musculus, as well as shrews were commonly caught during routine trapping in the country. rattus norvegicus, prevalen ...1975131975
isolation of dengue type 3 from mosquitoes in rangoon.a virus was isolated in suckling mice from aedes aegypti collected from rangoon area, during the month of july 1969. the virus was identified as a member of group b arbovirus dengue type 3, by means of its ability to agglutinate goose erythrocyte at ph 6.6, haemagglutination inhibition and complement fixation tests, and its growth characteristics in aedes albopictus cell cultures. the isolated dengue type 3 virus differs slightly from the indian dengue type 3 virus in its ability to produce haem ...1976140463
an epidemic of dengue fever in wewak.143 clinical cases of dengue fever were reported in wewak between april and august 1976. 15 patients demonstrated a diagnostic rise in antibody titre for group b arbovirus. tests for complement-fixing antibody to dengue viruses did not indicate what type of dengue virus was responsible for the epidemic. vector species aedes aegypti and aedes scutellaris were found before control measures were adopted but were not found four months later. the epidemiology of dengue fever is discussed and measure ...1978279165
epidemic dengue hemorrhagic fever in rural indonesia. iii. entomological studies.entomological studies were carried out during a dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemic in central java in december 1976. both aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus were widely distributed in bantul, but the latter species was more abundant. comparative studies on the vector competence of the two species showed that ae. albopictus had a higher susceptibility than ae. aegypti to oral infection with all four dengue serotypes. the two species were equally compentent in transmitting the bantul strain of deng ...1979464193
variation in susceptibility to oral infection with dengue viruses among geographic strains of aedes aegypti.the comparative susceptibility of 13 geographic strains of aedes aegypti to oral infection with dengue viruses was studied by feeding the mosquitoes on a virus-erythrocyte-sugar suspension. significant variation in susceptibility to four dengue serotypes was observed among the geographic strains tested. mosquito strains which were more susceptible to one serotype were also more susceptible to the other serotypes, suggesting that the factors controlling susceptibility were the same for all types. ...1979507282
aedes aegypti in puerto rico: environmental determinants of larval abundance and relation to dengue virus order to understand adquately the dynamics of vector-borne disease, one must understand how and why vector populations change over time. we describe a long-term, cooperative study of seasonal fluctuation in populations of the aedes aegypti mosquito in puerto rico. during each month of the first 3 years of the project, a. aegypti was found breeding in all five communities studied. mosquito density was positively correlated with rainfall, the relationship being more marked in the dry, south-coa ...1978727328
studies on the susceptibility of a large urban population of aedes aegypti to infection with dengue viruses.a large urban population of aedes aegypti in jakarta, indonesia was studied for one year to determine whether it was homogeneous in terms of susceptibility to dengue viruses and whether seasonal changes in susceptibility to dengue viruses occurred. mosquitoes from several districts in jakarta showed a low but homogeneous susceptibility to dengue 2 virus from november 1975 to april 1976. in june 1976, increased susceptibility to dengue 2 virus was observed among some of the subpopulations of ae. ...1978751215
type 1 dengue with hemorrhagic disease in fiji: epidemiologic explosive epidemic of dengue occurred in fiji between january and july 1975. all laboratory evidence indicated that type 1 dengue was the only prevalent dengue virus. this type had probably not been in fiji for 30 years and over 70% of the population was susceptible. aedes aegypti appeared to be the major vector in urban areas, but circumstantial evidence indicated that aedes rotumae was a vector in at least one remote area. all forms of the clinical spectrum of dengue were seen and reported ...1977889018
a reduction in hospitalized cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever in menado (sulawesi), indonesia after aerial spraying with ulv malathion to control aedes aegypti. 1977925556
infection of an aedes aegypti cell line with infectious arbovirus-antibody complexes.aedes aegypti cells exposed to infectious complexes of wn or yf virus and homologous antiserum produced lower yields of virus over a 10-day observation period than were produced by aedes aegypti cells treated with a comparable dose of virus mixed with non-immune serum. when ae. aegypti cells were infected with wn virus mixed with mve, nta, den-2 or yf antisera the virus yield over 10 days was lower than in cell cultures infected at similar titres with mixtures of wn virus with non-immune serum. ...1976982518
endemic dengue virus infection in hispaniola. i. haiti.antibodies to group b arbovirus were common among coastal populations in the haitian part of the caribbean island of hispaniola. antibodies were present in 43% of children one to five years old; prevalence in older persons increased with age. in nine asymptomatic persons serodiagnostic changes indicative of group b arbovirus were detected during six of twelve consecutive months. in port cities where antibodies were common in children, aedes aegypti indices of 50%-70% were observed; in contrast, ...1976993618
[results of a survey of potential dengue vectors in the neo-caledonian archipelago].the author gives the results of an entomological survey in neo-caledonian archipelago (new caledonia and loyalty islands), november-december 1972. concerning the distribution and the abundance of aedes aegypti, the local dengue vector, this study shows the presence of this culicid not only in noumea, but also all along the western developped coast of new caledonia, and in ouvea island. this constitutes a great risk of outbreak extension from noumea if a dengue virus is again imported there.19761036473
infection of the mosquito aedes aegypti with infectious west nile virus-antibody complexes.aedes aegypti fed through chick skin membranes on west nile virus-homologous antiserum mixtures shown by an anti-globulin neutralization test to be highly infectious complexes (in terms of plaque formation in tissue culture) failed to become infected. control mosquitoes fed on west nile virus--normal rabbit serum mixtures containing similar or smaller amounts of infectious virus were shown to become infected. mosquitoes ingesting suspensions of west nile virus previously incubated with murray va ...19751080913
effect of the environmental conditions on eggs and water living stages of aedes aegypti (linn.) and aedes albopictus (skuse), vectors of dengue haemorrhagic fever in viet-nam. 19751203600
mosquito vector control and biology in latin america--a second symposium.the second spanish language symposium presented by the american mosquito control association (amca) was held as part of the 58th annual meeting in corpus christi, tx in march 1992. the principal objective, as it was for the 1991 symposium, was to increase and stimulate greater participation in the amca by vector control specialists and public health workers from latin america. this publication includes summaries of 25 individual presentations that were given in spanish. the symposium included th ...19921402870
dengue 1 epidemic in french polynesia, 1988-1989: surveillance and clinical, epidemiological, virological and serological findings in 1752 documented clinical epidemic of dengue 1 occurred in french polynesia in december 1988 and june 1989. this paper records (i) the trend of the outbreak and its surveillance and (ii) the clinical, epidemiological and virological data obtained from 1752 documented cases. the epidemic reached its peak in february in tahiti island, 7 weeks after its recognition. among 6034 suspect cases reported by sentinel physicians, 60.3% were < 20 years old. the illness was classical dengue. no fatality or case of dengue haemorrh ...19921440788
failure of dengue viruses to replicate in culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).culex quinquefasciatus (say) and aedes aegypti (l.) were parenterally infected with dengue viruses and virus replication was monitored at intervals after infection in each species. dengue viruses replicated rapidly in ae. aegypti, reaching a peak titer of 10(6)-10(7) mosquito infectious dose 50 (mid50) per mosquito. in cx. quinquefasciatus, however, dengue virus replication did not occur. we conclude that this mosquito species is refractory to infection with dengue viruses and, therefore, does n ...19921460627
variation in the efficiency of vertical transmission of dengue-1 virus by strains of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).five geographical strains of aedes albopictus (skuse) were compared for their ability to transmit vertically a dengue-1 isolate from jamaica. the oahu strain of ae. albopictus and a strain of aedes aegypti (l.) from the united states were included as controls. the offspring of orally infected females were assayed individually for vertical infection. vertical transmission rates among strains ranged from 11 to 41%, and filial infection rates of strains ranged from 0.5 to 2.9%. filial infection rat ...19921460640
the xxth century dengue pandemic: need for surveillance and the last decade of the xxth century aedes aegypti and the 4 dengue viruses had spread to nearly all countries of the tropical world. some 2 billion persons live in dengue-endemic areas with tens of millions infected annually. dengue pandemics were also documented in the xviiith and xixth centuries; they were contained by organized anti-aedes aegypti campaigns and urban improvements. the xxth century dengue pandemic has brought with it the simultaneous circulation of multiple serotypes and in ...19921462664
dengue fever: a resurgent risk for the international traveler.the incidence of dengue fever, an acute febrile illness transmitted by the aedes aegypti mosquito, is on the rise. high fever, severe headache, skin rash and a variety of constitutional symptoms are hallmarks of classic dengue fever. dengue hemorrhagic fever, a severe manifestation associated with secondary infection, most often occurs in children. treatment of classic dengue fever is supportive, whereas urgent rehydration therapy is often required in more severe forms. community-based and perso ...19921543101
first reported outbreak of classical dengue fever at 1,700 meters above sea level in guerrero state, mexico, june outbreak of classical dengue fever occurred from march to august 1988 in the city of taxco, guerrero state, mexico. taxco is at an elevation of 1,700 meters above sea level, and this study represents the highest altitude at which an outbreak of dengue has been documented. an investigation was conducted to obtain serologic confirmation of dengue infection, determine the extent of the outbreak, and identify risk factors for dengue illness. toxorhynchites cell lines were used for viral isolation ...19921621889
genetic selection of a flavivirus-refractory strain of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti.two inbred (isofemale) aedes aegypti mosquito lines were derived that manifested a resistant or susceptible phenotype following ingestion of yellow fever virus; lack of virus movement from the midgut defined the resistant phenotype. other flaviviruses, including dengue 1-4, uganda s, and zika, viruses behaved in a similar fashion in the two mosquito lines. crosses between the two lines produced progeny that were of intermediate susceptibility, indicating codominance; f2 backcrosses to the parent ...19911659238
a program for prevention and control of epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in puerto rico and the u.s. virgin islands.the ongoing resurgence of aedes aegypti in the americas--abetted by poor mosquito control, urbanization, and increased air travel--has led to dengue hyperendemicity, more frequent dengue epidemics, and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf). this article describes a program developed to cope with this situation that emphasizes disease prevention rather than general mosquito control measures.19911742570
potential for dengue in south africa: mosquito ecology with particular reference to aedes aegypti.observations on prevalence, geographical distribution, utilization of artificial larval habitats and anthropophilism were made on diurnal mosquitoes at selected localities along the coast of natal and inland in the transvaal to identify potential vectors of dengue in south africa. larval collections made in artificial containers on the ground, the exposure of bamboo pots as ovitraps in trees and collection of mosquitoes biting man showed the following species as the most likely candidates for ve ...19911787403
global climate change and infectious diseases.the effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. these mosquitoes transmit dengue v ...19911820262
[sampling study for larval density quantification of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in the state of são paulo, brazil].the yellow fever and dengue vector control program developed by the superintendency for the control of endemic diseases in the state of s. paulo recommends aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus larval density monitoring in cities with domiciliar infestation. the sampling plan which has been applied in the countries of the presidente prudente region (sp- brazil) since 1987 is described. the infestation is measured by using the breteau index. a sample of buildings is drawn, monthly and independently, ...19911820612
infection of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti mosquitoes with dengue parent and progeny candidate vaccine viruses: a possible marker of human attenuation.dengue (den-1) and den-4 parent (p) and progeny candidate vaccine (cv) viruses were compared in their abilities to infect and to replicate in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes. the den cv clones were temperature sensitive (ts) and had small plaque morphology. the den-1 and den-4 cv viruses differed in their ability to infect, to replicate in, and to be transmitted by mosquitoes. the den-1 cv virus was not attenuated for the vector mosquitoes; oral infection rates with the cv virus we ...19911877715
entomological investigations during outbreaks of dengue fever in certain villages in maharashtra state.outbreaks of dengue (den) fever are reported from 22 villages in five districts in the state of maharashtra. den viral antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence test in 34 of 375 female aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected from 8 villages. den types 2 and 3 were identified among the 16 strains that were isolated. none of the 64 male mosquitoes showed the presence of viral antigen; 281 males and 323 females reared from field collected larvae were also found negative. indoor spraying of dd ...19911937596
analysis of inheritance of oral susceptibility of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) to dengue-2 virus using isofemale lines.isofemale lines were compared to determine possible genetic variation in oral susceptibility within the fare strain of aedes aegypti (l.) to dengue-2 (den-2) virus. three groups of 12 isofemale lines each were tested statistically using the sas catmod procedure of analysis of variance. the "isofemale line" effect was highly significant, demonstrating genetic variability in oral susceptibility among females. the length of time eggs were stored before hatching influenced the oral susceptibility of ...19911941912
a field trial on the comparative effectiveness of malathion and resigen by ulv application on aedes aegypti.field trials were conducted in two residential areas of petaling jaya municipality to test the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of malathion 96% tg and resigen on aedes aegypti. malathion is the currently used insecticide in malaysia for the control of dengue. the leco hd ulv machine was used throught the trials. for malathion the flow rate was 90 ml/minute at a vehicle speed of 8kph and for resigen the flow rate was 200 ml/minute at the same vechicle speed. malathion was more effective giving ...19911948249
[dengue in the americas. a problem of regional health].the aedes aegypti was almost eradicate from the americas in the early sixties but reinfested the region a few years later, and dengue transmission has become a major health problem. the americas have been affected by dengue epidemics since the 1970s and hemorrhagic fever is becoming a threat for millions of people living in the tropical and subtropical areas of the continent. resources to cope with the increasing transmission of different serotypes in the region are scarce. therefore a regional ...19911948410
outbreak of dengue fever in rural areas of parbhani district of maharashtra (india).outbreak of dengue fever in chikalthana, pimpalgaon and waloor villages in parbhani district of maharashtra (india) were investigated. clinically, the illness was typical of dengue fever except for the absence of maculopapular rash. a total of 42 acute, 14 late acute, 73 convalescent and 19 sera from contacts were collected. of the 15 virus isolates, 12 were identified as dengue virus type 2 and 1 as dengue virus type 1. serological tests confirmed the etiological role of dengue virus in the out ...19912022403
the first epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the people's republic of china.the first epidemic of dengue in china associated with significant severe and fatal hemorrhagic disease which met the world health organization case definition occurred on hainan island in 1985-1986. the epidemic began in zhan county in september 1985, spread throughout the coastal areas, and ultimately involved 13 counties and cities of the island in 1986. the mosquito vector was aedes aegypti. the morbidity associated with dengue infection on hainan island was 1,913 per 100,000 residents, with ...19912042704
[comparative study of dengue 2 virus replication and isoenzymes in two strains of aedes aegypti].this study, dealing with two strains of aedes aegypti from vietnam and french guiana, shows the variability of the genes coding for 11 isoenzymatic systems and the replication of the dengue 2 virus in parenterally infected mosquitoes. slight differences are observed in the characteristics of viral replication. no clear correlation is shown with enzymatic patterns which appear widely different from one strain to the other with four of the enzymes studied.19902085909
[analysis of the surveillance system of larval traps in the municipality of mariel (1984-1987)].an analysis is done of the species of culicides captured by the surveillance system of aedes aegypti, with larvitraps, at the mariel municipality, during 1984-1987 period. the study shows an increased presence of aedes mediovittatus in the system of larvitraps during the working period, demonstrating it the usefulness of sing larvitraps in the surveillance programmes of dengue in order to detect other species besides aedes aegypti.19902089508
[a study on transovarial transmission of dengue type 1 virus in aedes aegypti].the main purpose of this study is to determine the possibility of transovarial transmission of dengue type 1 virus, which was isolated from the serum of a patient with dengue fever during the 1987 dengue epidemic in southern taiwan, in aedes aegypti of kaohsiung strain (kh). parent female mosquitoes were inoculated with dengue 1 virus by intrathoracic inoculation technique. the f1 offspring adults collected from three sequential ovarian cycles were pooled to become 51, 13 and 14 pools, respectiv ...19902100728
[study on the vertical transmission of the dengue virus in the south pacific].in the course of a dengue outbreak, 765 larvae and 20 pupae were collected in noumea and in wallis island around patients premises, to investigate a possible natural infection. on 15 pools made of 335 aedes aegypti larvae and pupae, 3 appeared to be infected. dengue virus type 1 was the only serotype identified. minimum infection rate reached 1: 112. in new caledonia, the local strains of aedes aegypti can insure the survival of dengue 1 virus between outbreaks, due to a vertical infection of th ...19902208461
variation among strains of aedes aegypti in susceptibility to oral infection with dengue virus type 2.we compared 18 aedes aegypti strains for oral susceptibility to dengue virus type 2 (den-2) using a feeding protocol in which all parameters remained constant, including the titer of the infectious bloodmeal. for most strains, no significant variation between replicates was observed. comparisons between pairs of strains showed variation of different degrees, and allowed us to characterize the strains with respect to their oral susceptibility to den-2.19902221225
baseline data on aedes aegypti populations in santo domingo, dominican republic.baseline field studies were conducted from april 1987 to july 1988 on aedes aegypti in santo domingo, an endemic area for dengue fever. premise, container and breteau indices were measured in one treated area and 2 nearby control areas. these indices averaged 69.6, 46.3 and 142.1, respectively. the principal larval habitats of ae. aegypti were 208-liter (55-gal) concrete-lined drums. the estimated daily adult production was approximately 60 per house. adult mosquito populations were monitored us ...19902230783
dengue 3 virus infection of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti: comparison of parent and progeny candidate vaccine viruses.den-3 parent (strain ch53489) and progeny candidate vaccine (clone 24/28) viruses were compared in their abilities to interact with aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus. the parent and progeny virus were equivalent in their ability to infect, to replicate in, and to be transmitted by both species of mosquitoes. the candidate vaccine den-3 clone was temperature sensitive and had small plaque morphology. these phenotypic markers remained stable during mosquito passage. thus, temperature sensitivity an ...19902301711
comparison of ground and aerial ultra-low volume applications of malathion against aedes aegypti in santo domingo, dominican republic.efficacy of ground and aerial ultra-low volume (ulv) applications of 91% malathion at 438 ml/ha against aedes aegypti in the dominican republic was evaluated using indoor collections, oviposition trapping and adult sentinel mortality rates. ground compared to aerial ulv applications in this study were found to have a greater effect on ae. aegypti when measured by the described sampling techniques. neither application method provided the level of ae. aegypti suppression believed necessary for con ...19902324712
a survey on indoor resting mosquito species in phnom penh, kampuchea.indoor resting mosquitoes were collected in 7 localities (250 houses) of phnom penh at various periods. the mosquitoes were collected for 8 min in every house by means of an aspirator and net. a total of 16 species of mosquitoes resting in houses were found, one of them for the first time in kampuchea. culex quinquefasciatus was the predominant species in 6 of the localities observed; its predominance in houses was more or less evident; aedes aegypti prevailed in one locality. the percentage of ...19902370029
applicability of presence-absence and sequential sampling for ovitrap surveillance of aedes (diptera: culicidae) in chiang mai, northern thailand.applicability of presence or absence sampling for ovitrap surveillance of aedes aegypti (l.) and aedes albopictus (skuse) was examined for data collected in chiang mai, northern thailand. distribution of eggs per trap was contagious but did not fit the negative binomial distribution with a common k. the relationship between the mean number of eggs per trap and the proportion of positive traps was described using gerrard & chiang's model, which does not assume particular distribution patterns. us ...19902388225
[preliminary study on the biological control of dengue vectors by fish in liouchyou prefecture, pingtung county, taiwan].an investigation made in may 1989 with questionnaires to 2,480 families in liouchyou prefecture, pingtung county, showed that there were about 6,533 water containers in the whole village, of which 49.83% were used to store water for drinking, and the remaining 50.17% were used for washing clothes and watering plants. 32.42% of the residents volunteered to rear fish in the family water containers to control the mosquito population. during the period from april to october 1989, there was a total a ...19902402027
genetic variation and microevolution of dengue 2 virus in southeast asia.dengue 2 (den 2) virus strains collected from dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) patients and aedes aegypti mosquitoes in thailand, burma, and vietnam over a 25-year period have been analyzed by computer assisted t1-rnase-resistant oligonucleotide fingerprinting. fifty-seven den 2 virus strains of the thailand topotype were separated into four major clusters by phylogenetic analysis of 97 unique oligonucleotides identified in a common well-resolved region of the fingerprints. similarities in the 57 ...19892529700
virological study of a dengue type 1 epidemic at rio de janeiro.a dengue outbreak started in march, 1986 in rio de janeiro and spread very rapidly to other parts of the country. the great majority of cases presented classical dengue fever but there was one fatal case, confirmed by virus isolation. dengue type 1 strains were isolated from patients and vectors (aedes aegypti) in the area by cultivation in a. albopictus c6/36 cell line. the cytopathic effect (cpe) was studied by electron microscopy. an igm capture test (mac-elisa) was applied with clear and rep ...19882593823
[epidemiology of dengue fever in taiwan].dengue fever, a tropical communicable disease, is caused by an infectious viral disease. it is also known as break bone fever. there have been a number of epidemics over the last century in taiwan. following an islandwide epidemic in 1942, dengue fever had not been presented on the island for about forty years. in 1981, an outbreak of dengue occurred in liuchiu hsiang, a small off-shore island of pingtung county. the estimated attack rate was 80%. den-2 was isolated during that outbreak. another ...19892659810
[the value of an immunocapture method for the study of serum igm in the surveillance of dengue in martinique].the use of igm capture elisa for surveillance of dengue in martinique is described. this only pathogenic for human population arbovirus infection, which the transmission is caused by bites of haematophagous diptera like aedes (aedes aegypti principally) show an active circulation in martinique. clinical evolution was always benign among the adults and the children. to date no case of dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (the world health organization criteria) was not reported in mart ...19892663212
the reemergence of dengue in 1978, dengue was reported in china for the first time in 32 years. since then, epidemics involving hundreds of thousands of people have occurred in guangdong and guangxi provinces and on hainan island. these epidemics were caused by all four types of dengue virus. aedes aegypti was the vector in coastal areas, while aedes albopictus was the vector in inland regions. during these epidemics, case rates were very high (greater than 50%) in some areas. case-fatality rates were generally less than ...19892665017
[current situation of the aedes aegypti mosquito in the metropolitan area of panama city].ae. aegypti was reintroduced into panama in 1985; control was unsuccessful and by 1988 ae. aegypti larvae were detected in every borough of panama metropolitan area. only 3% of the panama city population has dengue antibody (against den 2) and virtually no one is immune to other serotypes. the relative risk of the introduction of dengue virus into panama is discussed.19892762596
vector competence of aedes albopictus from houston, texas, for dengue serotypes 1 to 4, yellow fever and ross river viruses.a combination of virus infection and transmission experiments showed that a houston, texas strain of aedes albopictus is a competent vector for dengue (den), yellow fever (yf) and ross river (rr) viruses. however, at 14 days incubation, den virus infection rates in a puerto rican strain of aedes aegypti were significantly higher for each of the four den serotypes, except den-1, than in houston ae. albopictus fed simultaneously on the same virus suspensions. the degree of correlation between diss ...19872849638
comparative susceptibility of mosquito species and strains to oral and parenteral infection with dengue and japanese encephalitis viruses.thirty-four strains of asian and pacific mosquitoes belonging to 22 species of 7 genera were compared for oral and/or parenteral susceptibility to infection with 1 or more strains of each of the 4 dengue serotypes. surprisingly, several species of common man-biting aedes were much more susceptible to oral infection with each of the 4 dengue serotypes than was aedes aegypti. these species included aedes albopictus and members of the scutellaris group of the subgenus stegomyia found on south pacif ...19852860816
[abundance of larvae of urban mosquitoes during the campaign of the eradication of aedes aegypti (linnaeus, 1762) and of dengue in cuba (1981-82)]. 19852870540
[dengue vector density survey in liuchiu, pintung, taiwan].the first outbreak of dengue in taiwan in 35 years was recorded in the summer of 1981 in liuchiu, pintung, a small offshore island of southern taiwan. an investigation team visited the affected area during the period of 14-17 october 1981 and collected 8,641 mosquito larvae, of which 4,432 were aedes aegypti and 4,182 were ae. albopictus. the house index, container index and breteau index were 44.2, 23.9 and 73.0 for ae. aegypti and 41.3, 17.0 and 51.9 for ae. albopictus, respectively. both spec ...19862880696
[arboviroses in the region of nosy-bé, madagascar. serologic and entomologic data].since 1977, the pasteur institute of madagascar has been studying, during six surveys, the arboviruses of nosy-be area, in the north-west of madagascar. 47.2% out of 271 human sera and 11.3% out of 151 sera of lemurs, tested for antibodies to 16 arboviruses by the haemagglutination inhibition test, are positive. the results show an important prevalence of flaviviruses. west nile and dengue 1 viruses were probably circulating some years before the surveys. antibodies against sindbis and rift vall ...19882900082
ovitrap surveys of dengue vector mosquitoes in chiang mai, northern thailand: seasonal shifts in relative abundance of aedes albopictus and ae. aegypti.aedes aegypti (l.) and aedes albopictus (skuse) were surveyed using ovitraps in residential areas in chiang mai, northern thailand. egg populations (both species inclusive) remained low in the dry season, but increased/decreased exponentially during the first/latter half of the rainy season, respectively. this seasonal pattern was similar to the seasonal distribution of dengue haemorrhagic fever cases in the area. during the dry season (november-march) ae.aegypti was dominant in urban and indoor ...19882980189
[aedes aegypti (l.): importance of its bioecology in the transmission of dengue and other arboviruses. i].the bioecological parameters which are of special importance in the epidemiology of dengue, yellow fever, and other arboviruses are discussed. three levels are retained: the nature of aedes aegypti-man contacts, the susceptibility of the mosquito to the pathogen and multiplication of the latter, and the transmission. the trophic preferences, the density variations, the daily survival rate, the egg diapause, and man influences are the main vector-dependent ecological factors. temperature and gene ...19883042180
evaluating ultra-low volume ground applications of malathion against aedes aegypti using landing counts in puerto rico, 1980-84.landing counts made in a residential area in san juan, puerto rico during the 5-year period, 1980-84 indicated that malathion ulv applied by leco fog generators was not effective against aedes aegypti. of 25 applications only 6 resulted in a decrease on the first day after treatment and only one remained much less than the pretreatment count on the second and third days after treatment. daily, the number of mosquitoes landing for a 5-minute period at each of 2 stations was recorded. an ideal yea ...19883193113
[arbovirus infections on the island of nosy-be; serologic and entomologic findings].since 1977, the pasteur institute of madagascar has been studying, during six surveys, the arboviruses of nosy-be area, in the north-west of madagascar. 47.2 p. 100 out of 271 human sera and 11.3 p. 100 out of 150 animal sera (mostly from lemurs), tested for antibodies to 16 arboviruses by the haemagglutination inhibition test, are positive. the results show an important prevalence of flaviviruses. west-nile and dengue 1 viruses were probably circulating some years before the surveys. antibodies ...19883242421
pathogenesis of dengue: challenges to molecular biology.dengue viruses occur as four antigenically related but distinct serotypes transmitted to humans by aedes aegypti mosquitoes. these viruses generally cause a benign syndrome, dengue fever, in the american and african tropics, and a severe syndrome, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (dhf/dss), in southeast asian children. this severe syndrome, which recently has also been identified in children infected with the virus in puerto rico, is characterized by increased vascular permeability ...19883277268
dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the americas.there has been a constant increase in the incidence of dengue in the americas over the past 15 years. this has been caused by increased frequency of epidemic activity in most countries, as a result of increased numbers of virus serotypes circulating in the region. the change in disease ecology has resulted in the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (dhf/dss) in the region, first with a major epidemic in cuba, followed by increased occurrence of sporadic cases of dhf/dss i ...19873313490
dengue in puerto rico: clinical manifestations and management from 1960's to 1987.dengue is a viral disease transmitted by the aedes aegypti mosquito. it is endemic in puerto rico and the caribbean with periodic epidemics occurring at varying intervals. there are three dengue serotypes present in puerto rico, at the present time. the clinical manifestations of dengue in puerto rico are presented from a historical perspective. dengue in puerto rico has evolved from a clinically mild illness in the 1960's to a devastating disease with hemorrhagic manifestations in the 1980's an ...19873313491
dengue haemorrhagic fever in malaysia: a review.the historical background, epidemiology and changing pattern of clinical disease as seen in malaysia is reviewed. the preliminary results of the longitudinal study of epidemiology of dengue in malaysia is also presented. studies led by rudnick et al. over some 18 years have established that the disease is endemically transmitted by both aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus causing illnesses ranging from mild febrile episodes through classical dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever and the dengue ...19873324361
control of aedes aegypti larvae in household water containers by chinese cat 1980-81 an outbreak of dengue fever occurred in guangdong province and in guangxi-zhuang autonomous region in the central-southern part of china. subsequently, a nationwide survey indicated that the vector of the disease, aedes aegypti, was confined to the coastal strip of guangdong and guangxi-zhuang. since the first case in the outbreak occurred in guangxi-zhuang, a community-based programme to control a. aegypti was set up in eight fishing villages of this region where the mosquito was bre ...19873500803
strategies for the emergency control of arboviral epidemics in new orleans.a study was initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of aerial ulv spraying for the control of aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus as an emergency antiepidemic measure against dengue fever and st. louis encephalitis, respectively. malathion was aerially applied at 219 ml/ha over 344 ha area of the ninth ward in new orleans. laboratory susceptibility tests and field-cage exposures indicated that the target populations were susceptible to malathion and that acceptable coverage of the study are ...19873504901
variation in the vector competence of geographic strains of aedes albopictus for dengue 1 virus.eight geographic strains of aedes albopictus from asia and north america and one north american strain of aedes aegypti were tested for their vector competence with dengue 1 virus. three groups of ae. albopictus were established based on their vector competence: a) the oahu laboratory strain, b) the three malaysian strains, and c) the tokyo and three north american strains. the three north american strains were similar to the strain of ae. aegypti from houston, texas in their ability to transmit ...19873504922
aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the americas: a review of their interactions with the human population.this paper describes the significant changes in the relationship between aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the human population in the americas from the 1800s to present. first, the history of the arrival of the mosquito, the consequent epidemics of yellow fever and dengue, and the eventual implication of the mosquito as vector is described. second, the pan american health organization's aedes aegypti eradication program is discussed and the potential threat to the americas of development of the deng ...19863532349
a study on susceptibility of indonesia colonies of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes to experimental infection with dengue type 3 and chikungunya viruses. 19873586577
multiplication of chikungunya virus in salivary glands of aedes albopictus (oahu strain) mosquitoes: an electron microscopic study.aedes albopictus as well as aedes aegypti is an important vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. electron microscopic observations on the salivary glands of ae. albopictus infected with chikungunya virus were performed in comparing with those of ae. aegypti infected with dengue virus. no virus budding from the cell surface of the chikungunya-infected mosquito's salivary glands was found as shown in dengue-infected ones, in contrast to the findings of the mammalian cells such as vero, kb, imr, ...19863599528
increased dissemination of dengue 2 virus in aedes aegypti associated with concurrent ingestion of microfilariae of brugia malayi.we investigated whether concurrent ingestion of dengue 2 virus and microfilariae of brugia malayi would increase viral infection and dissemination rates in aedes aegypti. infection rates were similar in mosquitoes that ingested virus alone or both virus and microfilariae concurrently. however, viral dissemination rates, as determined by recovery of dengue virus from both legs and bodies separately, were significantly greater in mosquitoes that ingested both agents concurrently than in those that ...19873605503
etiologic and serologic investigations of the 1980 epidemic of dengue fever on hainan island, china.virologic and seroepidemiologic studies were carried out during an epidemic of dengue fever on hainan island in 1980. dengue 3 virus was isolated from 46 of 77 acute phase sera and from 1 of 10 pools of adult aedes aegypti. dengue 1 virus virus was isolated from a single acute phase serum. seroepidemiologic investigations showed that 74% of healthy individuals in the epidemic area had antibody to dengue virus compared to 54% in an area where epidemic dengue had occurred in 1978, and less than or ...19863766851
dispersal and other population parameters of aedes aegypti in an african village and their possible significance in epidemiology of vector-borne diseases.dispersal of aedes aegypti aegypti adults within shauri moyo, an african village in the rabai area north of mombasa, kenya, was studied using the mark-release-recapture method. a total of 920 mosquitoes were captured and uniquely marked, of which 828 (90%) were released and 332 (40%) recaptured. a great majority of mosquitoes were recaptured once, but some individuals were recaptured up to 10 times. most females visited 1 or 2 houses (40.8%, 44.9%, respectively), but there were females that visi ...19863789275
effect of temperature on the vector efficiency of aedes aegypti for dengue 2 virus.the effect of temperature on the ability of aedes aegypti to transmit dengue (den) 2 virus to rhesus monkeys was assessed as a possible explanation for the seasonal variation in the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in bangkok, thailand. in two laboratory experiments, a bangkok strain of ae. aegypti was allowed to feed upon viremic monkeys infected with den-2 virus. blood-engorged mosquitoes were separated into two groups and retained at constant temperatures. virus infection and transmissio ...19873812879
rainfall, abundance of aedes aegypti and dengue infection in selangor, epidemio-meteorotropic analytical study of selangor, in the southwest coast of peninsular malaysia, examines the monthly incidence of dengue for the period 1973-1982 to assess possible quantitative association with the monthly rainfall. the relationships between rainfall, abundance of a. aegypti and dengue infection during 1982 in jinjang, a dengue-prone area in selangor, were also examined. a quantitative association between rainfall and the number of dengue cases was found during the first ...19853835698
failure to detect natural transovarial transmission of dengue viruses by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae). 19854009622
dengue and hepatic failure.dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome is a serious manifestation of dengue fever, which is observed predominantly in the tropical regions of the west pacific and in southeast asia and is associated with secondary infections, mainly in children under age 15. a concomitant microangiopathic coagulopathy has been described; moreover, encephalopathy and even reye's syndrome have been rarely reported. this report describes a 51-year-old man with secondary dengue infection who presented with c ...19854061482
vector capability of aedes aegypti mosquitoes for california encephalitis and dengue viruses at various temperatures. 19744132612
mosquito-borne infections in fiji. v. the 1971-73 dengue epidemic.a dengue epidemic due to type 2 virus involving some 3,400 cases began in fiji early in 1971, had a peak during may, june and july, and cases have continued to occur with a low incidence during 1972 and 1973. many of the notified cases showed classical dengue fever symptoms and there were no confirmed cases of haemorrhagic fever. a serological survey indicated that there had been at least 20,000 subclinical infections. it is probable that the virus was introduced to fiji either through the port ...19744529580
etiology of the 1965 epidemic of febrile illness in nagpur city, maharashtra state, investigation of an extensive outbreak of febrile illness during the months of april, may, and june 1965, in the city of nagpur, maharashtra state, showed that the main etiological agent was chikungunya virus. dengue type 4 and chandipura viruses were also active during this period. in all, 26 strains of virus were isolated from 60 acute phase human sera, and of these strains, 23 were identified as chikungunya virus, 2 as chandipura, and 1 as dengue type 4. five strains of chikungunya virus a ...19724537481
a survey of the distribution and relative prevalence of aedes aegypti in sabah, brunei, and sarawak.although dengue haemorrhagic fever is widely established in south-east asia, no cases have been reported from borneo. in order to help to assess whether the infection could become established in borneo, a survey was made, using the single-larva collection method, of the distribution and prevalence of the principal vector, aedes aegypti, in sabah and in a few towns and villages of brunei and sarawak. in addition, the prevalence of ae. aegypti was compared with that of certain other species of aed ...19724537482
studies on the life budget of aedes aegypti in wat samphaya, bangkok, thailand.for a complete understanding of the epidemiology of a vector-borne disease, a knowledge of the bionomics of the vector is needed. the development of aedes aegypti was studied in wat samphaya, bangkok, thailand, where work on the adult biology had been carried out the previous year (1966-67). particular attention was given to the variation in the numbers of immature stages of the mosquito in relation to the known seasonal incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever. of the three types of water contain ...19724537483
sequential application of ultra-low-volume ground aerosols of fenitrothion for sustained control of aedes aegypti.a trial was carried out of the efficacy of fenitrothion ultra-low-volume aerosol applied by vehicle-mounted cold aerosol generator for the control of aedes aegypti. five applications of fenitrothion at intervals of 11-49 days at dosages of 511-1 095 ml/ha gave sustained control for 4-5 months in an area of some 14 ha containing 1 300 houses. immediate killing of adult mosquitos and some larvicidal effect interrupted oviposition and retarded the recovery of the mosquito population. sequential tre ...19734543550
arbovirus studies in luanda, angola. 1. virological and serological studies during a yellow fever epidemic.a yellow fever epidemic broke out in luanda, angola, in january 1971 and was halted in less than 3 months by prompt mass vaccination and intensive antimosquito measures. nine strains of yellow fever virus were isolated from hospitalized cases, but attempts to isolate the virus from aedes aegypti mosquitos failed. a serological survey for antibodies to arboviruses in 589 sera from unvaccinated persons showed that two arboviruses were circulating in the epidemic area: the yellow fever virus and th ...19734545154
arbovirus studies in luanda, angola. 2. virological and serological studies during an outbreak of dengue-like disease caused by the chikungunya outbreak of dengue-like disease was observed in luanda, angola, at the end of 1970 and beginning of 1971. chikungunya virus was isolated from the blood of a patient with typical symptoms of dengue and from a pool of aedes aegypti mosquitos. a survey for antibodies to arboviruses in the sera of persons living in luanda showed that the chikungunya virus was indeed responsible for the outbreak. the fact that this outbreak immediately preceded and continued concurrently with a yellow fever epidem ...19734545155
a large-scale field trial of ultra-low-volume fenitrothion applied by a portable mist blower for the control of aedes aegypti.long-term control of aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever in thailand, was obtained by 2 thorough applications of fenitrothion mist applied at a target dosage rate of 0.1 ml per m(3) of room space. perfect control lasted for 6-7 months after treatment and densities were substantially reduced for up to a year after treatment. recovery of the population was still slow up to almost 16 months after treatment. this degree of control was achieved by the immediate mortalities produced ...19744549492
dengue virus transmission by aedes aegypti mosquitoes following intrathoracic inoculation. 19734684883
prevalence of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus and observations on the ecology of dengue haemorrhagic fever in several areas of thailand. 19734718121
recovery of dengue-2 virus from aedes aegypti in colombia. 19734745238
comparison of three methods used to isolate dengue virus type 2.during the 1969 dengue epidemic in puerto rico, human sera and aedes aegypti mosquitoes were collected for virus isolation and identification. three methods of isolation were used and compared. in the first method, we inoculated newborn mice by the intracranial route, noted any signs of illness, and serially passed specimens in mice until virus was isolated. in the second method, we inoculated tube cultures of llc-mk(2) cells, noted any cytopathic effect (cpe), and assayed fluids for virus by pl ...19715002896
dengue control on an island in the gulf of thailand. i. results of an aedes aegypti control program. 19715093668
experimental infection of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus with dengue viruses. 19715159140
aedes aegypti and haemorrhagic fever. 19675299445
field study of the safety of abate for treating potable water and observations on the effectiveness of a control programme involving both abate and malathion.abate is a larvicide for aedes aegypti, a vector of yellow fever, dengue, and haemorrhagic fever. it is less toxic than malathion or ddt. tests in human volunteers had previously indicated it would be safe to add to drinking-water where the mosquito often a 19-month test in puerto rico, abate was added to the drums and cisterns in which a community of about 2000 persons stored their drinking-water. this use of abate and other insecticidal measures (malathion spraying) gradually achieve ...19685302335
replicate surveys of larval habitats of aedes aegypti in relation to dengue haemorrhagic fever in bangkok, thailand.dengue haemorrhagic fever in bangkok and thonburi occurs principally during the wet season. the mosquito vector is aedes aegypti. a study was made of the larval habitats of a. aegypti in 14 localities, at three different times of the year, to determine whether there were fluctuations in the a. aegypti population, as measured by the number of occupied habitats, which could be correlated with the incidence of the infection.the habitats were classified into 6 categories and a single larva was colle ...19695307596
the effectiveness of ultra-low-volume applications of malathion at a rate of 6 us fluid ounces per acre in controlling aedes aegypti in a large-scale test at nakhon sawan, thailand.the effectiveness of ultra-low-volume (ulv) applications of technical malathion to control aedes aegypti was studied in nakhon sawan, thailand, in november 1968. two treatments of 6 us fl oz/acre (438 ml/ha) were applied 4 days apart by a c-47 aircraft equipped with a fuselage-mounted spraying boom. an area of 7 square miles (18 km(2)), which included the entire city area, was treated.the landing rate of adult a. aegypti adults was reduced significantly following each malathion application (95% ...19705309512
aedes aegypti (l.) and aedes albopictus (skuse) in singapore city. 1. distribution and density.the distribution and density of ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus in singapore were assessed from extensive larval surveys carried out from 1966 to 1968 to evaluate their respective roles in the epidemiology of dengue haemorrhagic fever and to study their ecology in the urban areas. ten urban areas where the majority of dengue haemorrhagic fever cases occurred were surveyed.the results showed that both species were common in the city, with ae. aegypti being the dominant species. the distribution of ...19715316745
aedes aegypti (l.) and aedes albopictus (skuse) in singapore city. 5. observations in relation to dengue haemorrhagic fever.dengue haemorrhagic fever in singapore was a disease of the urban human population, with concentrations of cases occurring in areas of high population density. mosquito surveys revealed that these areas also had high population densities of ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus.the disease occurred throughout the year but the incidence of cases appeared to follow a seasonal pattern. observations from 1966 to 1968 showed that the number of cases increased in april, reached a peak in november, and, there ...19715316749
dual infections of aedes aegypti with arboviruses. i. arboviruses that have no apparent cytopathic effect in the mosquito. 19685672793
recovery of dengue type 3 virus from human serum and aedes aegypti in south india. 19685680412
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