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first case report of leishmania braziliensis panamensis in an endemic area for leishmania major in egypt. 19911845162
leishmanin skin test standardization and evaluation of safety, dose, storage, longevity of reaction and sensitization.leishmanin skin test (lst) antigens prepared from leishmania braziliensis panamensis were compared with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and side effects. within the dose range 0.5-3.0 x 10(5) promastigotes of l. b. panamensis and 10 x 10(5) promastigotes of combined l. amazonensis and l. b. panamensis, specificity in healthy controls was nearly 100% for all antigens. sensitivity increased minimally with increasing dose. lot-to-lot differences were small. side effects, such as vesiculation a ...19912035747
igg antibody reactivity with trypanosoma cruzi and leishmania antigens in sera of patients with chagas' disease and leishmaniasis.sera from 38 paraguayans with positive skin tests to leishmania braziliensis panamensis and 51 sera from paraguayan patients in different stages of chagas' disease were analyzed by western blotting using antigen from trypanosoma cruzi y strain epimastigotes and from l. b. panamensis promastigotes. using a single serum sample, distinctive patterns of igg antibody response to both antigens were identified allowing the differentiation between t. cruzi infection, leishmania infection, and probable d ...19902125177
efficacy of ketoconazole against leishmania braziliensis panamensis cutaneous leishmaniasis.the classic agent for cutaneous leishmaniasis is pentavalent antimony. however, there are no reports of the efficacy of antimony versus placebo or of the efficacy of any alternative therapy versus either antimony or placebo. in the present report, the oral antifungal agent ketoconazole (600 mg/day for 28 days) was compared to a recommended regimen of intramuscular pentostam (20 mg antimony/kg, with a maximum of 850 mg antimony/day, for 20 days) in a randomized study of the treatment of panamania ...19902166429
berberine derivatives as antileishmanial drugs.berberine, a quaternary alkaloid, and several of its derivatives were tested for efficacy against leishmania donovani and leishmania braziliensis panamensis in golden hamsters. tetrahydroberberine was less toxic and more potent than berberine against l. donovani but was not as potent as meglumine antimonate (glucantime), a standard drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis. only berberine and 8-cyanodihydroberberine showed significant activity (greater than 50% suppression of lesion size) against ...19902360830
efficacy and toxicity of pentostam against panamanian mucosal leishmaniasis.we tested the world health organization (who) recommended treatment for mucosal leishmaniasis in 16 panamanians with disease due to leishmania braziliensis panamensis. disease was mild in this population because it was limited to the nasal mucosa and only one patient had septal perforation. the patients were administered 20 mg antimony (in the form of pentostam) per kg intravenously each day for 28 days. ten patients completed therapy and were cured at 12 month follow-up. three patients complete ...19911645930
oxidation of glucose, ribose, alanine, and glutamate by leishmania braziliensis panamensis.the metabolism of [1-14c]- and [6-14c]glucose, [1-14c]ribose, [1-14c]- and [u-14c]alanine, and [1-14c]- and [5-14c]glutamate by the promastigotes of leishmania braziliensis panamensis was investigated in cells resuspended in hanks' balanced salt solution supplemented with ribose, alanine, or glutamate. the ratio of 14co2 produced from [1-14c]glucose to that from [6-14c]glucose ranged from about two to six, indicating appreciable carbon flow through the pentose phosphate pathway. a functional pen ...19872884307
isolation of leishmania braziliensis from a wild rodent in costa rica.leishmania braziliensis panamensis has been isolated in culture from one spiny-pocket mouse (heteromys dermarestianus) out of 43 examined, proving that rodents of this genus can be reservoirs of leishmania of the braziliensis complex as well as of mexicana in latin america.1977907043
modification of gp63 genes from diverse species of leishmania for expression of recombinant protein at high levels in escherichia coli.toward the future development of a defined subunit vaccine against leishmaniasis is, high levels of recombinant gp63 for diverse species of leishmania were produced in escherichia coli. several features of leishmania gp63 genes were simultaneously modified with the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using either cloned genes or total genomic dna from leishmania as template dna for the pcr amplification reactions. the pcr products included only the coding region for the predicted mature form of gp63 ...19911711153
detection and enumeration of leishmania in sand flies using agar-based media.an agar plating technique was used to determine the number of amastigotes ingested by lutzomyia longipalpis fed on papules on mesocricetus auratus caused by leishmania mexicana amazonensis and on lesions on mystromys albicaudatus caused by leishmania braziliensis panamensis. the technique involved homogenizing sand flies after bloodfeeding on the infected animals and spreading the homogenate over the surface of agar plates. a great variation in the number of amastigotes ingested by individual sa ...19873688307
metabolic interactions between glucose, glycerol, alanine and acetate in leishmania braziliensis panamensis promastigotes.13c-nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy was used to investigate the products of glycerol and acetate metabolism released by leishmania braziliensis panamensis promastigotes and also to examine the interaction of each of these substrates with glucose or alanine. the nmr data were supplemented by measurements of the rates of oxygen consumption and substrate utilization, and of 14co2 production from 14c-labeled substrate. cells incubated with [2-13c]glycerol released acetate, succinate an ...19892724185
identification of a major 72 kilodalton surface antigen in twelve isolates of leishmania braziliensis braziliensis.the study of the surface antigens of leishmania braziliensis braziliensis revealed a great homogeneity among ten strains isolated from bolivia and two reference strains from brazil and belize. a 72 kda major protein, present in all l. b. braziliensis strains, was recognized by both cutaneous and mucocutaneous human sera, but was not recognized by kala-azar and chagasic sera. no cross-reactive antigens were found among strains of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, leishmania braziliensis panamen ...19873627165
[cloning of kdna minicircles in different species of leishmania and its use as probes for diagnosis].the present study describes the cloning procedure for fragments of kinetoplast dna minicircles from different leishmania species and its use for detecting the presence of these parasites. our methodology was as follow: the dna of the kinetoplast from leishmania mexicana amazonensis and leishmania braziliensis panamensis was extracted, purified and digested with the enzyme dra i. these fragments were cloned in the site for hinc ii in the plasmid pks. e. coli was the bacterial strain used for tran ...19921439001
leishmania braziliensis: protein, carbohydrate, and antigen differences between log phase and stationary phase promastigotes in vitro.when leishmania species are grown in vitro, parasites from the stationary phase differ from those in log phase growth in being more infective and more resistant to complement and macrophage mediated killing. in the present study, log phase and stationary phase promastigotes of leishmania braziliensis panamensis were compared at the molecular level. differences in polypeptide and glycoprotein composition and antigenicity between log and stationary phase promastigotes of l. b. panamensis were dete ...19873582573
vaccination of the african white-tailed rat, mystromys albacaudatus, with sonicated leishmania braziliensis panamensis promastigotes.the usefulness of sonicated leishmania braziliensis panamensis promastigotes for vaccination was evaluated in mystromys albacaudatus, the african white-tailed rat. thirty-two animals received three intradermal injections of 2 x 10(6) sonicated promastigotes derived from l. braziliensis panamensis at weekly intervals. one month after completion of the immunization schedule, the experimental group of animals was challenged in vivo with 2 x 10(6) live l. braziliensis panamensis promastogotes. at th ...19827072888
evaluation of promastigote and amastigote antigens in the indirect fluorescent antibody test for american cutaneous leishmaniasis.leishmania braziliensis panamensis promastigotes, temperature-induced in vitro-cultivated amastigotes, vero cell-derived amastigotes, and rodent lesion-derived amastigotes were evaluated as antigens in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) test for american cutaneous leishmaniasis. test sensitivity was determined using sera from 34 u.s. soldiers with leishmaniasis diagnosed by demonstrating parasites in their skin lesions. sera were collected from 3 to 24 months after exposure to leishma ...19836359906
protection against fatal murine chagas' disease with a leishmania braziliensis panamensis stock.past attempts to immunize mice against a fatal trypanosoma cruzi infection utilizing related hemoflagellates have been unsuccessful. in the present study, c57bl/6 mice received a footpad inoculation of 10(7) promastigotes of leishmania braziliensis panamensis. six and 9 weeks subsequent to this inoculation mice were infected intraperitoneally with the tulahuen strain of t. cruzi. all immunized mice survived infection over the 6-month period of observation whereas control mice regularly died. the ...19863094394
effectiveness of allopurinol against leishmania braziliensis panamensis in aotus trivirgatus.orally administered allopurinol at 50 mg/kg for 21 days showed pronounced antileishmanial activity against experimentally induced lesions of leishmania braziliensis panamensis on the nose of panamanian aotus trivirgatus monkeys, with complete healing in 4 of 5, although parasitologic cure was achieved in only 2 of 5. the same total daily dose of drug, given in a divided dose twice daily, resulted in complete healing in all 5, and parasitologic cure in 4 of 5 animals. standard treatment controls ...19836297325
leishmania braziliensis: effects of bacteria (staphylococcus aureus and pasteurella multocida) on the developing cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion in the golden hamster.experimentally induced lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the effect of concurrent bacterial infection on the development of these lesions were studied in the golden hamster. male outbred golden hamsters received intradermal injections at the base of the tail with approximately 10(7) promastigotes of leishmania braziliensis panamensis, or promastigotes combined with staphylococcus aureus or pasteurella multocida or both, bacteria only, or sterile eagle's minimal essential medium (meme). the ...19836873221
interactions between macrophagelike cells and leishmania braziliensis in vitro.the interaction between macrophagelike cells (p388d murine tumor cells) and leishmania braziliensis panamensis promastigotes was studied in vitro under various conditions by light and electron microscopy. when the macrophagelike cells and l braziliensis promastigate were incubated together for 2 minutes, 90% of the promastigotes were attached to the macrophagelike cells by the tip of the flagella. the macrophagelike cells did not form pseudopods or aggregated microfilaments around the inserted f ...19827091302
leishmaniasis affecting the eyelids.leishman-donovan bodies were recognized in the smear of a biopsy specimen from an eyelid ulcer. the infecting organisms were identified serologically as leishmania braziliensis panamensis. the ulcer responded to pentavalent antimony. ultrastructurally, the organisms had double-unit membranes, beneath which lay a palisade of microtubules. at one end of the organism, there was a rudimentary flagellum; at the other, the nucleus. a kinetoplast basal complex separated the two.19836849660
restriction endonuclease analysis of leishmania kinetoplast dna characterizes parasites responsible for visceral and cutaneous disease.the kinetoplast dna (kdna) from promastigotes of leishmania responsible for old and new world cutaneous and visceral disease was characterized to determine if species and strains causing similar or different diseases could be identified. restriction enzymes were used to digest kdna into fragments that were separated into characteristic banding patterns after electrophoresis in agarose or linear gradient polyacrylamide gels. hybridization was conducted with a 32p-kdna probe and kdna fragments tra ...19846091469
micro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the serodiagnosis of new world leishmaniasis.of 21 confirmed cases of new world leishmaniasis, 16 exhibited antibody to antigens of the promastigote of leishmania braziliensis panamensis by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). comparison of antibody titers obtained by elisa with titers obtained by indirect immunofluorescence using an amastigote substrate confirmed that the sensitivities of the two techniques were within the same range (r = 0.80). although sera from patients with new world leishmaniasis failed to react with antige ...19806154426
antibody responses, as measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), in owl monkeys experimentally infected with leishmania braziliensis panamensis. 19873585642
oxidation of fatty acids by leishmania braziliensis panamensis.heating cultures of leishmania braziliensis panamensis (grown at 26 degrees c) to 34 degrees c for 1.5-12 h transformed the cells to an ellipsoidally shaped form. the heat treatment caused an increase in the rate of oxidation of both medium and long chain fatty acids but decreased the rate of oxidation of [1-14c]glucose. the rate of fatty acid oxidation continued to increase for times as long as 20 h after returning the cultures to 26 degrees c. in both the promastigote and heat-induced ellipsoi ...19873585816
a comparative study of d-lactate, l-lactate and glycerol formation by four species of leishmania and by trypanosoma lewisi and trypanosoma brucei gambiense.leishmania braziliensis panamensis, l. donovani, l. major, and l. mexicana amazonensis promastigotes, trypanosoma lewisi bloodstream forms, and t. brucei gambiense procyclic forms were incubated with glucose as sole carbon source. all species consumed glucose more rapidly under aerobic than anaerobic conditions. all produced glycerol under anaerobic conditions, though the rate of glycerol production by t. lewisi was markedly lower than that by the other species. the four leishmania species produ ...19883054535
in vitro reversible transformation of leishmania braziliensis panamensis between promastigote and ellipsoidal forms.raising the temperature of a log-phase culture of leishmania braziliensis panamensis promastigotes from 26 degrees c to 34 degrees c resulted in formation of a culture containing 85% ellipsoidally shaped forms after 1.5 h. the temperature-induced ellipsoidal forms decreased in size but persisted in high proportion (85-95%) for at least 12 h at 34 degrees c. recovery from the ellipsoidal forms to a culture containing 85-95% promastigotes was observed after returning the temperature to 26 degrees ...19873585815
isoenzyme patterns of leishmania isolates from colombia.promastigotes from four cutaneous leishmaniasis cases from colombia were tested by cellulose acetate electrophoresis using nine enzyme systems. the isoenzyme profiles of the colombian isolates were indistinguishable from each other and from panamanian leishmania braziliensis panamensis controls, but were distinct from an isolate of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis from brazil and three isolates from the leishmania mexicana complex for the enzyme phosphogluconate dehydrogenase.19854003660
serodiagnosis of new world leishmaniasis by using a genus-specific antigen in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays.a genus-specific monoclonal antibody (83l-5g9), generated against promastigotes of leishmania braziliensis panamensis (wrair-470), has been used as a ligand in immunochromatography columns for the recovery and purification of the genus-specific antigen. when the purified polypeptide, actually a doublet comprised of a 58 kd and a 31 kd moiety, was used as the antigen in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), it was reactive with 36 of 85 sera from leishmania patients and with 1 of 49 sera fr ...19873552391
leishmania braziliensis: development of primary and satellite lesions in the experimentally infected owl monkey, aotus trivirgatus.twelve male and 8 female feral owl monkeys, aotus trivirgatus, were inoculated intradermally at the dorsal base of the tail with 2 x 10(7) promastigotes (strains wr 128 or wr 539) or 5 x 10(5) amastigotes (strain wr 128) of leishmania braziliensis panamensis, and the progression and regression of subsequent lesions were examined for up to 13 or 54 weeks after inoculation. three of these monkeys had been infected previously with l. donovani, had been treated with meglumine antimoniate, and had re ...19863709751
epidemiology of a natural focus of leishmania braziliensis in the pacific lowlands of colombia. iii. natural infections in wild mammals.a natural infection of leishmania braziliensis panamensis in the edentate, choloepus hoffmanni is recorded from the pacific coast of columbia.19883232170
leishmaniasis in colombia. i. studies on the phlebotomine fauna associated with endemic foci in the pacific coast region.studies on the phlebotomine fauna related to the leishmaniasis endemic foci of the colombian pacific coast were carried out in the municipalities of tumaco and buenaventura. in inguapí del guadual, tumaco, lutzomyia trapidoi and lu. gomezi were the predominant anthropophilic species; lu. panamensis and lu. hartmanni were less frequent. in bajo calima, buenaventura, lu. trapidoi represented over 94% of the anthropophilic sandflies. continuous sampling from 1800 to 0600 hours in inguapí del guadua ...19883177739
topical paromomycin/methylbenzethonium chloride plus parenteral meglumine antimonate as treatment for american cutaneous leishmaniasis: controlled study.we determined the efficacy of the combination of the topical formulation 15% paromomycin sulfate/12% methylbenzethonium chloride (mbcl) and a short course (7 days) of parenteral meglumine antimonate (pentavalent antimony [sb]) as treatment of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in colombian patients. patients were randomly assigned in unequal allocation (2:1:1:1) to group 1 (topical paromomycin/mbcl plus injectable sb for 7 days), group 2 (topical placebo plus injectable sb for 7 days), group 3 (to ...19989455509
safety and efficacy of high-dose sodium stibogluconate therapy of american cutaneous leishmaniasis.40 patients with american cutaneous leishmaniasis caused primarily by leishmania braziliensis panamensis were treated with sodium stibogluconate in a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. nine weeks after starting treatment, all 19 patients treated with 20 mg sb/kg per day for twenty days were cured but 5 of 21 patients treated with 10 mg sb/kg per day for twenty days had persistent active disease (p less than 0.05). both treatment regimens were well tolerated and they were associated with ...19872885505
ultrastructural biology of leishmania (viannia) panamensis (=leishmania braziliensis panamensis) in lutzomyia gomezi (diptera: psychodidae): a natural host-parasite association.the development of leishmania (viannia) panamensis in a natural sand fly host, lutzomyia gomezi, was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. new aspects of peripylarian parasite behavior and morphology in the sand fly gut, early bloodmeal stages, and ultrastructural development in the anterior gut were documented. eight distinct morphological forms were observed in the life cycle of the parasite within the insect. in the bloodmeal, amastigotes (1) transformed into stumpy promastig ...19892916730
the specificity of purine base and nucleoside uptake in promastigotes of leishmania braziliensis panamensis.promastigotes of leishmania braziliensis panamensis absorbed the purines adenine, hypoxanthine, adenosine and inosine by a combination of diffusion and mediated components. when the uptake rates for these substrates were corrected for diffusion and compared, the purine bases adenine and hypoxanthine were transported at a significantly slower rate than the purine nucleosides adenosine and inosine. competitive interactions among those purines tested confirmed the presence of mediated and diffusion ...19827145470
identification and recovery of leishmania antigen displayed on the surface membrane of mouse peritoneal macrophages infected in vitro.a murine monoclonal antibody (83l-2d3/a) to a dominant surface antigen of leishmania braziliensis panamensis (wrair-470) recognized a determinant expressed on the surface membrane of mouse peritoneal macrophages infected in vitro. this determinant, also demonstrable on the surface membrane of intracellular amastigotes, was not displayed by the macrophage until at least 6 hr post-infection. this delay in expression and the obvious negativity of all uninfected macrophages inherent to infected cult ...19863950404
leishmania braziliensis panamensis: increased infectivity resulting from heat shock.promastigotes of leishmania braziliensis panamensis were subjected to a heat shock transformation yielding an amastigote-like stage. during the process of conversion, the heat-induced differentiating form displayed an increase in infectivity (as determined by lesion size) accompanied by a total protein composition unlike that of the promastigote and a morphology resembling that of the amastigote. these biological/functional changes may be related to an involvement of a heat shock response in the ...19883338542
blastogenic responses of peripheral blood leukocytes from owl monkeys experimentally infected with leishmania braziliensis panamensis.the relationship of the progression and regression of cutaneous lesions of 6 owl monkeys (aotus trivirgatus) to the responses of their peripheral blood leukocytes (pbl) in vitro to mitogens and to leishmanial antigens, as well as their delayed skin test responses (dth) in vivo to leishmanin antigen, were studied after primary and challenge infections with leishmania braziliensis panamensis (wr 128 or wr 539). all 6 infected monkeys developed primary and satellite cutaneous leishmanial lesions wh ...19863789265
hyperbaric hyperoxia enhances the lethal effects of amphotericin b in leishmania braziliensis panamensis.leishmania braziliensis panamensis promastigotes were exposed in vitro to amphotericin b (amb), menadione, or phenazine methosulfate under normoxic conditions. promastigotes were also exposed to hyperoxia alone (100% o2 at total pressures of 101.3 or 253.3 kpa), or combined with drugs. after incubation for 24 h at 27 degrees c, viable promastigotes were stained with fluorescein diacetate and counted using epifluorescence microscopy. hyperbaric hyperoxia alone (po2 = 229.3 kpa) was as effective a ...19938286986
products of leishmania braziliensis glucose catabolism: release of d-lactate and, under anaerobic conditions, glycerol.leishmania braziliensis panamensis promastigotes were incubated with glucose as the sole carbon source. about one-fifth of the glucose consumed under aerobic conditions was oxidized to co2. nuclear magnetic resonance studies with [1-13c]glucose showed that the other products released were succinate, acetate, alanine, pyruvate, and lactate. under anaerobic conditions, lactate output increased, glycerol became a major product, and, surprisingly, glucose consumption decreased. enzymatic assays show ...19873478686
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