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immunological and immunochemical properties of the giant african snail (acathina fulica) hemocyanin. 197659694
[catecholamines in the sub-esophageal ganglia and the hemolymph of the giant african snail (achatina fulica férussac) determined by gas chromatography].the content of three catecholamines (dopamine, l-norepinephrine and l-epinephrine) in the subesophageal ganglia and the hemolymph of achatina fulica férussac was measured by a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector. the dopamine content of the ganglia was 4.3 +/- 0.9 mug/g. l-norepinephrine and l-epinephrine in the ganglia were not detected. the three catecholamines in the hemolymph were also not detected.1975129245
immunogenicities of haemocyanins from the giant african snail (achatina fulica) and the keyhole limpet (megathura crenulata).1. the immunogenicities of the giant african snail (achatina fulica) haemocyanin (afh) and the keyhole limpet (megathura crenulata) haemocyanin (klh) were compared by determining their capacities to induce humoral and cell-mediated immune response in rats. 2. klh was found to be more immunogenic than afh, and this was attributed to the fact that klh contains more moieties, and probably more antigenic determinants than afh. 3. since afh was found capable of stimulating both humoral and cell-media ...1977318245
demonstration of multiple forms of acid phosphatase in hemolymph of the african snail, archachatina marginata.1. hemolymph from the giant african snail archachatina marginata has been analyzed for its content of certain lysosomal hydrolases and shown to contain substantial quantities of acid phosphatase (285 units/ml) hexosaminidase (512 units per ml) and beta-glucuronidase (28 units/ml). 2. hemolymph acid phosphatase can be fractionated into 6 active components by deae-sephadex chromatography. 3. some of the acid phosphatase species can be distinguished on the basis of heat stability, ph dependency and ...1979318414
epidemiologic studies of eosinophilic meningitis in southern taiwan.a study of the epidemiologic characteristics of 125 cases of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis, probably caused by angiostrongylus cantonensis, which occurred in southern taiwan in 1968 and 1969 revealed a close association of the disease with the rainy season. in contrast to findings in other geographic areas, most such cases in this study occurred among children. a higher attack rate was observed among aborigines than among descendants of mainland chinese. most patients had eaten ...19751155688
purification and characterisation of glutathione transferase from the giant african snail, archachatina marginata.1. glutathione-s-transferase has been purified from the hepatopancreas of archachatina marginata to homogeneity. 2. the enzyme was found to be a dimer with a molecular weight of 44,000. the subunits sizes were 22,500 and 23,500 respectively. the isoelectric points of the enzyme were 8.35, 7.95 and 4. the enzyme was most stable at temperature below 40 degrees c. upon denaturation by 4 m urea, only 56% of the activity could be recovered. 3. the kms for glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenze (cd ...19921451443
clinical studies on angiostrongyliasis cantonensis among children in taiwan.angiostrongyliasis cantonensis is a disease commonly seen in taiwan, especially in children during the summer rainy season. most of the cases reported in other countries were adults and their clinical manifestations were different from children. studies on special clinical characteristics of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis among 82 children in taiwan were performed. thirty-eight (46.3%) were male and 44 (53.7%) females, and 87% could be traced to a history of contact with the intermediate host, t ...19911822885
transmission of angiostrongylus cantonensis through the giant african snail achatina fulica: an experimental study.observations on transmission of the rat lung worm, angiostrongylus cantonensis, from rats to the snail intermediate host. achatina fulica, in a vacant lot in bangkok are described. the prevalence of a. cantonensis increased with snail age until 200 days of age when it attained a plateau of 50-60%. the overall prevalence was 53%. the worm burden slowly rose with age until 200 days of age beyond which it remained relatively constant. the highest mean worm burden of 5,478 was observed in the oldest ...19911822886
[effect of catecholamines and their analogs on the electric activity of a giant neuron identified in the subesophageal ganglia of the giant african snail (achatina fulica ferussac)]. 19744281710
the fine structure of the kidney of achatina achatina (l). 19734363099
pharmacological studies on the giant african snail (archachatina marginata). 19744470296
a neoplasm in the giant african snail achatina fulica. 19724655537
[concentration of inorganic ions in the hemolymph of the giant african snail (achatina fulica ferussac) as a function of its nutritional state]. 19734785100
[pharmacologic study of a giant neuron identified in the subesophageal ganglia of the giant african snail (achatina fulicula ferussac) sensitive to 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine]. 19734785101
the giant african snail, achatina fulica. a new threat to public health. 19715104773
aeromonas liquefaciens in the giant african snail, achantina fulica. 19705501200
salmonella, arizona, shigella and aeromonas isolated from the snail achatina achatina in nigeria.the salmonella, arizona, shigella and aeromonas contents of 39 snails (achatina achatina) were investigated. serotyping of the salmonella isolates revealed the presence of s. manhattan, s. ndolo, s. reading, s. uppsala, and s. typhimurium. six of 18 shigella isolates were identified as sh. sonnei while all the aeromonas proved to be a. hydrophila. fifty eight percent of these a. hydrophila isolates were enterotoxigenic, and their toxin was shown to be heat labile. all the a. hydrophila strains w ...19807235689
molecular cloning of the defense factor in the albumen gland of the sea hare aplysia kurodai.aplysianin-a, an antibacterial glycoprotein in the albumen gland of the sea hare aplysia kurodai, inhibited the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. aplysianin-a cdna clones were isolated from an albumen gland cdna library. sequence analysis reveals that aplysianin-a is produced as a precursor protein of 556 amino acid residues with a signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues and contains 6 potential n-glycosylation sites. aplysianin-a mrna was expressed tissue-specifically in ...19958549758
ecological studies on the breeding of aedes aegypti and other mosquitos in shells of the giant african snail achatina fulica.the breeding of larvae of aedes aegypti, aedes simpsoni, and eretmapodites quinquevittatus in empty shells of achatina fulica was studied in the coastal zone of dar es salaam, tanzania. the average density of shells was estimated to be 228 per ha. from 11 to 35% were positive for mosquito larvae. a. aegypti were found in 82-84% of positive shells; a. simpsoni in 8-13%. on msasani peninsula, during the 3-month rainy season april-june 1970, the larval density of a. aegypti in shells was estimated ...19734148745
growth and localization of angiostrongylus cantonensis in the molluscan host, achatina fulica.the development of the rat lung worm angiostrongylus cantonensis within the giant african snail achatina fulica is reported. in this host, ingested first stage larvae penetrate the intestinal wall into the hemocoel and migrate to the mantle where they undergo two molts and become third stage larvae within 24 days. the mantle, harboring 85% of the total number recovered is the major location of infective larvae. the kidney contains about 11% but few larvae are found in the remaining visceral org ...19761027104
[inhibitory effects of dipeptides containing tryptophan on the excitability on the giant neuron of the giant african snail (achatina fulica, ferussac)].besides an inhibitory effect of l-lys-l-phe-l-tyr and l-phe-l-tyr, l-phe-l-trp showed the same effect on the excitability of a giant neurone (the tan, tonically autoactive neurone) identified in suboesophageal ganglia of achatina futica férussac. the critical concentration of l-phe-l-trp to produce the effect was 10(-5)--3 x 10(-5) kg/1. the inhibitory effect of this substance was relatively slow and independent no chloride ions, as well as in the case of l-phe-l-tyr. l-trp-l-phe, gly-l-trp and ...1978153196
macromolecular antimicrobial glycoprotein, achacin, expressed in a methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris.a cdna encoding achacin, an antimicrobial glycoprotein from the body surface mucus of giant african snail achacina fulica férussac, was expressed in a methylotrophic yeast, pichia pastoris, and recombinant achacin (rach) was secreted in yeast minimal medium in a polyglycosylated form with 80 kda. carbohydrate analysis revealed that the glycosylated moiety of rach was composed of 50 mol mannose and 2 mol n-acetylglucosamine residues. antimicrobial activity using escherichia coli and staphylococcu ...199910217406
the beta-glucosidase in the gut contents of the snail achatina achatina.1. the enzyme beta-glucosidase (beta-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, ec 3.2.1.21) from the gut contents of active achatina achatina exists in two molecular forms, beta-glucosidase c (mol.wt. about 82000) and d (mol.wt. about 41000). 2. only the lower-molecular-weight species was found in the gut contents of aestivating snails or in extracts from their digestive glands and washed gut walls. 3. on re-activation of some aestivating snails, betion of atp and mg2+ to the isolated gut contents or to extra ...19769070
the presence of angiostrongylus cantonensis in islands of the indian ocean and probable role of the giant african snail, achatina fulica, in dispersal of the parasite to the pacific islands. 19665981486
the prevalence of angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae collected from the giant african snail, achatina fulica in west malaysia and singapore. 19715144153
[free amino acid levels in the hemolymph and neural ganglia of the giant african snail(achatina fulica ferussac) while starved and fed]. 19734793572
effects of 3,3-dipyridylmethyl-1-phenyl-2-indolinone on gamma-aminobutyric acid elicited chloride current of snail central neuron.the effects of (1) gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) on the excitable membrane and (2) dpmpi (3,3-dipyridylmethyl-1-phenyl-2-indolinone) on the microperfused gaba elicited currents were investigated on central lp5 neuron of giant african snail, achatina fulica ferussac, with conventional voltage-clamp technique. gaba elicited an inward current of lp5 neuron by a concentration and voltage dependent manner. muscimol, gabaa receptor agonist, did, while baclofen, gabab receptor agonist, did not, elicit ...19979434891
characterization of a strictly specific acid beta-galactosidase from achatina achatina.an acid beta-galactosidase was isolated from the digestive juice of achatina achatina and purified to homogeneity by anion exchange, gel-filtration and hydroxyapatite chromatographies. this enzyme is soluble, as are the cytosolic beta-galactosidases, functions at acid ph like the lysosomal enzymes but differs from the other soluble animal beta-galactosidases in that it is highly specific for the beta-d-galactosyl residue. in addition, it cleaves the beta1-4 linkage much faster than the beta1-3 a ...19979367180
[eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis in children].eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis is a disease commonly seen in taiwan, especially in children during the summer rainy season. most of the cases reported in other countries were adults and their clinical manifestations were different from children. studies on special clinical characteristics among 87 children in taiwan were performed. thirty-eight (43.7%) were male and 49 (56.3%) females, and 88.5% could be traced to a history of contact with the intermediate host, the giant african ...19948184688
morphological aspects of achacin-treated bacteria.1. the morphology of bacteria treated with the bactericidal glycoprotein, achacin, purified from the giant african snail, achatina fulica férussac, has been studied. 2. achacin lengthens the bodies of escherichia coli by three to seven times. 3. achacin damages the surface of staphylococcus aureus and sinks the cytoplasmic membranes into the cytoplasm. 4. achacin causes neither the leakage nor the destruction of cells.19938097453
the actions of rfamide neuroactive peptides on the isolated heart of the giant african snail, achatina fulica.1. the effects of a range of rfamide peptides were examined on the frequency, amplitude and tone of the isolated heart of achatina fulica. 2. fmrfamide, flrfamide and sdpnflrfamide were potent excitants while lplrfamide, kheylrfamide and gsffrfamide were weak excitants. 3. dnflrfamide and sslfrfamide were potent inhibitory peptides while lfrfamide, gslfrfamide and knefirfamide were weak inhibitory peptides. 4. mrfamide, lrfamide and rfamide were inactive. 5. it is concluded that a tetrapeptide s ...19937904911
the phase relationship of glycogen and free fatty acids in tissues of aestivating giant african snails (achatina achatina).the phase relationships of glycogen and free fatty acids (ffa) in the digestive (midgut) gland, foot muscle and heart muscle of starved and aestivating giant african snails (achatina achatina) were analysed by means of phase plane plots. phase plane plots of glycogen against ffa content indicated that these metabolites were out of phase in the digestive gland but in phase in the foot muscle, whereas the plot for the heart muscle had a long axis parallel to the abscissa. digestive gland glycogen ...19846467908
[angiostrongylus in the infant at reunion and mayotte. apropos of 3 cases of eosinophilic meningitis including 1 fatal radiculomyeloencephalitis with hydrocephalus].background: eosinophilic meningitis caused by angiostrongylus cantonensis is widespread in southeast asia and pacific islands. adults develop a transient meningitis with a benign course but severe or fatal disease may occur in pediatric patients. case report 1: a 11 months old boy living in mayotte island was hospitalized some days after fever and skin rash with seizure status, coma, flaccid quadriplegia, absence of deep tendon reflexes, urinary retention and anal incontinence. eosinophilia was ...19979507763
the ionic requirements for the production of action potential in achatina fulica ferussac neuron.the ionic requirement for the production of directly elicited action potentials of a tonically auto-active neuron (tan) in the subesophageal ganglia of the giant african snail, achatina fulica ferussac, was studied electrophysiologically. calcium free ringer solution containing 1 mm edta reversibly abolished the directly elicited action potential. verapamil (10 micrograms/ml) or cocaine (4 mg/ml) decreased both amplitude and vmax of the action potentials. the amplitude of the action potential wa ...19863562676
[effects of biologically active peptides on the giant neurons of the giant african snail, achatina fulica férussac].effects of neuropeptides proposed as neurotransmitters of mammals and invertebrates and those of natural toxins, etc., on the identifiable giant neurones of an african giant snail (achatina fulica férussac) were examined. oxytocin had a tendency to show the excitatory effects; this substance was excitatory on five neurones and inhibitory on one neurone. a substance related to oxytocin, vasotocin, also showed excitatory effects on the three neurones. on the other hand, fmr famide was inhibitory o ...19882977963
molecular cloning of the antibacterial protein of the giant african snail, achatina fulica férussac.an expression cdna library was constructed with poly(a)-rich rna extracted from the collar of the giant african snail, achatina fulica férussac. a 1.9-kbp cdna clone encoding a precursor of antibacterial glycoprotein of the snail, achacin, was isolated from the cdna expression library. the cdna sequence contains an open reading frame with 1593-nucleotide residues. the deduced amino acid sequence of this achacin precursor starts with a 29-residue leader peptide followed by a 502-residue mature pe ...19921396687
bactericidal action of a glycoprotein from the body surface mucus of giant african snail.1. bactericidal action of a glycoprotein, achacin, purified from the giant african snail, achatina fulica férussac, has been studied. 2. achacin kills both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but only in their growing states. 3. achacin does not have any bacteriolytic activity. 4. the strain which has no cell wall is a little more sensitive than the native strain and the cell membrane-damaged strain. 5. achacin was observed on the cytoplasmic membrane and on the cell wall of treated escher ...19921379901
a comparative study of hemocytes from six different snails: morphology and functional aspects.hemocytes taken from six different gastropod snails, achatina achatina, a. fulica, biomphalaria glabrata, bulinus natalensis, helix aspersa, and lymnaea stagnalis, were compared for morphology, peroxidase activity, and, using methods developed for l. stagnalis, the ability to generate reactive oxygen inermediates upon phagocytic stimulation. numbers of hemocytes per milliliter hemolymph and hemocytes' microscopical morphology showed some variation among the snail species. peroxidase activity was ...19921311738
on the functions of the pore cells in the connective tissue of terrestrial pulmonate molluscs.the fine structure of the pore cells in connective tissue in the kidney of achatina achatina and the skin of the slug arion hortensis is described and evidence is presented which shows that these cells, in the latter species, are involved in the synthesis of the respiratory blood pigment, haemocyanin. the involvement of these cells in phagocytosis of colloidal particles, was demonstrated following introduction of ferritin and colloidal gold into the blood. the extracellular coat which surrounds ...19751122526
metabolic regulation of beta-glucosidase in the gut content of the snail achatina achatina.an energy-dependent polymerization-depolymerization phenomenon in the beta-glucosidase (beta-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, ec 3.2.1.21) in the gut contents of the giant african snail achatina achatina has been observed. the formation of the octamer, tetramer and dimer from the monomer (mol. wt. approx. 41 000) and vice versa are catalysed by proteins in the present gut contents.1976938685
responses of the intestine of the giant african snail (achatina fulica) to acetylcholine in meng's solution with low sodium, potassium and calcium ions.decreasing the concentration of sodium in meng's solution produced a non-parallel shift of the dose-response of acetylcholine on the intestine of the giant african snail achatina fulica. this decrease in sodium decreases the sensitivity of the tissue to acetylcholine and sensitivity was not restored with several washings. the response to decrease calcium is very similar to that of sodium. in the case of potassium however 10% k+ produced less depression in sensitivity than 25% which even caused l ...1978751678
pharmacological effects of the giant african snail achatina fulica.the body fluid and tissue extract of the foot of achatina fulica, the edible giant african snail, were investigated and quantified for pharmacological effects. both reduced spontaneous locomotor activity in mice, protected them from death from amphetamine induced toxicity, prolonged hexobarbitone sleeping time and caused a depletion of catecholamines from various organs of the rat. from this a central depressant action combined with an antihypertensive effect is inferred. this is in keeping with ...1979524451
quantitative determinations of some pharmacological effects from the edible giant african snail (achatina fulica). 1979463339
[the characteristics of the cholinoreceptors on the identified tan neuron of the giant african snail achatina fulica].acetylcholine, nicotine, a selective agonist of n-cholinoreceptors suberildicholine dibromide, as well as a selective agonist of m-cholinoreceptors 5-methylfurmethide inhibited spike discharges in a dose-dependent manner up to a complete ceasing of the firing in cholinoreceptors situated on the identified neurone tan of african giant snail achatina fulica. m-cholinoblocker metamizylum completely prevented the inhibitory effect of methylfurmethide. central cholinoblocker aetherophen completely pr ...199910513392
effect of single and binary combinations of plant-derived molluscicides on reproduction and survival of the snail achatina fulica.the effects of sublethal treatments (20% and 60% of lc(50)/24 h) with plant-derived molluscicides on the reproduction of the giant african snail achatina fulica were studied. azadirachta indica oil, cedrus deodara oil, allium sativum bulb powder, and nerium indicum bark powder singly and binary combinations on reproduction and survival of a. fulica were investigated. repeated treatment occurred on day 0, day 15, and day 30. these plant-derived molluscicides significantly reduced fecundity, egg v ...200011031309
a new glycosaminoglycan from the giant african snail achatina fulica.a new glycosaminoglycan has been isolated from the giant african snail achatina fulica. this polysaccharide had a molecular weight of 29,000, calculated based on the viscometry, and a uniform repeating disaccharide structure of -->4)-2-acetyl,2-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranose (1-->4)-2-sulfo-alpha-l-idopyranosyluronic acid (1-->. this polysaccharide represents a new, previously undescribed glycosaminoglycan. it is related to the heparin and heparan sulfate families of glycosaminoglycans but is disti ...19968662607
functional characteristics of the nervous system in the giant african snail, archachatina (calachatina) marginata (swainson). 195713406760
[effect of the population density on growth and regeneration in the snail achatina fulica].in the laboratory, the growth rate of the giant african snail achatina fulica, as estimated by the weight and shell length was shown to decrease when the population density increased from 10 to 60 snails/m2 of the total terrarium area for five months. in the second experiment, when the population density increased from 48 to 193 snails/m2, the growth rate had already decreased by six weeks. in the groups with a high population density the feeding behavior was weakened, expressed by a greater amo ...200011042956
[dynamics of the dominance of identified cardioregulatory neurons in the snail achatina fulica] .9 cardioregulating neurones belonging to 5 different functional groups were studied in visceral and right parietal ganglia of the giant african snail achatina fulica. the neuronal network included multimodal and multifunctional cells exerting short- or long-lasting chronoionotropic effects on the cardiac electro- and mechanograms. mechanisms of the differences in the cardioregulating effectiveness of these groups were discussed.200011059016
effects of lead pollution at industrial contaminated sites on sentinel juvenile achatina achatina.we investigated juvenile achatina achatina snails exposed as sentinels in plastic cages for 12 weeks to compare lead pollution at dump sites of abandoned battery factory (niger delta, nigeria). results indicated 0.56, 20.37, 200.42 and 1200.30 microg/g soil lead at control, storage, dried effluent and waste dump sites, respectively. there were significant (p < 0.05) depression in snail growth with increasing level of lead pollution. snails were tolerant of all levels of lead pollution with no mo ...200918787754
optimum conditions for yeast protoplast release and regeneration in saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida tropicalis using gut enzymes of the giant african snail achatina achatina.release of viable protoplasts of saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida tropicalis was achieved using fresh crude enzyme extracts of the giant african snail achatina achatina. optimum results of 2.8 x 10(6) protoplast ml(-1) were obtained when 1 g (wet wt) of cell slurry from the yeast strains was first treated with 1% beta-mercaptoethanol for 10 min and incubated with the undiluted crude enzyme for 120 min using 1.0 mol l(-1) sorbitol as osmotic stabilizer. protoplast yield was enhanced with high ...200111264751
a comparison of hydrolase and lytic activities of the digestive juices of the giant african snail, achatina fulica, and helix pomatia. 196313981006
chemical sulfonation and anticoagulant activity of acharan sulfate.acharan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan prepared from the giant african snail, achatina fulica. this polysaccharide has a repeating disaccharide structure of -->4)-2-deoxy-2-acetamido-alpha-d-glucopyranose (1-->4)-2-sulfo-alpha-l-idopyranosyluronic acid (1-->). its structure is related to heparin and heparan sulfate but is distinctly different from all known members of these classes of glycosaminoglycans. because of its structural similarities to heparin, chemically modified acharan sulfate was s ...19989870894
the inophyllums, novel inhibitors of hiv-1 reverse transcriptase isolated from the malaysian tree, calophyllum inophyllum linn.as part of a search for novel inhibitors of hiv-1 reverse transcriptase, the acetone extract of the giant african snail, achatina fulica, was shown to be active. fractionation of the extract yielded inophyllums a, b, c, and e and calophyllolide (1a, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6), previously isolated from calophyllum inophyllum linn., a known source of nutrition for a. fulica. from a methanol/methylene chloride extract of c. inophyllum, the same natural products in considerably greater yield were isolated i ...19937506311
giant multimodal heart motoneurons of achatina fulica: a new cardioregulatory input in pulmonates.the regulation of the heartbeat by the two largest neurons, d-vln and d-rpln, on the dorsal surface of visceral and right parietal ganglia of giant african snail, achatina fulica, was examined. using the new method of animal preparation, for the first time, discrete biphasic inhibitory-excitatory junction potentials (i-ejps) in the heart and several muscles of the visceral sac were recorded. the duration of hyperpolarizing phase (h-phase) of biphasic i-ejps was 269+/-5.6 ms (n=5), which is 2-3 t ...200111672694
nutritional status of four species of giant land snails in nigeria.four species of african giant land snails (archachatina marginata (ovum) pfeiffer, archachatina marginata (saturalis) philippi, achatina achatina and limicolaria spp.) were assessed for their proximate and mineral compositions aimed at establishing their nutritive values on wet weight basis. analysis of muscle revealed that composition of crude protein varied from 18.66%+/-0.57% in limicolaria spp. and 20.56%+/-0.05% in archachatina marginata (ovum) pfeiffer; moisture content was 76.56%+/-0.04% ...200616909467
activation of professional antigen presenting cells by acharan sulfate isolated from giant african snail, achatina fulica.acharan sulfate isolated from the giant african snail, achatina fulica, has been reported to have antitumor activity in vivo. in an effort to determine the mechanisms of its antitumor activity, we examined the effects of acharan sulfate on professional antigen presenting cells (apcs). acharan sulfate increased the phagocytic activity, the production of cytokines such as tnf-alpha and il-1beta, and the release of nitric oxide on a macrophage cell line, raw 264.7 cells. in addition, acharan sulfat ...200717703739
induction of nucleolin translocation by acharan sulfate in a549 human lung adenocarcinoma.acharan sulfate (as), isolated from the giant african snail achatina fulica, is a novel glycosaminoglycan, consisting primarily of the repeating disaccharide structure alpha-d-n-acetylglucosaminyl (1 --> 4) 2-sulfoiduronic acid. as shows anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. despite this activity, as is only weakly cytotoxic towards cancer cells. we examine the interactions between as and cell-surface proteins in an effort to explain this anti-tumor activity. using flow cytometry and affinit ...201020564223
high molecular weight lectin isolated from the mucus of the giant african snail achatina fulica.to understand better the host defense mechanisms of mollusks against pathogens, we examined the anti-microbial activity of mucus from the giant african snail achatina fulica. hemagglutination activity of the mucus secreted by the integument of snails inoculated with escherichia coli was observed to increase and to cause hemagglutination of rabbit red blood cells. purification of the snail mucus lectin by sequential column chromatography revealed that the relative molecular mass of the lectin was ...201121228483
localization and characterization of acharan sulfate in the body of the giant african snail achatina fulica.acharan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan (gag), having the structure -->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranose(1-->4)-2-sulfo-alpha-l-idopyranosyluronic acid (1-->, isolated from the body of the giant african snail achatina fulica. this gag represents 3-5% of the dry weight of this snail's soft body tissues. frozen sections and polyester wax sections of the snail's body were stained by alcian blue-periodic acid-schiff's reagent (pas) to localize acharan sulfate. alcian blue staining indicate ...200111691628
pharmacological activities of a new glycosaminoglycan, acharan sulfate isolated from the giant african snail achatina fulica.acharan sulfate (as) is a glycosaminoglycan (gag) prepared from the giant african snail, achatina fulica. in this study, some biological activities of as were evaluated on the basis of structural similarities to heparin/heparan sulfate and the biological functions of gags. we demonstrated that it exhibited strong immunostimulating activities as measured by carbon clearance test in mice and in vivo phagocytosis. it also exhibited a significant hypoglycemic activity in epinephrine (ep)-induced hyp ...200212510844
suppression of tumor growth by a new glycosaminoglycan isolated from the african giant snail achatina fulica.acharan sulfate is a new type of glycosaminoglycan from the giant african snail, achatina fulica. acharan sulfate, which has a primary repeating disaccharide structure of alpha-d-n-acetylglucosaminyl-2-o-sulfo-alpha-l-iduronic acid, was studied as a potential antitumor agent in both in vivo and in vitro assays. the antiangiogenic activity of acharan sulfate was evaluated in the chorioallantoic membrane assay and by measuring its effect on the proliferation of calf pulmonary artery endothelial ce ...200312650849
effects of lead pollution from vehicular exhaust fumes against sentinel juvenile achatina achatina.we investigated lead metal pollution induced by traffic fumes along roads with differing traffic intensity near abandoned battery factory (niger delta, nigeria). juvenile achatina achatina were positioned as sentinels in plastic snaileries 2 m on road sides. lead contamination in snail tissue by atomic absorption spectrophotometer increased with increasing vehicular traffic intensity. snails showed low positive (r (2) = 0.40) relationship and significant (p < 0.05) accumulation of atmospheric le ...200818784896
nematode cysts and larvae found in achatina fulica bowdich, 1822.this study describes the morphology of the nematode cysts and larvae found in achatina fulica (giant african snail) in brazil. sixty snails were collected in mesquita, rio de janeiro state. fourteen of the snails were naturally infected. the cysts were spherical, pink colored and measured 0.97 to 1.57 mm in diameter. in the majority of cases they had a single larvae involved in amorphous material. a total of 222 encysted larvae were recovered. of these, 30 were utilized in the morphological stud ...200919061895
effects of lead pollution against juvenile achatina achatina fed on contaminated artificial diet.we investigated juvenile achatina achatina snails by feeding graded levels of inorganic lead metal contaminated artificial diet in plastic snaileries in the laboratory. snails were tolerant of all levels of lead contamination with no mortalities. results indicated significant (p < 0.05) transfer of lead from diet to snail with high positive (r(2) = 0.98) relationship. our data suggests that decreased feed intake and growth were found at elevated lead levels. tissue lead accumulations were lower ...200919082773
effects of a new isoquinolinone derivative on induction of action potential bursts in central snail neuron.the effects of 7-bromo-1,4-dihydro-2-phenyl-4,4-bis(4-pyridinylmethyl)2h-isoquinolin-3-one dihydrochloride (bdpbi) on induction of action potential bursts were studied pharmacologically on the rp4 central neuron of the giant african snail (achatina fulica ferussac). the effects of m-3m3fbs, a phospholipase activator and htmt, a histamine (h1) receptor agonist, on the neuron were also tested. the rp4 neuron showed spontaneous firing of action potential. extracellular application of bdpbi (150 mic ...200516103741
evaluation of snail mucin motifs as rectal absorption enhancer for insulin in non-diabetic rat models.the use of snail mucin motifs as rectal absorption enhancer for insulin has been evaluated. the mucin motifs were extracted from the giant african snail archachatina marginata by differential precipitation with acetone. the mucin motifs were found to have a molecular weight of 5780 da and an isoelectric point of 3.4. at the concentrations evaluated, the mucin exhibited rectal absorption enhancing property for the administration of insulin in rats. the % basal blood glucose level of the rats that ...200516141566
low susceptibility of achatina fulica from brazil to infection with angioiylus costaricensis and a. cantonensis.introduction of achatina fulica in brazil has led to serious concerns about its role as vector for metaiylid worms: angioiylus costaricensis and a. cantonensis. experimental infection with both parasites was performed to evaluate the potential risk for their transmission by the giant african snail. groups of 5 animals, both wild and bred at captivity were exposed at different inocula: 1, 5, and 10 x 10(3) l1 of a. costaricensis and a. cantonensis. in all groups, few snails got infected and paras ...200717293998
disease in the giant african snail achatina fulica bowdich. 195617793431
neurotoxicity of a novel local anesthetic agent, ropivacaine: the possible roles of bursts of potential and cytoplasmic second messenger.ropivacaine has been shown to induce convulsion following overdose or accidental intravenous injection, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. using an identifiable central neuron from giant african snail, the authors studied the mechanism of ropivacaine-elicited bursts of potential and explored the possible mechanisms of ropivacaine-induced neurotoxicity.200717964960
lysozyme-like activity in eggs and in some tissues of land snails helix aspersa maxima and achatina achatina.antibacterial lysozyme-like activity against micrococcus luteus in eggs and some tissues of snails helix aspers maxima and achatina achatina was detected in a turbidimetric standard assay. the bacteriolytic activity in helix aspersa maxima was higher than in achatina achatina. after the application of the bioautography technique, several lytic zones of micrococcus luteus were observed in both studied species. electrophoresis in denaturing conditions followed by immunodetection of lysozyme using ...200419058565
nucleolin: acharan sulfate-binding protein on the surface of cancer cells.glycosaminoglycans (gags) are complex polysaccharides that participate in the regulation of physiological processes through the interactions with a wide variety of proteins. acharan sulfate (as), isolated from the giant african snail achatina fulica, primarily consists of the repeating disaccharide structure alpha-d-n-acetylglucosaminyl (1-->4) 2-sulfoiduronic acid. exogenous as was injected subcutaneously near the tumor tissue in c57bl/6 mice that had been implanted with lewis lung carcinoma ce ...200515329357
effects of rolipram on induction of action potential bursts in central snail neurons.effects of rolipram, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (pde) iv, on induction of action potential bursts were studied pharmacologically on the rp4 central neuron of the giant african snail (achatina fulica ferussac). oscillations of membrane potential bursts were elicited by rolipram and forskolin. the bursts of potential elicited by rolipram were not inhibited after administration with (a) calcium-free solution, (b) high-magnesium solution (30 mm) or (c) u73122. however, the bursts of ...200516022866
the giant african snail achatina fulica as natural intermediate host of angiostrongylus cantonensis in pernambuco, northeast brazil.the human cases of eosinophilic meningitis recently reported from brazil have focused the attention of the public health agencies on the role the introduced snail achatina fulica plays as hosts of the metastrongylid nematodes. determining the potential of this snail to host and develop infective larval stages of metastrongylids in the wild and identify the species harbored by them is crucial for designing effective control measures. here we assess if a. fulica may act as intermediate host of a. ...201020083081
increases in urea synthesis and the ornithine-urea cycle capacity in the giant african snail, achatina fulica, during fasting or aestivation, or after the injection with ammonium chloride.the objectives of this study are to determine whether a full complement of ornithine-urea cycle (ouc) enzymes is present in the hepatopancreas of the giant african snail achatina fulica, and to investigate whether the rate of urea synthesis and the ouc capacity can be up-regulated during 23 days of fasting or aestivation, or 24 hr post-injection with nh(4)cl (10 micromol g(-1) snail) into the foot muscle. a. fulica is ureotelic and a full complement of ouc enzymes, including carbamoyl phosphate ...200516254923
rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the giant african snail (achatina fulica).estivation is an adaptive response to environments characterized by elevated temperatures and desiccative stress, as may occur during summer dry seasons. similar to diapause and hibernation, it is characterized by low levels of activity, a drastically suppressed metabolic rate and enhanced stress resistance. we tested the hypothesis that achatina fulica, a pulmonate land snail, enhances stress resistance during estivation and/or arousal by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defenses in the h ...201020621194
inhibition by acharan sulphate of angiogenesis in experimental inflammation models.1. the effects of acharan sulphate, a glycosaminoglycan isolated from the giant african snail achatina fulica, on angiogenesis in the granulation tissue were analysed using an air pouch-type carrageenin-induced inflammation model in rats and a cotton thread-induced inflammation model in mice. 2. in the carrageenin-induced inflammation model in rats, intra-pouch injections of acharan sulphate (5 and 50 micro g) inhibited the pouch fluid accumulation and the granulation tissue formation as well as ...200212359625
mining invertebrate natural products for future therapeutic treasure.this review focuses on biologically active entities from invertebrate sources, especially snails. the reader will encounter several categories of compounds from snails including glycosaminoglycans, peptides, proteins (glycoproteins), and enzymes which possess diverse biological activities. among glycosaminoglycans, acharan sulfate which was isolated from a giant african snail acahtina fulica is reviewed extensively. conotoxins which are also called conopeptides are unique peptide mixtures from m ...201121941924
arsenic trioxide modulates the central snail neuron action potential.the electropharmacological effect of arsenic trioxide (as2o3) is unknown. the present study investigated the effects of as2o3 on spontaneous neuronal impulse activity.200919773206
preparation and structural determination of large oligosaccharides derived from acharan sulfate.the structures of a series of large oligosaccharides derived from acharan sulfate were characterized. acharan sulfate is an unusual glycosaminoglycan isolated from the giant african snail, achatina fulica. oligosaccharides from decasaccharide to hexadecasaccharide were enzymatically prepared using heparin lyase ii and purified. capillary electrophoresis and gel electrophoresis confirmed the purity of these oligosaccharides. their structures, determined by esi-ms and nmr, were consistent with the ...200616530176
action potential bursts in central snail neurons elicited by paeonol: roles of ionic currents.to investigate the effects of 2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone (paeonol) on the electrophysiological behavior of a central neuron (right parietal 4; rp4) of the giant african snail (achatina fulica ferussac).201021042287
effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime on induction of action potential bursts in central snail neurons: direct and indirect modulations of ionic currents.the effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime (bdm) on induction of action potential bursts were studied pharmacologically on the rp4 central neuron of giant african snail (achatina fulica ferussac). the effect of okadaic acid on the neuron was also tested. the rp4 neuron showed a spontaneous firing of action potential. okadaic acid (1 micromol/l) did not alter the frequency of spontaneous action potential while bdm (3 mmol/l) reversibly elicited bursts of potential (bop) of the rp4 neuron. the bop el ...200515452414
effects of procaine on a central neuron of the snail, achatina fulica ferussac.effects of procaine on a central neuron (rp1) of the giant african snail (achatina fulica ferussac) were studied pharmacologically. the rp1 neuron showed spontaneous firing of action potential. extra-cellular application of procaine (10 mm) reversibly elicited bursts of potential. the bursts of potential elicited by procaine were not blocked after administration of (1) prazosin, propranolol, atropine, d-tubocurarine, (2) calcium-free solution, (3) ryanodine (4) pretreatment with kt-5720 or chele ...200415680172
the electrical potential difference through the foot epithelium of the snail achatina achatina, lameere during mechanical and chemical stimulation.an important electrophysiological variable--the transepithelial potential difference reflects the electrogenic transepithelial ion currents, which are produced and modified by ion transport processes in polarized cells of epithelium. these processes result from coordinated function of transporters in apical and basolateral cell membranes and have been observed in all epithelial tissues studied so far. the experiments were performed on isolated specimens of snail foot. in the experiments, the bas ...200617220006
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