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multiplex polymerase chain reaction method to detect cyclospora, cystoisospora, and microsporidia in stool samples.cyclospora, cystoisospora, and microsporidia are eukaryotic enteropathogens that are difficult to detect in stool samples because they require special stains and microscopy. we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) reaction with 4 primer sets to amplify cyclospora cayetanensis, cystoisospora belli, enterocytozoon bieneusi, and encephalitozoon intestinalis. detection of the amplicon is through specific probes coupled to luminex beads. sensitivity of the assay was evaluated using e ...201121982218
intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in gondar teaching hospital, northwest ethiopia.abstract:201122041102
enteric parasites in hiv-1/aids-infected patients from a northwestern são paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.we describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an aids reference service in northeastern são paulo, brazil.201122094707
enteric opportunistic parasites among hiv infected individuals: associated risk factors and immune status.data on various etiologic agents causing diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (hiv-1) infected individuals are sparse in delhi, india. the present study was undertaken to identify various causative agents, the role of associated risk factors and immune status. a case-control study was conducted among 75 hiv-1 infected individuals, 50 with and 25 without diarrheal infection. fecal samples were screened for coccidian parasites, enteric protozoa, and helminthes by using various staining ...200717515636
isospora belli superinfection in a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis--a diagnostic challenge.isospora belli infection, characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia, is often seen as an opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). it is also reported in patients with underlying lymphoproliferative disorders including lymphoma and leukemia. eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders (egid), including eosinophilic gastroenteritis (ege), is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal (gi) tract with various gi symptoms. w ...201122325178
a rare diarrheic parasite in a liver transplant patient: isospora belli.we describe the first case of isosporiasis in a liver transplant patient. watery diarrhea due to isospora belli was observed in a woman who had undergone liver transplantation 8 months prior. she was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. this parasite should be taken into consideration as an opportunistic infection in transplant patients who need increased hygienic awareness.200717580223
enteric spore-forming opportunistic parasites in hiv / aids.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection causes progressive damage to both limbs of the immune system, which results in a plethora of opportunistic infections. among the various opportunistic infections, gastrointestinal infections are very common in hiv / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). opportunistic spore-forming protozoal parasites, namely, cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli, cyclospora cayetanensis, and microsporidia, play a major role in causing chronic diarrhea, accompan ...201123507985
parasites in patients with malabsorption syndrome: a clinical study in children and adults.intestinal parasites not only cause diarrheal diseases but also significant malabsorption. literature on the role of parasites, such as intestinal coccidia and microsporidia in malabsorption syndrome is limited.200817763958
isospora belli infection in a malnourished child.isospora belli, a coccidian parasite usually causes a self limiting illness of acute onset with fever, diarrhoea and colicky pain in a normal host. in immunocompromised patients human isosporiasis becomes chronic. we report a case of a malnourished 9 year old female child who presented with complaints of loose stools, nausea, vomiting and weight loss for the past three months. stool examination revealed immature oocysts of isospora belli. the patient was successfully treated with tmp-smx.200718338696
clinical and microbiological profile of hiv/aids cases with diarrhea in north india.intestinal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with hiv/aids (plwha) especially in developing countries. the present study was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological spectrum in hiv/aids cases with diarrhea and to correlate the occurrence of such pathogens with stool characters, hiv seropositivity status, and cd4 counts. stools from 154 hiv seropositive subjects and 50 hiv negative controls were examined by direct microscopy, fecal culture ...201223326669
common variable immunodeficiency and isosporiasis: first report case.we report a severe case of diarrhea in a 62-year-old female hiv-negative patient from whom giardia lamblia and isospora belli were isolated. because unusual and opportunistic infections should be considered as criteria for further analysis of immunological status, laboratory investigations led to a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency (cvid). this is the first reported case of isosporiasis in a patient with cvid and illustrates the importance of being aware of a possible link, particula ...201223295886
parasitic contamination of raw vegetables and fruits collected from selected local markets in arba minch town, southern ethiopia.one way that people get infected with intestinal parasites is through the consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruits. this study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from four local markets in arba minch town, southern ethiopia.201728264707
risk factors associated with parasitic infection among municipality solid-waste workers in an egyptian community.solid-waste management is associated with several health hazards, particularly parasitic infection. the objective of the study was to determine the association between risk factors and the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections (potentially pathogenic) among municipal waste collectors in alexandria, egypt. a cross-sectional survey was conducted in the main municipality company in alexandria. a total of 346 municipality solid-waste workers (mswws) was interviewed using an in-depth question ...201626606452
prevalence of intestinal parasites among hiv patients at the yaoundé central hospital, cameroon.intestinal parasites are more common in people with hiv, especially in tropical developing countries. this cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among people with hiv at the yaoundé central hospital accredited treatment centre.201425419274
[prevalence of intestinal microsporidia and other intestinal parasites in hiv positive patients from maracaibo, venezuela].to detect the presence of microsporidia and other enteric parasites in patients with hivaids of the autonomous services university hospital of maracaibo (sahum), where there are no previous studies in this field.201424652209
intestinal protozoans in adults with diarrhea.diarrhea is one of the most common presenting complaints in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.201324404554
intestinal parasitic infections in children presenting with diarrhoea in outpatient and inpatient settings in an informal settlement of nairobi, kenya.the distribution of and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections are poorly defined in high risk vulnerable populations such as urban slums in tropical sub-saharan africa.201323705776
the majority of cockroaches from the samutprakarn province of thailand are carriers of parasitic organisms.we undertook a study of the mechanical transmission of parasitic organisms in cockroaches in the samutprakarn province of thailand. in this study, 920 cockroaches were obtained from 18 open-air shopping markets in 5 districts and 1 subdistrict of this province. all cockroaches were captured during their feeding time in their natural habitat. direct wet smear and modified acid-fast bacilli staining were used to identify the parasites from the external surface or cuticle of the cockroaches. the re ...201127857676
presence of enterocytozoon bieneusi associated with intestinal coccidia in patients with chronic diarrhea visiting an hiv center in haiti.this study investigated the presence of enterocytozoon bieneusi as a possible cause of chronic diarrhea in haitian patients attending the gheskio aids clinic in port-au-prince, haiti. coccidian oocysts were found by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in the stools of 58/74 patients with chronic diarrhea and included the following agents: 45 (60%) cryptosporidium spp., 27 (34%) cyclospora cayetanensis, and 11 (15%) isospora belli. four patients (5.5%) were co-infected with e. bieneusi and one (1.4%) ...200818840748
molecular appraisal of intestinal parasitic infection in transplant recipients.diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. we undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or wi ...201627934806
neglected waterborne parasitic protozoa and their detection in water.outbreak incidents raise the question of whether the less frequent aetiological agents of outbreaks are really less frequent in water. alternatively, waterborne transmission could be relevant, but the lack of attention and rapid, sensitive methods to recover and detect the exogenous stages in water may keep them under-recognized. high quality information on the prevalence and detection of less frequent waterborne protozoa, such as cyclospora cayetanensis, toxoplasma gondii, isospora belli, balan ...201627281375
intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in alexandria, egypt.this cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in alexandria, egypt, in the period from december 2012 till november 2013. the study was conducted on 200 institutionalized and non-institutionalized mentally handicapped individuals. fresh stool samples were subjected to different stains including; trichrome for detecting intestinal protozoa, modified acid fast stain for intestinal coccidia and quick hot g ...201526878626
opportunistic parasites among immunosuppressed children in minia district, egypt.a total of 450 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics of pediatric department, minia university hospital, minia district, egypt. two groups of patients were studied, including 200 immunosuppressed and 250 immunocompetent children. stool samples were subjected to wet saline and iodine mounts. a concentration technique (formol-ether sedimentation method) was carried out for stool samples diagnosed negative by wet saline and iodine mounts. samples were stained by 2 diffe ...201222451735
prevalence of intestinal parasites in hiv-positive/aids patients.the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among hiv-positive/aids patients. a control group comprising 30 apparently healthy hiv-negative individuals was included. of the 60 samples collected from the patients and examined, 34 (56.7%) presented with diarrhoea, while 26 (43.3%) had no reported cases of diarrhoea at the time of study. seventeen (50%) of the parasites detected in the 34 patients (those with history of diarrhoea) were diarrhoea-related causative agen ...200622589594
[chronic salmonella typhimurium diarrhea in an immunocompetent patient].chronic diarrhea caused by infection in immunocompetent patients is an infrequent condition in developed countries, although certain pathogens,generally parasites (giardia lamblia, isospora belli,cryptosporidium, cyclospora, strongyloides, ameba,trichuris and schistosoma) and some bacteria (aeromonas,plesiomonas, campylobacter, clostridium difficile, salmonella or mycobacterium tuberculosis)can cause persistent diarrhea.we present the case of a patient who showed salmonella typhimurium in his st ...201627125610
application of a qpcr assay with melting curve analysis for detection and differentiation of protozoan oocysts in human fecal samples from dominican republic.a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qpcr-mca) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in dominican republic. samples were subjected to qpcr using universal coccidia primers targeting 18s rdna to detect oocysts followed by mca to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. putative positive samples were also tested by conventional pcr and microscopy. cystoisospora belli (×3), cryptosporidium pa ...201324019437
epidemiology, clinical, immune, and molecular profiles of microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis among hiv/aids patients.the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites, with special emphasis on microsporidia and cryptosporidium, as well as their association with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) symptoms, risk factors, and other digestive parasites. we also wish to determine the molecular biology definitions of the species and genotypes of microsporidia and cryptosporidium in hiv patients.201222924007
[extraintestinal finding of isospora belli unizoic cysts in a patient with aids: case report].this report describes the presence of isospora belli unizoic cysts in mesenteric lymph nodes and of gametocytes in the gallbladder epitelium of a 26 year-old brazilian male patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. this patient had received treatment for several times with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. it is discussed the significance of i. belli tissue cysts as possible foci of resistance of the parasite and their association with the infection relapse even post-treatment with anticocc ...200312908043
intestinal parasitic infections in relation to cd4(+) t cell counts and diarrhea in hiv/aids patients with or without antiretroviral therapy in cameroon.intestinal parasitic infections (ipi) are a major public health concern in hiv/aids patients particularly in resource-limited settings of sub-saharan africa. studies investigating the relationship between intestinal parasitic infections and cd4(+) t cell counts and diarrhea in hiv/aids patients with or without antiretroviral therapy in the region are not readily available hence the need to perform this study.201626754404
a comparative survey of the prevalence of human parasites found in fresh vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets in accra, ghana.consuming raw vegetables offers essential nutrients that one may not get when such vegetables are usually cooked. however, eating them raw may pose a great risk for transmissions of pathogens. such risks may be influenced by the sources of the vegetables and washing techniques used. the aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and diversity of parasitic pathogens associated with vegetables sold at the two types of markets in ghana and compare effectiveness of various washing techniques.201425424391
experimental infection of murine and human macrophages with cystoisospora belli.extraintestinal cystoisosporosis by cystoisospora belli has already been reported in hiv/aids patients, generally involving preferential invasion of mesenteric and trachaeobronchial lymph nodes, liver and spleen by unizoic cysts of this parasite, which may infect macrophages. to test this hypothesis, murine and human macrophages were exposed to sporozoites of c. belli and cultures were observed daily after contact with these cells. the parasites penetrated and multiplied by endodyogeny in both c ...200919427297
isospora belli infection: observation of unicellular cysts in mesenteric lymphoid tissues of a brazilian patient with aids and animal inoculation.we describe the finding of unizoic cysts of isospora belli in lymphoid tissues of a brazilian patient with aids, and discuss the possibilities of their drug resistance, they being the cause of relapses, and of being an indication for the existence of intermediary or paratenic animal hosts.200314736218
development and ultrastructure of cystoisospora canis nemeséri, 1959 (syn, isospora canis) monozoic cysts in two noncanine cell lines.cystoisospora canis is a coccidial parasite of the intestinal tract that can cause severe disease in dogs. clinical signs include watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and weight loss. extraintestinal stages of cystoisospora spp. have been demonstrated in the mesenteric lymph nodes of paratenic hosts. information on the biology of extraintestinal stages of canine cystoisospora species is limited. the current study examined the development of c. canis in 2 noncanine cell lines and the ultrastructure ...200920049986
[the etiological, clinical and prognosis of diarrhea occurs during aids in to hospital in bamako].its was a descriptive survey achieved in the service of the infectious and tropical illnesses of the teaching hospital of the "point g" from 31 december 2002 to 30 june 2004 was about the analysis of 76 files. its goal was to determine the clinical, etiological and prognostic aspects, of the diarrhea during the aids. the oral-pharyngeal candidiasis (50%), the deshydratation (60,5%), the fever (67,5%) and the thinning (77,6%) were associated to the diarrhoea frequently. cholera syndrome was (52.6 ...200719617111
prevalence of isosporiasis in relation to cd4 cell counts among hiv-infected patients with diarrhea in odisha, india.to determine the prevalence of isospora belli and its correlation with cd4+ cell counts in hiv-positive patients with diarrhea in this region.201324223376
[digestive parasitic diseases to hiv/aids infected patients of internal medicine and infectious diseases wards of the hôpital du point "g" bamako - mali].we conducted a prospective study in internal medicine and infectious diseases wards of the hospital of point " g " in bamako, mali from january to december 2002. overall 112 patients hiv positive, thirty-five patients (31,25%) had at least a digestive parasitic disease. we found that the most frequent parasite in stools sample were protozoa (82,85%). the second most frequent parasites were helminthes (20,33%). hiv/aids opportunistic parasites represented 40% of all parasites found. these include ...200719617113
intestinal parasitic infections: prevalences in hiv/aids patients in a thai aids-care centre.during 2005, the intestinal parasitic infections in the adult hiv/aids patients in a combined aids-care centre and hospice in thailand were identified in a cross-sectional study. overall, 41 (45.6%) of the 90 stool samples investigated, by microscopy and/or pcr, were found parasite-positive. cryptosporidium was the genus most commonly encountered, with 27 (30.0%) of the patients positive for cr. hominis and four (4.4%) positive for cr. meleagridis. enterocytozoon bieneusi, always of genotype d, ...200919825279
heavy infestation of isospora belli causing severe watery diarrhea.a 35-year-old male, positive for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) antibodies, was found to have heavy infestation by isospora belli, leading to gastrointestinal opportunistic infection. stool sample of the patient presenting with diarrhea of 2 months duration showed numerous oocysts of i. belli. his blood cd4 count was 85/cmm. the patient was from a slum area with poor sanitation. he was put on antimicrobial agent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and was followed up. however, he died after 1 mont ...201021045430
hiv-associated isospora belli infection: incidence and risk factors in the french hospital database on hiv.to determine the incidence of isospora belli infection in hiv-infected patients in france, and to study risk factors.200717352769
prevalence of enteric protozoan oocysts with special reference to sarcocystis cruzi among fecal samples of diarrheic immunodeficient patients in iran.the genus sarcocystis is not usually considered as an important enteric pathogen in immune compromised patients. it might be expected that species for which humans are the final host (sarcocystis hominis and sarcocystis suihominis as well as possibly others) would be encountered increasingly often in immunodeficient persons. this study aimed to address how to detect and differentiate sarcocystis oocysts and/or sporocysts from enteric protozoans in the diarrheal samples of immunodeficient patient ...201627417091
[short communication: investigation of intestinal coccidia in patients with diarrhea].the intestinal protozoa have been increasingly identified in immunocompromised patients. in this study, stool samples of 554 patients [288 male, 266 female; 11 (2%) of them were immunocompromised] with diarrhea were examined between june 2004 and june 2005 in the parasitology laboratory of dokuz eylul university hospital, izmir, turkey, in order to investigate the prevalence of intestinal coccidia. after formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation procedure, the samples were examined by both native lug ...200717427562
first detection of acalculous cholecystitis associated with sarcocystis infection in a patient with aids.acalculous cholecystitis and cholangitis are increasingly being recognized as complications of aids. the opportunistic parasites that have been most commonly associated with these disorders are cryptosporidium species, isospora belli, cyclospora cayetanensis and enterocytozoon bieneusi. the authors performed a parasitological survey on the gallbladder tissue sections of patients underwent cholecystectomy due to chronic acalculous cholecystitis at the shiraz university of medical sciences, iran. ...201424827104
evaluation of the easyscreen™ enteric parasite detection kit for the detection of blastocystis spp., cryptosporidium spp., dientamoeba fragilis, entamoeba complex, and giardia intestinalis from clinical stool samples.the aim of this study was to evaluate the easyscreen™ enteric parasite detection kit (genetic signatures, sydney, australia) for the detection and identification of 5 common enteric parasites: blastocystis spp., cryptosporidium spp., dientamoeba fragilis, entamoeba complex, and giardia intestinalis in human clinical samples. a total of 358 faecal samples were included in the study. when compared to real-time pcr and microscopy, the easyscreen™ enteric parasite detection kit exhibited 92-100% sen ...201424286625
cystoisospora and cyclospora.the present review focuses on recent epidemiological and diagnostic advances in cystoisosporiasis and cyclosporiasis.201323982239
[drug therapy of infectious diarrhea. part 2: chronic diarrhea].diarrheal diseases are among the most common diseases worldwide. in this review the current treatment recommendations for acute (part 1) and chronic (part 2) infectious diarrhea are summarized and typical enteropathogens are discussed. the second part of the article describes chronic diarrhea, its related pathogens and treatment. in contrast to acute diarrhea which is mainly caused by viral and typical bacterial pathogens, chronic diarrhea has mainly non-infectious origins. protozoal pathogens, ...201323917963
screening of auramine-stained smears of all fecal samples is a rapid and inexpensive way to increase the detection of coccidial infections.coccidia are important causes of diarrhea that is often indistinguishable from other forms of community-acquired diarrhea. however, the detection of oocysts is often only performed when explicitly requested, as part of the ova and parasite (o&p) examination. reappraisal and understanding of the accurate staining characteristics of auramine o (auo), which stains nucleic acids, may permit the inexpensive and reliable identification of coccidian oocysts at routine workup of all fecal samples.200817600749
hiv/aids-associated opportunistic protozoal diarrhea.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection has altered both the epidemiology and outcome of enteric opportunistic parasitic infections. this study was done to determine the prevalence and species/genotypes of intestinal coccidian and microsporidial infections among hiv/aids patients with diarrhea and/or a history of diarrhea alternately with an asymptomatic interval, and their association with cd4 t cell count. this cross-sectional study was done from may 2010 to may 2011 in shiraz university ...201322873400
fuchsin fluorescence and autofluorescence in cryptosporidium, isospora and cyclospora oocysts.cryptosporidium parvum and isospora belli oocysts stained with carbol-fuchsin, as in a modified ziehl neelsen technique, fluoresce bright red under green light (546nm). cryptosporidium oocysts tend to fluoresce more brightly the less intensely stained they appear under transmitted light; this is not the case with isospora. fuchsin-stained cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts fluoresce rather dimly, but those not taking the dye retain their typical autofluorescence. cryptosporidium and isospora oocyst ...19989925267
seasonal profile and level of cd4+ lymphocytes in the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis and cystoisosporidiosis in hiv/aids patients in the triângulo mineiro region, brazil.patients with aids are particularly susceptible to infection with intestinal coccidia. in this study the prevalence of infections with cryptosporidium sp and cystoisospora belli were evaluated among hiv/aids patients in the triângulo mineiro region, brazil. between july 1993 and june 2003 faecal samples from 359 patients were collected and stained by a modified ziehl-neelsen method, resulting in 19.7% of positivity for coccidian (8.6% with cryptosporidium sp, 10.3% with cystoisospora belli and 0 ...200717992404
molecular characterization of cystoisospora belli and unizoite tissue cyst in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.cystoisospora belli is a coccidian protozoan that can cause chronic diarrhoea, acalculous cholecystitis and cholangiopathy in aids patients. we applied molecular methods to identify cystoisospora at species level in aids patients presenting with and without the presence of unizoites in lamina propria. coprological and histological analyses were performed in stool and/or biopsy samples from 8 cystoisospora-infected patients. dna from the same samples was used to amplify 2 fragments of the ssu-rrn ...201120825690
polymorphisms in the 18s rdna gene of cystoisospora belli and clinical features of cystoisosporosis in hiv-infected patients.intraspecific variability among cystoisospora belli isolates and its clinical implications in human cystoisosporosis have not been established. in this study, the restriction fragment length polymorphisms in a 1.8-kb amplicon of the small subunit ribosomal dna (ssu rdna) of the parasite was investigated in 20 c. belli-positive stool samples obtained from 15 hiv-infected patients. diarrheic syndrome was observed in all patients with cystoisosporosis and the number of diarrheic episodes per patien ...201020967461
molecular diagnosis of cystoisosporiasis using extended-range pcr screening.the differential diagnosis of diarrhea in immunocompromised patients encompasses many intestinal parasites including the coccidian cystoisospora belli. gastrointestinal infection with c. belli leads to cystoisosporiasis with diarrhea and, depending on host immune status, can cause extraintestinal disease. c. belli is usually diagnosed by examination of stool or intestinal biopsy specimens; however, the organism may be undetected using these test methods. thus, more sensitive molecular tools for ...201121458380
Opportunistic and other intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia.To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV/AIDS patients in Bahir Dar.201121914548
parasitic infections in hiv infected individuals: diagnostic & therapeutic challenges.after 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (ois) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with hiv-infected patients. due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are ois capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with hiv. of these, cryptosporidium parvum and isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan para ...201122310820
molecular identification of biliary isospora belli: a case report.this report describes the novel sampling of bile from the biliary endoscopic intervention for the molecular identification of parasite infection.a 63-year-old vietnamese man underwent travel health examination in our hospital. physical examination showed that his height was 159 cm and weight was 41 kg. he had a 15-year history of intermittent abdominal pain and frequent episodes of diarrhea. laboratory tests revealed raised eosinophil count (23%, normal range [nr] 0-5), absolute eosinophil count ...201626962840
first report of cystoisospora belli parasitemia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.cystoisospora belli in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) has been described as cause of chronic diarrhea and disseminated cystoisosporosis. diagnosis of intestinal cystoisosporosis can be achieved at the tissue level in the villus epithelium of the small bowel. disseminated cystoisosporosis is diagnosed by microscopy identification of unizoite tissue cysts in the lamina propria of the intestine. we report a case of disseminated cystoisosporosis in a human immunodeficien ...201626751889
pattern of co-infection by enteric pathogenic parasites among hiv sero-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital, mumbai, india.one of the major medical concerns in people living with hiv/aids (plha) is management of diarrhea that can lead to severe morbidity and mortality. such clinical scenario warrants an analysis of intestinal parasites, which are important opportunistic pathogens in plha. owing to the scarcity of recent pattern of intestinal opportunistic infections from this region, the study was designed to determine the opportunistic parasites causing diarrhea in plha; and to find out whether there is any signifi ...201726392653
prevalence of intestinal opportunistic parasites infections in the university hospital of bobo-dioulasso, burkina faso.gastrointestinal parasites infections are widespread in africa and their prevalence infections vary from country to country. this study aimed at assessing the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites infection and other gastrointestinal parasites infection among patients attending the laboratory of parasitology and mycology of the university hospital souro sanou of bobo-dioulasso.201526217488
multiple parasitic infections in a cardiac transplant recipient.infectious complications represent an important cause of morbidity and death in patients with transplant. parasitic infections are less frequent than viral and bacterial agents, and are often overlooked. we describe the case of a 13-year-old adolescent, born in são tomé island, who was under immunosuppressive therapy after a cardiac transplant. the patient had an intermittent course of diarrhoea, abdominal pain and vomiting. she was admitted dehydrated, and strongyloides stercoralis, schistosoma ...201526109619
chronic cholecystitis with cystoisospora belli in an immunocompetent patient.a 47-year-old woman presented with a history of vague abdominal pain for several years, which worsened over the past 2 months, with pain more prominent in the right upper quadrant. she also had a history of peptic ulcer disease. the ultrasound scan of right upper quadrant revealed normal gallbladder and oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was unremarkable. a (99m)technetium labelled hepato iminodiacetic acid (hida) scan with cholecystokinin provocation demonstrated a decreased gallbladder ejection fract ...201526065551
prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among individuals living with hiv/aids at felegehiwot referral hospital, bahir dar, ethiopia.hiv infection continues to pose a serious challenge to global health by predisposing patients to opportunistic infections. a cross-sectional study was conducted from december 2012 to february 2013 to assess the enteric protozoan infection status among individuals living with hiv/aids in felegehiwot referral hospital, bahir dar, northwest ethiopia.201525917962
isosporiasis in a tertiary care center of north india.cystoisospora (isospora) belli is a coccidian, protozoan parasite that resides in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. it is mainly reported from hiv-positive individuals. however, a few cases have been reported in other immunosuppressed individuals including renal transplant patients, and those with lymphoma and leukemia.201424943763
ultrastructural aspects of cystoisospora belli (syn. isospora belli) in continuous cell lines.cystoisospora belli is an opportunistic protozoan that causes human cystoisosporiasis, an infection characterized by diarrhea, steatorrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. the lack of animal models susceptible to c. belli, and the difficulty in obtaining clinical samples with fair amounts of oocysts have limited the research pertaining to the basic biology of this parasite. this study aimed to describe the ultrastructure of endogenous stages of c. belli in monkey rhesus kidney cells (mk2 ...201424771702
study of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.intestinal parasites predominantly coccidian parasites are a common cause for diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-positive patients.201324672179
first report of the hyper-igm syndrome registry of the latin american society for immunodeficiencies: novel mutations, unique infections, and outcomes.hyper-igm (higm) syndrome is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by normal or elevated serum igm levels associated with absent or decreased igg, iga and ige. here we summarize data from the higm syndrome registry of the latin american society for immunodeficiencies (lasid). of the 58 patients from 51 families reported to the registry with the clinical phenotype of higm syndrome, molecular defects were identified in 37 patients thus far. we retrospectively analyzed the clinical, immu ...201424402618
enteric parasitic infections in relation to diarrhoea in hiv infected individuals with cd4 t cell counts <1000 cells/μl in chennai, india.this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites in hiv patients in chennai and to correlate with cd4 counts and diarrhoeal status.201324298464
[parasitic and bacterial etiologies of diarrhea among people living with hiv hospitalized in fann hospital (senegal)].diarrhea is the most common opportunistic infection in aids. we conducted at the fann national university hospital in dakar, a study of all patients living with hiv, hospitalized in the the clinical service of infectious diseases from 1 january 2003 to december 31, 2006, with diarrhea and having received an bacteriological and / or a parasitological examination of stools. the aim of this study was to identify the various pathogens isolated in the laboratory and responsible for those diarrhea. in ...201122766136
prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to cd4 counts and anaemia among hiv-infected patients in benin city, edo state, nigeria.parasitic infections continue to take their toll on hiv positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and cd4 counts among hiv-infected patients in benin city, nigeria. using a serial sampling method, a total of 2000 hiv-infected patients were recruited on their first visit prior to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (haart) at the university of ...201124409641
cystoisospora canis (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae): development of monozoic tissue cysts in human cells, demonstration of egress of zoites from tissue cysts, and demonstration of repeat monozoic tissue cyst formation by zoites.sporozoites of cystoisospora canis penetrated and developed to monozoic tissue cysts in 4 human, 1 monkey, 1 bovine and 2 canine cell lines. no asexual division was documented although multiple infection of a single cell was observed. examination of cultures using transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that they were monozoic tissue cysts and contained a single sporozoite. the appearance of monozoic tissue cysts in all cell lines was similar but the parasitophorous vacuole surrounding som ...201323953145
[recurrent diarrhea due to cystoisopora belli in hiv/aids patients receiving haart].the cystoisospora belli, before denominated as isospora belli, is the etiologic agent of cystoisosoporiasis, an opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients, characterized by chronic diarrhea and weight loss. the incidence of chronic diarrhea for this agent, in hiv patients, has decreased considerably. this thanks to the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart), which has improved the patient's immune response and decrease viral load. we present six cases of cystois ...201323949523
enteric pathogens in hiv infected and hiv uninfected individuals with diarrhea in pune.diarrhea in hiv infected individuals is a common complication seen in about 90% of patients in developing countries. the objective of this study was to identify enteric pathogens in hiv infected and hiv uninfected individuals in pune.201323918286
severe diarrhoea due to cystoisospora belli in renal transplant patient on immunosuppressive drugs.cystoisospora belli, formerly known as isospora belli, protozoal parasite endemic to many regions of the world including the caribbean, central and south america, africa, and south-east asia. it is frequently encountered in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and is considered to be an aids-defining illness. chronic severe watery diarrhoea due to c. belli has also been reported in other immunodeficiency states. c. belli infection in immunosuppressed patients has rarely been d ...201623867679
the case control studies of hiv and intestinal parasitic infections rate in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients in woldia general hospital and health center in north wollo, amhara region, ethiopia.tuberculosis remains a major health problem worldwide in the era of hiv/aids. co-infection with intestinal parasites has been suggested to worsen the outcome of infection in addition to hiv infection. hence, adequate information on tb patients with hiv and intestinal parasites infection is being needed to tackle the problem, undertake the integrated prevention and control program. this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of hiv and intestinal parasitic infections in active pulmonary tubercu ...201726998497
hypogammaglobulinemia-associated gastrointestinal disease--a case series.hypogammaglobulinemia, a form of primary immunodeficiency, is an uncommon condition. gastrointestinal (gi) symptoms may be the only presentation. a series of 22 patients who presented with gi symptoms and were diagnosed with hypogammaglobulinemia is presented. chronic diarrhea was the presentation in majority (90.9 %) of patients. malabsorption was identified in 87.5 % of patients followed by weight loss (59.0 %), abdominal pain (27.2 %), and oral ulcers (4.5 %). the median duration of symptoms ...201425352181
an unusual complication in ulcerative colitis during treatment with azathioprine and infliximab: isospora belli as 'casus belli'.the treatment of ulcerative colitis is based on systemic corticosteroids, immunomodulators such as cyclosporine and azathioprine and tnf-α antagonists. patients undergoing such immunosuppressive treatment are more susceptible for infectious pathogens. here, we report the case of a patient with a 13-year history of ulcerative colitis, treated initially with systemic corticosteroids in combination with immunomodulators, and subsequently with infliximab. the patient presented with severe watery dia ...201323709557
the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation and the related profile of the cd4 (+) counts in hiv/aids people with diarrhoea in jaipur city.gastrointestinal tract (git) infections are among the most frequent infections in hiv/aids patients. the intestinal opportunistic parasitic infections in hiv-infected subjects present most commonly as diarrhoea. a study was conducted to determine the prevalence of enteric parasitic infections in hiv infected patients with diarrhoea, with different levels of immunity.201323634395
severe isospora (cystoisospora) belli diarrhea preceding the diagnosis of human t-cell-leukemia-virus-1-associated t-cell lymphoma.isospora (cystoisospora) belli diarrhea can sometimes be fulminant in immunocompromised patients. it is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, and sporadic episodes have been reported in nonendemic areas in nursing homes, day-care centers, and psychiatric institutions. we describe isosporiasis in an hiv-negative sudanese-american female who presented with a debilitating diarrheal illness and profound weight loss. isospora belli was detected in her stool by modified acid-fast staining. serolo ...201222953083
failure to eradicate isospora belli diarrhoea despite immune reconstitution in adults with hiv--a case series.isospora belli causes diarrhoea in patients with aids. most respond to targeted therapy and recommendations are that secondary prophylaxis can be stopped following immune reconstitution with art. we report eight cases of chronic isosporiasis that persisted despite standard antimicrobial therapy, secondary prophylaxis, and good immunological and virological response to art. median cd4 nadir was 175.5 cells/mm(3) and median highest cd4 while symptomatic was 373 cells/mm(3). overall 34% of stool sa ...201222880120
cystoisospora spp. from dogs in china and phylogenetic analysis of its 18s and its1 gene.cystoisospora spp. oocysts isolated from dog feces in changchun, china were morphologically similar to those of cystoisospora ohioensis and cystoisospora sp. 1-mm recently isolated from dogs in japanese. sequencing results of the 18s subunit rna gene from isolates in the present study were compared to other cystoisospora spp. and the results suggested that cystoisospora spp. from dogs in changchun was homologous to c. ohioensis and cystoisospora sp. 1-mm. phylogenetic analysis of the 18s rrna se ...201222726385
detection of dientamoeba fragilis in patients with hiv/aids by using a simplified iron hematoxylin technique.studies strongly indicate dientamoeba fragilis as one of the causes of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) patients.201322534983
isosporiasis in hiv/aids patients in edo state, nigeria.the role of opportunistic infections in accelerating disease progression in hiv-positive individuals, leading to quick death, is still receiving serious attention. the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of isospora belli infections in hiv-positive patients in edo state, nigeria between august 2007 and march 2008.200922589664
intestinal parasitic infections and its association with undernutrition and cd4 t cell levels among hiv/aids patients on haart in butajira, ethiopia.intestinal parasitic infections and hiv/aids have been the major public health problems and remain a vital cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. both problems are linked in a vicious cycle. the magnitude of intestinal parasites was prevalent among people living with hiv/aids even in the haart era. however, the pertinent risk factors associated with intestinal parasites among hiv/aids patients were not well investigated in ethiopia particularly at butajira town. therefore, the ...201728506307
coccidian intestinal parasites among immunocompetent children presenting with diarrhea: are we missing them?diarrhoea is an important cause of both morbidity and mortality among children in india. coccidian parasitic infections are an important cause of diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, but their investigations are rarely sought by the treating physicians in seemingly immunocompetent children. this study was aimed to find the incidence rate of coccidian parasites in all children presented with diarrhoea, irrespective of their immune status.201728459013
isospora belli associated recurrent diarrhea in a child with aids.persistent diarrhea is a major manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) which might be more complicated in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infected children especially those from developing countries. there are numerous reports showing the emergence of intestinal opportunistic coccidian parasites, mostly cryptosporidium parvum and isospora belli in hiv-infected individuals. the prevalence of isosporiasis is probably underestimated in developing countries because routinely no ...201425320501
parasitic infection of the gallbladder: cystoisospora belli infection as a cause of chronic abdominal pain and acalculous cholecystitis.herein we describe two cases of cystoisospora belli infection of the gallbladder in patients with chronic abdominal pain and review the published literature to date. c. belli is an intracellular protozoan parasite that typically infects the small bowel of immunocompromised hosts. little is known of the significance of c. belli infection of the gallbladder at this point as only four cases have been reported as yet, only one of which occurred in an immunocompetent patient. it is often treatable wi ...201627526491
chronic cystoisospora belli infection in an immunocompetent myanmar refugee - microscopy is not sensitive enough.cystoisosporiasis is an opportunistic infection seen more commonly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. although uncommon, cystoisospora infection can occur in immunocompetent individuals but tend to be benign and self-limiting. chronic infection however, has been described but diagnosis can often be challenging and requires a high clinical index of suspicion.201627209066
cystoisospora belli infection of the gallbladder in immunocompetent patients: a clinicopathologic review of 18 cases.cystoisospora belli, previously known as isospora belli, is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that is most often associated with gastrointestinal disease in immunocompromised patients. in this study, we detail the clinicopathologic features of 18 cases of cystoisospora infection affecting the gallbladder in immunocompetent individuals and compare them with a control group. each case was reviewed for cholecystitis (none, acute, chronic), epithelial disarray, presence of intraepithelial ...201627158759
isospora cholangiopathy: case study with histologic characterization and molecular confirmation.isospora belli is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea worldwide and is endemic in the tropics. in the united states, it is an uncommon cause of traveler's diarrhea and a relatively rare opportunistic pathogen among the immunocompromised, particularly aids patients. isospora infects the small intestine, where both sexual and asexual replication occur, and oocysts are shed in the stool. isosporiasis of the gallbladder has also been described in aids patients. we report a case ...200919447468
self-limited travelers' diarrhea by isospora belli in a patient with dengue infection.isospora belli diarrhea is usually associated with immunosuppression. this parasite has rarely been reported as a cause of travelers' diarrhea in immunocompetent patients. we present a clinical case of travelers' diarrhea due to i belli in a patient with transient lymphopenia secondary to dengue infection.201121539664
efficiency of diagnostic methods for correlation between prevalence of enteric protozoan parasites and hiv/aids status--an experience of a tertiary care hospital in east delhi.since the beginning of the aids pandemic, opportunistic infections have been recognized as common complications of hiv infection. enteric protozoan parasitic infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in hiv infected patients. the present study is, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of these parasites and study their association with immune status in hiv patients with emphasis on the correlation between various diagnostic techniques to give an accurate diagnosi ...201121966122
isospora belli in a patient with liver transplantation.isospora belli is an opportunistic protozoon which should be monitored in patients with gastrointestinal complaints such as abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhoea, in both immune-compromised and immune-competent patients. our case was a 35 year-old male patient who had received a liver transplant because of cirrhosis and hepatic fibrosis. a diarrhoeic stool sample of the patient was sent to the laboratory for microbiological and parasitological analyses. faecal occult blood was positive and bacter ...201223339948
the magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to human immunodeficiency virus infection and immune status, at alert hospital, addis ababa, ethiopia.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like ethiopia. particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of hiv to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). the purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to hiv infection and immune status. the study was conducted in (1) hiv positive on antiretroviral therapy (art) and ...201424603288
triple protozoal enteropathy of the small intestine in an immunocompromised male: a rare histopathology report.enteric protozoan parasites remain the most commonly encountered parasitic diseases in hiv infected patients. opportunistic protozoal infections that infect git most commonly and cause diarrhea in hiv-infected patients are cryptosporidium parvum, microsporidia and isospora belli. developing an infection with enteric protozoan parasites is dependent on absolute cd4+ cell counts, with lower counts associated with more severe, more atypical disease, and a greater risk of disseminated disease. we pr ...201324339463
prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in hiv-infected individuals and their relationship with immune status.intestinal parasitic infection is a common entity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). these infections may lead to fatal complications in the immuno suppressed individuals. the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in hiv sero-positive patients and their relationship with the immune status of individuals.201323867673
prevalence and genetic characterization of cryptosporidium spp. and cystoisospora belli in hiv-infected patients.cryptosporidium spp. and cystoisospora belli are monoxenic protozoa that have been recognized as the causative agents of chronic diarrhea in immunocompromised individuals, especially hiv-infected subjects. the objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of these intestinal protozoa in hiv-positive patients in the triângulo mineiro region of brazil and to correlate the presence of these infections with clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data of the patients. oocysts were detected ...201323740020
enteric pathogens in hiv-positive patients with diarrhoea and their correlation with cd4+ t-lymphocyte counts.opportunistic parasitic infections are among the most serious infections in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) positive patients and claim number of lives every year. the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and to elucidate the association between intestinal opportunistic parasitic infection and cd4 (cd4+ t lymphocyte) counts in hiv-positive patients.201223508727
[fever, diarrhoea and neurological syndrome in hiv-infected immigrants].fever, diarrhoea and neurological symptoms are relatively common in immigrants, as well as in hiv-infected patients. the main febrile diseases in hiv-positive immigrants from the tropics are tuberculosis, bacteremia due to salmonella spp. or streptococcus pneumoniae and community-acquired pneumonia or pneumonia due to pneumocystis jiroveci. the presence of diarrhoea should lead to suspicion of opportunistic infections caused by parasites and protozoa of the digestive tract such as cryptosporidiu ...200818590666
infections by intestinal coccidia and giardia duodenalis.the coccidians cryptosporidium spp, cyclospora cayetanensis, and cystoisospora belli and the flagellate giardia duodenalis are pathogenic protozoa associated with gastrointestinal manifestations. diagnosis relies heavily on microscopy, and although ova-and-parasite examinations can detect giardia and cystoisospora, cryptosporidium and cyclospora often require specific diagnostic requests. approved non-microscopy methods are available for giardia and cryptosporidium, although negative results are ...201526004650
[clinical and epidemiological study of intestinal coccidioses in a rural population of a semiarid region from falcon state, venezuela].although intestinal coccidioses caused by cryptosporidium sp., cystoisospora belli and cyclospora cayetanensis are parasitic diseases of major clinical importance in public health, several clinical and epidemiological aspects of these diseases still remain unknown in falcon state, venezuela. a cross-sectional survey was conducted between june and october 2011, to investigate clinical and epidemiological data in 157 people (x +/- s.d. = 21.28 +/- 17 years-old) from sabaneta, falcón state, venezue ...201223248971
occurrence of enteric parasitic infections among hiv-infected individuals and its relation to cd4 t-cell counts with a special emphasis on coccidian parasites at a tertiary care centre in south india.diarrhoea is one of the major complications occurring in over 90% of hiv-infected individuals in developing countries. coccidian group of parasites, being opportunistic pathogens, have been implicated as the most common causative agents of diarrhoea among hiv-infected population.201728303816
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